Current Problems Of Modern Digital Education In Russia

Abstract

The article is devoted to the problems of introduction of digital technologies in education in Russia within the framework of the Bolon process. Along with the advantages of technical means, they create risks: harm to health, opportunistic behavior of students and sometimes educational institutions, formalism, the formation of standardized thinking, the possibility of total control over the learning process, censorship, sensory hunger when replacing live communication with machine communication, technical errors, violation of communication channels due to insufficient quality of technology, deterioration of students ' memory, ability to analyze information and communicate, violation of traditional moral values, etc. There is an emerging gap between levels of education: cheaper e-education at the bachelor's level is being created for "ordinary" people, but the normal sphere of education remains for the elite. The article analyzes the financing of the education system and related indicators – the average age of teachers, material and technical base. It contains proposals for prevention and reduction of risks of using digital technologies and the Bologna process in General in Russian education. To return spirituality to the educational process, it is necessary to turn to traditional culture. You need to increase the number of classroom hours. Getting rid of excessive techno-logization is possible with a return to the achievements of the old education system in Russia (writing skills, oral counting, memory development). It is necessary to deal with excessive formalization. The methods used are economic and statistical analysis.

Keywords: Educational institutionsdigital education risksfinancing

Introduction

Digitalization is one of the aspects of the introduction of the Bologna system of education in Russia since 2003. However, the introduction of digital technologies faces risks in terms of medicine, psychology, information security, spirituality, and Finance.

The official position on the prospects for Russia's entry into the Bologna system was optimistic (for example, the Minister of education V. M. Filippov, the rector of RSUH Yu. Afanasiev, etc.) (Kushnir, 2018), while other specialists were critical of this reform (HSE rector Ya. Kuzminov, MSU rector V. Sadovnichy, etc.).

In Western Europe, the Bologna process is also subject to criticism. Employees of the University of Nanterre, Professor Ani Vinokur, coordinator of the international forum on education reform Karol Sigman, say that European elite universities (Cambridge, Paris Institute of political science, etc.) refused to participate in this process. This means that the European Union is building a deregulated sphere of education for "ordinary" people but it remains a normal sphere of education for the elite (Kushnir, 2018).

Bibliography

Considering publications on this topic, we note that:

1) most publications of both domestic and foreign authors on the digitalization of education do not question the need for technical innovations, pass on the experience of their implementation, or write about the positive impact of digital technologies on learning (Condruz-Bacescu, 2019) and even actively pro-mote electronic education, creating an «electronic ideology» (Kondakov, 2019; Kushnir, 2018; Tsifrovizatsiya shkoly: riski i perspektivy, 2019);

2) critical comments include either a complete negative attitude to the results of the introduction of a foreign education system (Taranov et al., 2019), or consider the negative impact of digital technologies, especially health risks (Hussain et al., 2018; Pervaiz, 2016; Strekalova, 2019; Tsifrovizatsiya shkoly: riski i perspektivy, 2019; Tsots, 2019; Verbitskiy, 2019), social and spiritual system (Kychuk, 2016; Privalov, 2010; Privalov, 2012a; Tyurikov et al., 2017), security risks in schools (Wlodarczyk, 2019), the role of ethno-cultural education in preventing these risks (Sergeeva et al., 2018) , in General - a comprehensive analysis of the risks of the Russian educational system from the point of view of national security (Vodenko, 2019);

3) many publications on the topic of education financing consider: first , the ratio of funding in Russia and foreign countries (Pereverzeva & Shamne, 2017), and second , the main trends of structural changes in funding in Russia and in the regions (Abankina et al., 2018; Fridman & Verbetsky, 2017; Romanov, 2018b). Some suggest optimizing budget expenditures in the form of cutting government spending and searching for extra-budgetary funds, focusing on personalizing education funding (Abankina, 2019), implementing public-private partnerships (Kilinkarov, 2019; Romanov, 2018a), or other market-based ways to Finance universities in-house (Momotova et al., 2019), for example, using the model of optimizing the management of universities own funds to Finance R & d (research and development) (Bogomolova et al., 2018).

Research result

First of all let's note the advantages of digital education:

1.Speed and unlimited amounts of information transfer to consumers.

2.The target audience may be limited to the presence of registration and passwords.

3.Various technical possibilities for transmitting in-formation (audio, video).

4.Various feedback options (e-mail, webcams, on-line, etc.

5.Opportunities to persuade consumers using psychology.

6.Almost unlimited data transmission distances.

7.Creating compact electronic databases with search engines.

8.Opportunities for "independent", i.e. objective assessment of students 'knowledge – "quantitative assessments" (ratings).

Against the background of the advantages of digital technologies, their disadvantages are often lost:

1. Causing harm to health (vision, hand joints, psyche) (What harm does a computer do to a person, 2019).

2. Digital technologies dramatically increase the risks of opportunistic behavior of students and various scammers.

3. In the "strategy for the development of electronic industry in Russia for the period up to 2025", the need for the production of microchips for their implantation in the brain, which should be ready for the domestic industry (Strategiya razvitiya elektronnoy promyshlennosti Rossii na period do 2025 goda, 2019), is stated for granted.

4. On the one hand, electronic control systems should increase security, in particular, against the threat of terror-ism (Privalov, 2011), on the other – total control, censorship in the case of broadcasting a training session via the Internet. Positive control over the state of health (mental, in terms of narcology) of teachers and students. However, "feedback" from students can have excesses, such as abuse of teachers.

5. Technology in the process of reducing University teachers and replacing their work with virtual communication with students on the Internet generates sensory hunger, a lack of live emotions. There are technical difficulties, errors, and insufficient quality of equipment.

6. Access to the Internet makes students want to reduce the cost of effort for training, impairs their memory, ability to analyze information and communicate. There is a violation of traditional moral values.

There is a threat to restrict Russians ' access to the Inter-net for political purposes, which can cause great damage to the economy.

However, given the cyclical development of society and the projected post-market stage of development of civilization and culture in the coming decades (Sorokin, 2000), we can assume fundamental changes in the entire system of modern education.

7. The last important issue is the financing of education, which primarily affects the formation of human capital, measured primarily by the human development index (HDI). The relationship between investment in human capital and GDP is obvious (Laptev et al., 2017; Shabashev et al., 2017).

Take for example the top ten HDI leaders in 2017: Norway (0.953), Switzerland (0.944), Australia (0.939), Ireland (0.938), Germany (0.936), Iceland (0.935), Hong Kong, China (0.933), Sweden (0.933), Singapore (0.932), the Netherlands (0.931) (Indeksy i indikatory chelovecheskogo razvitiy.., 2020). They are also the leaders of countries where science and education are more funded (Gosudarstvennyye raskhody stran v protsente ot VVP. Vsemirnyy Bank, 2020).

The relationship between investment in human capital and GDP is obvious (Laptev et al., 2017; Shabashev et al., 2017).

Take for example the top ten HDI leaders in 2017: Norway (0.953), Switzerland (0.944), Australia (0.939), Ireland (0.938), Germany (0.936), Iceland (0.935), Hong Kong, China (0.933), Sweden (0.933), Singapore (0.932), the Netherlands (0.931) (Indeksy i indikatory chelovecheskogo razvitiy…, 2020). They are also the leaders of countries where science and education are more funded (Gosudarstvennyye raskhody stran v protsente ot VVP. Vsemirnyy Bank, 2020).

According to Figure 1 , Russia is not in the lead. The average value is 4.0 %, and Russian budget expenditures on education are 0.5% lower than the average.

Figure 1: Public spending on education as a percentage of GDP, 2017 (Kratkiy statisticheskiy sbornik “Obrazovaniye v tsifrakh: 2019”)
Public spending on education as a percentage of GDP, 2017 (Kratkiy statisticheskiy sbornik “Obrazovaniye v tsifrakh: 2019”)
See Full Size >

Lack of funding is one of the main problems of Russian education. Let's look at the dynamics and composition of these expenditures in the Russian Federation over the past 19 years (Table 1 ).

Table 1 -
See Full Size >

As we can see, spending on education as a percentage of GDP has been declining since 2009 (from 4.6% in 2009 to 3.5% in. 2017 and 2018).

The HSE expert report "12 solutions for new education" suggests that 4.8% of GDP is optimal. Maintaining the specific weight at the level of 4% is an inert scenario in which the gap from world education will increase over time (12 resheniy dlya novogo obrazovaniya…, 2020).

Low funding creates, in particular, the problem of high average age of teachers, a lack of qualified specialists and a weak influx of young workers. Let's consider the age characteristics and the proportion of teachers of different types of educational institutions (Table 2 ).

Table 2 -
See Full Size >
Figure 2: Public spending on education as a percentage of GDP, 2017 (Kratkiy statisticheskiy sbornik “Obrazovaniye v tsifrakh: 2019”)
Public spending on education as a percentage of GDP, 2017 (Kratkiy statisticheskiy sbornik “Obrazovaniye v tsifrakh: 2019”)
See Full Size >

The Table 2 and Figure 2 shows the trend of aging of the teaching staff in higher Education institutions and the "rejuvenation" of school teachers. Moreover: a) the proportion of people aged 36 to 59 is the "backbone" of the teaching staff; b) it is stable in each cluster of education; C) the trend is typical for the last decade (since 2009).

With tougher competition in the educational market, shorter terms of election to office, increased requirements for publication activity (with paid publications), high cost of training in graduate school, doctoral studies and dissertation defense, reduced training hours for new state standards, few of the unshadowed young people agree to go to work in Universities, risking losing their jobs on the eve of the next accreditation.

Over the past 20 years, the average age of people employed in the economy has been lower than the average age in education, as, for example, in 2017, these figures were 40.8 years and 43.3 years, respectively (Rabochaya sila, zanyatost' i bezrabotitsa…, 2020).

Figure 3: Fixed assets in the education system in 2000-2017
Fixed assets in the education system in 2000-2017
See Full Size >

The material and technical base of education depends directly on the financing of education. From Figure 3 , it is clear that the fixed assets in education, despite the growth in ab-solute numbers, as a percentage of the total volume of fixed assets in the economy fell significantly: in 2017, for example, compared to 2005 - by 0.6%.

Our proposals are based on the experience of implementing the requirements of the Bologna process in Russia.

1) to return spirituality to the educational process, it is necessary to turn to traditional culture. In the disciplines, it is necessary to show the interrelationships of various types of public consciousness-science, religion and morality (Privalov, 2012b). During the 2012 election campaign, Vladimir Putin expressed similar thoughts about the need to support traditional religions in Russia in the education and enlightenment system, in the social sphere, and in the Armed forces (Russian Government, 2012).

2) it is necessary to increase the number of audit hours, which is already happening spontaneously. Getting rid of excessive technologization is possible with a return to the achievements of the old education system in Russia (writing skills, oral numeracy, memory development).

3) it is necessary to deal with excessive formalization. The point -rating system, competencies, and other attributes of the Bologna system are not adequately applied to students, without taking into account their state of health, psyche, and level of social development. All this is supplemented by corruption.

4) it is necessary to increase the number of audit hours, which is already happening spontaneously. Getting rid of excessive technologization is possible with a return to the achievements of the old education system in Russia (writing skills, oral numeracy, memory development).

Results and discussion

Thus, the paper reveals the relationship between the lev-el of funding and digitalization processes included in the Bologna system. Opinions on the necessity and effective-ness of implementing the Bologna principles in Russia are noted. Along with the prevailing opinion about the lack of funding for the education system, there are proposals for finding additional sources of funding, optimizing expenditures, and strengthening state and public control.

Some negative consequences are analyzed: the age structure of teachers and the lack of material and technical resources. We can conclude that education requires, among other things, increased investment.

References

  1. 12 resheniy dlya novogo obrazovaniya: Ekspertnyy doklad (HSE) [12 solutions for new education: Expert report. Higher school of Economics]. (2020). Electronic resource. https://www.hse.ru/news/expertise/217884372.html
  2. Abankina, I. V. (2019). Financing of Education: Trend on Personalization. Journal of the New Economic Association, 41(1), 216-225.
  3. Abankina, I., Filatova, L., & Nikolayenko, E. (2018). Polarization of universities in the Central Federal District of Russia under reform. Journal of Applied Research in Higher Education.
  4. Bogomolova, A., Balk, I., Ivachenko, N., & Terlyga, A. (2018). Budget optimization modelling for sustainable development of the university research: The example of Russia.
  5. Condruz-Bacescu, M. (2019). The Impact of Digital Technologies on Learning. In Conference proceedings of» eLearning and Software for Education «(eLSE) (Vol. 2, No. 15, pp. 57-63). ” Carol I” National Defence University Publishing House.
  6. Fridman, A., & Verbetsky, A. (2017). Universities' competition under dual tuition system. Economics Bulletin, 37(3), 2122-2132.
  7. Gosudarstvennyye raskhody stran v protsente ot VVP. Vsemir-nyy Bank. (2020). https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.XPD.TOTL.GD.ZS?end=2018&start=2010
  8. Hussain, H. S., Din, R., Khidzir, N. Z., Mat Daud, K. A., & Ahmad, S. (2018). Risk and Threat via Online Social Network among Academia at Higher Education. In Journal of Physics: Conference Series (Vol. 1, No. 6, p. 012008). IOP Publishing.
  9. Indeksy i indikatory chelovecheskogo razvitiy, obnovlennyye statisticheskiye dannyye 2018. Programma razvitiya OON. [Human development indices and indicators, updated statistics 2018. UNDP]. (2020). http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/2018_human_development_statistical_update.pdf
  10. Kilinkarov, V. V. (2019). Public-private partnership in higher education and science in Russia. Vestnik of Saint Petersburg university – law, 2.
  11. Kondakov, A. (2019). Obrazovaniye v usloviyakh tsifrovoy transformatsii rossiyskogo obshchestva [Education in the digital transformation of Russian society.]. Electronic resource. http://vcht.center/wp-content/uploads/2019/06/Kondakov-Peterburg25maya2019-2.pdf
  12. Konsolidirovannyy byudzhet Rossiyskoy Federatsii i byud-zhetov gosudarstvennykh vnebyudzhetnykh fondov. Federal'noye kaznacheystvo. [Consolidated budget of the Russian Federation and budgets of state extra-budgetary funds. Federal treasury]. (2020). Electronic resource. http://roskazna.ru/ispolnenie-byudzhetov/konsolidirovannyj-byudzhet
  13. Kushnir, M. (2018, April 5). Riski i perspektivy “Tsifrovoy shkoly”. Uchitel'skaya gazeta. [Risks and prospects of a Digital school] Retrieved from http://ug.ru/insight/629
  14. Kychuk, N. (2016). Risk management as a complex activity of a modern higher educational institution. Science and education, 4, 80-83.
  15. Laptev, S., Kookueva, V., & Tsertseil, J. (2017, October). The role of investment in human capital in economic development. 6th annual international conference on cognitive – social, and behavioral sciences, ICCSBS, 32.
  16. Momotova, O. N., Belokon, L. V., Kilinkarova, S. G., Mayboroda, T. A., & Stroi, G. V. (2019). Conceptual Approaches to Formation of Financial Strategy of a Higher Education Institution. Future of the global financial system: Downfall of harmony, 57.
  17. National accounts. Rosstat. (2020). https://www.gks.ru/accounts
  18. Obrazovaniye v tsifrakh 2019: Kratkiy statisticheskiy sbornik [Education in numbers 2019: a brief statistical collection] (2020). Higher school of Economics. https://www.hse.ru/primarydata/oc2019
  19. Pereverzeva, Y. V., & Shamne, A. N. (2017). Financing higher education: experience of Russia and Germany. Proceedings of the 7th international scientific and practical conference Current issues of linguistics and didactics: the interdisciplinary approach in humanities, CILDIAH 2017, 97.
  20. Pervaiz, S. (2016). The Advantages and Risks of Using Social Networking in Higher Education in Pakistan. Social networking and education: global perspectives, 83-97.
  21. Privalov, N. G. (2010). Sotsial'naya bezopasnost' Ural'skogo federal'nogo universiteta kak sub"yekta transgranichnykh kommunikatsiy novogo tipa. Pogranichnaya bezopasnost' v usloviyakh informatsionnoy voyny: Materialy postoyanno deystvuyushchego mezhvedomstvennogo nauchnogo seminara, 3, Moscow: Pogranichnaya akademiya FSB Rossii, Otdele-niye pogranologii Mezhdunarodnoy akademii informatizatsii. [Social security of the Ural Federal University as a subject of cross-border communications of a new type/ N. G. Privalov// Border security in the conditions of information warfare: Materials of a permanent inter-departmental scientific seminar.-M.: border Academy of the FSB of Russia; Department of borderology of the International Academy of Informatization].
  22. Privalov, N. G. (2011). Sotsial'naya i dukhovnaya bezopasnost' federal'nykh universitetov. Pyatyy Sankt-Peterburgskiy kongress “Professional'noye obrazovaniye, nauka, innovatsii v XXІ veke”, Sb. tr., SPb.: SPbGGU. [Social and spiritual security of Federal universities// Fifth St. Petersburg Congress "Professional education, science, innovations in the XX1 century": Sat. Tr.- SPb.: SPBU]
  23. Privalov, N. G. (2012a). Kontseptsiya federal'nykh universitetov s tochki zreniya sotsial'noy i dukhovnoy bezopasnosti. Sovremennyye problemy upravleniya kadrovymi resursami v pogranichnoy sfere Pogranologiya: Materialy postoyanno deystvuyushchego mezhvedomstvennogo nauchnogo seminara, 8, M.: Pogranichnaya akademiya FSB Rossii. [The concept of Federal universities from the point of view of social and spiritual security/ N. G. Privalov// Modern problems of human resources management in the border area// Borderology. Materials of the permanent interdepartmental scientific seminar, no. 8, Moscow: border Academy of the FSB of Russia, 2012]
  24. Privalov, N. G. (2012b). Tretiy put' Rossii: novaya nadezhda v XXІ veke (Yekaterinburg: Ural'skoye izd-vo).[Russia's third way: a new hope in the twenty-first century. Ural publishing house, 2012]
  25. Rabochaya sila, zanyatost' i bezrabotitsa v Rossii, 2018: Stat.sbornik. Rosstat., 2.25. Chislennost' zanyatykh v vozraste 15-72 let po vozrastnym gruppam i vidam ekonomicheskoy deyatel'nosti v 2017. ["Labor force, employment and unemployment in Russia, 2018". Rosstat. 2.25. Number of employees aged 15-72 years by age group and type of economic activity in 2017]. (2020). Retrieved from https://www.gks.ru/free_doc/doc_2018/rab_sila18.pdf
  26. Romanov, E. V. (2018a). Higher Education: Current State and Development Prospects. Economic policy, 3, 182-205.
  27. Romanov, E. V. (2018b). Threats to the Human Capacity of Regional Higher Education Institutions. Ekonomika regiona – Economy of region, 14(1).
  28. Russian Government. (2012). http://premier.gov.ru/events/news/17831 (accessed: 05.01.12).
  29. Sergeeva, N. N., Nadezhda, N., Shevchenko, O. M., Klimenko, T. M., Shcherbakova, L. M., & Tikhonovskova, M. P. (2018). Ethnocultural Education as a Factor of the Spiritual Security of the Russian Polyethnic Society. Tarih kultur ve sanat arastirmalari dergisi-journal of history culture and art research, 7(5).
  30. Shabashev, V., Khaliulina, V., Shabasheva, S., & Govorin, D. (2017). The impact of human capital on economic growth. RRI 2016 – International conference responsible research and innovation, 26.
  31. Sorokin, P. (2000). Sotsial'naya i kul'turnaya dinamika. SPb.: Izd-vo Russkogo khristianskogo gumanitarnogo instituta).[Social and cultural dynamics. St. Petersburg: publishing house of the Russian Christian humanitarian Institute].
  32. Strategiya razvitiya elektronnoy promyshlennosti Rossii na period do 2025 goda. [Strategy for the development of the electronic industry in Russia for the period up to 2025]. (2019). http://www.minpromtorg.gov.ru/ministry/strategic/sectoral/11 (accessed: 11.03.19).
  33. Strekalova, N. B. (2019). Riski vnedreniya tsifrovykh tekhnologiy v obrazovaniye. Vestnik Samar-skogo universiteta, Istoriya, pedagogika, filologiya, 25 (2). [Risks of implementing digital technologies in education. Bulletin of Samara University, History, pedagogy, Philology]. Electronic resource. https://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/riski-vnedreniya-tsifrovyh-tehnologiy-v-obrazovanie
  34. Taranov, P. V., Basenko, A. M., Roshchina, L. N., Kulikova, I. V., Israilova, E. A., & Samygin, S. I. (2019). Crisis Of The Education System In Russia Under The World Economic Crisis. Modern journal of language teaching methods, 8(8).
  35. Tsifrovizatsiya shkoly: riski i perspektivy. [The digitalization of schools: risks and prospects]. (2019, July 2). Uchitel'skaya gazeta, 27. Electronic resource. https://mob-edu.ru/cifrovizaciya-shkoly-riski-i-perspektivy
  36. Tsots, Y. Ugrozy i riski tsifrovoy shkoly, nakonets-to, izuchat. Ne pozdno? [The threats and risks of a digital school are finally being explored. Not too late?]. (2019). https://regnum.ru/news/society/2622253.html
  37. Tyurikov, A. G., Orehovskaya, N. A., Bolshunov, A. Y., & Azizova, A. N. (2017). Modern Education: Challenges, Status, Prospects. Proceedings of the 2017 international conference quality management, transport and informational security, information technologies (IT&QM&IS).
  38. Verbitskiy, A. A. (2019). Tsifrovoye obucheniye: problemy, riski i perspektivy. [Digital learning: challenges, risks, and prospects]. Elektronnyy nauchno-publitsisticheskiy zhurnal Homo Cyberus, 1 (6). http://journal.homocyberus.ru/Verbitskiy_AA_1_2019
  39. Vodenko, K. V. (2019). Problems and perspectives of state regulation of system of education in the context of provision of Russia's national security. International journal of educational management, 33(3).
  40. What harm does a computer do to a person. (2019). http://cgon.rospotrebnadzor.ru/content/62/1057 (accessed: 11.03.19).
  41. Wlodarczyk, E. (2019). Participation as an Element of Effective Safety and Security Promotion at Polish School: Implementation of the Selected Participatory Management Assumptions. Education excellence and innovation management through vision.

Copyright information

This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

About this article

Cite this paper as:

Click here to view the available options for cite this article.

Publisher

European Publisher

First Online

08.03.2021

Doi

10.15405/epsbs.2021.03.72

Online ISSN

2357-1330