Social service users 'perceptions of their accessibility can serve as an indicator of social quality. Research around the world suggests that there are inequalities in access to basic rights related to health status, geography, gender. Insufficient attention is paid to the factor of education in this context. Therefore, the focus of the study was the dependence of the perceptions of young people in the province of Russia about the accessibility of social rights to the level of education. The article presents the results of an online survey of 498 residents of Chelyabinsk region between the ages of 14 and 39. Kramer 's V-criterion was used to analyze conjugacy tables. Calculations were performed in IBM SPSS Statistics 23. The results of the study showed that young people from the province of Russia have limited opportunities to realize their rights related to education, health, work, and recreation. The problem of employment is the most acute. About half of the respondents are unable to find permanent employment. However, about half of the respondents have the opportunity to get a job on a temporary basis. The situation is more prosperous with access to education (general secondary and vocational) and cultural recreation. People with secondary vocational education were the most vulnerable to finding work, receiving medical care, access to online learning and cultural recreation. The limitations of the study are presented in the work.
Keywords: Rightshealtheducationequalityyouthlegal literacy
The relevance of the study of legal accessibility and legal literacy is determined by a number of reasons. They are the need to confront manipulations that lead to destructive social actions; the need for anti-corruption; the development of civil society in general.
The growth of interest in the life of society by the young people of Russia has led to an increase in its social activity. In particular, youth interest in politics is growing (Magranov & Detochenko, 2018). Recent studies have shown the connection between social and political activities of Russian youth first with the growing trend of cosmopolitan (Magranov & Detochenko, 2018) and second with the growth of radicalism and destructive forms of protest activity (Guseinov, 2015). It must be noted that the orientation of the social and political activity of young people is not always positive, creative. The destructive nature of the social and political activity of young people is related to legal illiteracy and low level of legal consciousness. These factors contribute to the manipulation and involvement of young people in destructive actions.
Another reason for researchers attention to the problem of legal consciousness and legal literacy of young people is the need to develop an anti-corruption culture (Hamdeev, 2018). Researchers note that legal culture is at the heart of anti-corruption culture, which eventually leads to stability of the constitutional order, strengthening of the rule of law, accessibility of legislation, respect for democratic legal institutions, strict observance of the rule of law (Khamdeev & Gadylshina, 2016). Researchers believe that deep measures to combat corruption in Russia should be aimed at decades ahead and involve the formation of legal literacy of young people (Hamdeev, 2018). In addition, legal literacy is seen in the context of access to justice and is considered essential for democracy (Freudenberg, 2017). It is an integral part of the overall quality of modern professionals too (Liu, 2017).
Research into young people 's perceptions of access to rights is also important for the development of civil society. Researchers note that the social activity of young people is the driving force of socio-economic and socio-political processes in society. It is thanks to the constructive social activity of young people that positive changes take place in different spheres of life (Shamionov, Grigoryeva, & Grigoryev, 2019). Constructive social activity relies on the legal literacy of its subjects. The development of civil society requires knowledge of their rights.
We view this problem from a subjective point of view. It is fair to assume that legal awareness will be reflected in the assessment of citizens 'accessibility to the various rights guaranteed to them by the Constitution. Such rights include, for example, the right to health, education, and work.
Citizens 'awareness of laws and rights is being studied around the world.
English scientists found that New Barristers face problems related to lack of information literacy (Binsfeld, 2019). More than 90 % of teachers from Malasia do not have basic knowledge of education laws and believe that such a subject should become part of their vocational training (Hamid & Mohammad, 2018). Researchers from Iran suggest primary and secondary school teachers lack appropriate legal literacy too (Marzooghi, Sadeghi, Mohammadi, & Karimi, 2016). Researchers from China discuss early legal education, law promotion among young people. They consider it necessary to communicate and use practical experience in the study and application of the law by young people (Qi & Li, 2017). Projects to develop legal literacy in children of primary school age are underway in the UK (Watkins & Canto-Lopez, 2016). Ukrainian researchers consider legal literacy as one of the factors of legal awareness of young people (Fedorchenko, Kalaur, & Liubarets, 2017).
Various aspects of access to justice and citizens 'rights have earned special attention from researchers. It is noted that in the USA a significant addition to the list of programs aimed at opening access to justice in the civil legal system is legal self-help (Bertenthal, 2017). Researchers analyze the readability of existing legal aid sites as conditions of access of citizens to legal aid (Dyson & Schellenberg, 2017).
Mechanisms and conditions for the formation of anti-corruption culture are being studied in Russia (Hamdeev, 2018). Russian lawyers consider the availability of medical care (Litovkina, 2018), education (Karapetyan, 2017), urban environment (Husyainov, 2015), justice (Voronin, 2016) as a way to realize the constitutional rights of a citizen. First of all, researchers analyze guarantees of accessibility of rights. At the same time, there is no data in the scientific literature reflecting the assessment of the accessibility of certain rights to citizens by the citizens of the country themselves.
The study focused on young people 's perceptions of the accessibility of various social rights. At the same time, the most interesting information is about how according to young people their rights are realized. Whether they have a real opportunity to find work, rest, receive medical care and education.
These questions interest researchers around the world. They note that youth unemployment is high in Europe. This leads to an increase in the number of status of inactivity young people who do not enter the labor market but live on benefits (Odoardi, 2019). Researchers from Kazakhstan say that the problem of employment is acute for graduates of higher education institutions from the countries of the post-Soviet space (Fursova, Syzdykova, & Bimakhanov, 2019). Other researchers say about employment problems arising in pupils from foster families (Häggman-Laitila, Salokekkilä, & Karki, 2019). Scientists note that the recent economic crisis has intensified the problem of providing young people with work (López, Ytarte, & Ramiro, 2020).
Analysis of the youth labour market in Russia shows that in different regions of this country there is a disproportionate placement of production resources, cultural centers and institutions for vocational education per capita. Khokhlova (2019) argues that it is necessary to take into account the data of official statistics but also the perception of youth demand.
Researchers note that access to healthcare is a poorly defined construct, with insufficient understanding of differences in facilitators and barriers between urban versus rural specialty care (Cyr, Etchin, Guthrie, & Benneyan, 2019). They say that long delays or complete inaccessibility to primary and specialty care are common across the United States (Kablan, Oulaï, & Elliott, 2015; Steinman, Shoben, Dembe, & Kelleher, 2015). Patients 'views on the availability of health services are an important measure of healthcare quality (Dullie, Meland, Mildestvedt, Hetlevik, & Gjesdal, 2018; Trzeciak, Gaughan, Bosire, & Mazzarelli, 2016; Wang, Tsugawa, Figueroa, & Jha, 2016).
Researchers are interested in the access of young people to education. First of all, this problem is considered in the context of equal access for refugees (Jungblut, Vukasovic, & Steinhardt, 2020) or persons with disabilities (Braun & Naami, 2019; Ivanova, Vinogradova, & Zadadaev, 2019). Research results showed that access to quality education depends on the place of residence (Verdis, Kalogeropoulos, & Chalkias, 2019).
Thus, researchers emphasize the importance of studying people 's views on the accessibility of educational and medical services to them, as this is an indicator of the quality of these services. In our view, this argument also applies to the labor market. Research suggests that there are inequalities in access to basic rights related to health status, geography, and gender. Insufficient attention is paid to the factor of education in this context. Therefore, our study focused on the perceptions of young people living in the province of Russia about the accessibility of social rights. We analyzed the dependence of the investigated variable on the level of education of the study participants, too.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study is to study the perceptions of young people in the province of Russia about the accessibility of social rights for them.
The study was conducted in the form of an online survey.
A questionnaire in Google form has been prepared for data collection. To attract respondents, mailing in the social network (VKontakte) and through agitation in universities of Chelyabinsk and youth associations of the Chelyabinsk region was used.
The main part of the questionnaire was statements, consent or disagreement with which respondents are asked to rate on the Likert scale (from 1 – completely does not agree, to 5 – completely agree). The paragraphs of the questionnaire were grouped by blocks: opportunity to get a job; access to education; access to medical care.
A total of 498 residents of Chelyabinsk region between the ages of 14 and 39 took part in the survey. The average age of respondents was 20.5 years. Among the study participants, 75.3 % were women and 24.7 % were men. 19.5 % of respondents at the time of the study had the status of a student, 54 % – a student of higher education, 10.3 % of a specialist, 10.1 % – a worker, 4.7 % – a student of SSSZ, 1.7 % – an unemployed person. 52.3 % have upper secondary education; 21.1 % – higher vocational education; 17.8 % – lower secondary education (grades 9); 7.1 % – secondary vocational education; 1.8 % – academic degree.
The study examined the relationship between the accessibility of different rights for young people with different levels of education. For this purpose, the sample was divided into 3 groups: people with higher education (107), people with secondary vocational education (36) and people with general secondary education (355).
Kramer 's V-criterion was using for Crosstabs analyzed. IBM SPSS Statistics 23 was used for mathematical processing of data.
Youth employment rights have been the most disadvantaged (table
The average link between the level of education and the degree of access to temporary employment was found in the study (V=0.321; р=0.0001). Weak links were found between educational attainment and full-time availability (V=0.13; р=0.031), as well as between the degree of availability of work during holidays (V=0.162; р=0.001).
The results showing the accessibility of youth to the right to rest are presented in table
65.7 % of respondents noted that they can call an ambulance and it will arrive within 30 minutes 63.7 % of respondents said that they can go to the clinic within 2 days (Table
The assessment of access to primary health care is related to the level of education of respondents. More often, students (general secondary education) and people with higher education speak about the availability of doctors from local polyclinics for them. Less affordable for people with secondary vocational education (V=0.153; р=0,003).
68.7 % of respondents indicated that there were opportunities for free general and secondary education. 16.1 % of respondents rather agree that they have this possibility (Table
Study participants with different levels of education rate online learning availability differently (V=0.153; р=0,003). People with higher education are more likely to believe that this type of learning is fully available to them than people with general secondary education and secondary special education.
The study showed that not all Russian citizens living in the province have the opportunity to realize their rights related to education, health, and work. The worst is the availability of medical care. The results of the study showed that the assessment of the accessibility of individual rights depends on human education. People with secondary vocational education were the most vulnerable to finding work, receiving medical care and accessing the online training. It should be noted that the study has a number of limitations. Data collection through the Internet did not allow to regulate the volume of compared groups, as a result of which groups were formed very different in the number of respondents. This could have distorted the results of the study. In addition, the level of education as an independent variable may be related to the place of residence of respondents (village or city). This relationship does not allow for an unambiguous interpretation of the received data. Therefore, in the future, we plan to consider the impact on the accessibility of basic rights for young people of factors of sex and place of residence.
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07 December 2020
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Sivrikova, N. V., Kireeva, G. B., Ptashko, T. G., Perebejnos, A. E., & Savchenkov, A. V. (2020). Accessibility Of Social Rights: Analysis Of Perceptions Of Young People. In A. S. Nechaev, V. I. Bunkovsky, G. M. Beregova, P. A. Lontsikh, & A. S. Bovkun (Eds.), Trends and Innovations in Economic Studies, Science on Baikal Session, vol 96. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 564-572). European Publisher. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2020.12.74