This study focuses on the objective of determining the level of perception of public service personnel in the focus of green quality of working life. The results show that the average total score for the Green Job Satisfaction dimension is highest for the states of Pahang and Kelantan with 61 per cent respectively. For the Green Salary dimension the average total score found that the states of Terengganu and Pahang gained 60 percent. The Green Supervisory Support dimension received the highest average total score with Terengganu state at 62 percent while Green Social Relationship Management and Colleagues found Kelantan had the highest total score of 58 percent. According to the findings of the Green Training and Development study, the highest average total score was Kelantan with 59 percent while Green Team-Based Practices the highest total score was for Kelantan with 60 percent and lastly for Green Leadership, highest total score are Terengganu and Pahang with 59 percent agreement.
Keywords: Green quality of working lifegreen job satisfactiongreen training and developmentgreen team-based practices
Quality of work life is defined as a perspective of a work life style that focuses on the aspects of satisfaction, enjoyment and happiness in the workplace through what has been felt before, current and in future throughout the efforts and services they work in an organization (Indumathy & Kalamraj, 2012). Quality of work life practiced by the organization effectively takes the approach that the employee is an "asset" that needs to be taken care of by providing the needs and wants of the employee in line with the level of the employee's position so that the employee can perceive the work they are doing can bring the quality of their lives. Additionally, employees can enjoy a quality of work life with a healthy, happy work environment and good physical and mental health throughout their lives as long as they work in the organization (Halbesleben & Buckley, 2004). QWL is a comprehensive program designated to improve worker's satisfaction, strengthen workplace learning and help workers better manage the change and transition which affects almost all workers regardless of position or status (Grant, 2008). Quality of work life also means strengthening their interest and motivation to work if their work situation and environment can change their life expectancy and that work can teach and guide them in life (Pruijt, 2000).
For this study, seven dimensions of green quality of work life will be measured in order to assess the respondents' perceptions of the dimensions as follows:
Feeling and emotion of the worker who feels that their job gives them a positive and proactive reaction as a result of satisfaction with the pay and reward, a conducive working environment and a work environment that helps to increase interest and work effort (Kosny & Eakin, 2008). In service organizations there are challenges in limited resources and demand for turnover that enables different jobs and job satisfaction (Ramstad, 2009).
Incentives and rewards provided to employees as long as they serve the organization according to the level and position of the workforce. Of course, pay is a very important consideration and gives meaning to a quality work life (Huang et al. 2007).
Refers to the physical, mental and social support of their subordinates through the support of knowledge, social support, guidance and concern that contributes to a sense of well-being in the workplace (Sirgy et al., 2001).
Social Relationship with Management and Colleagues
Form of positive and proactive social relationship between management and employees that seeks to enhance organizational productivity by establishing good social relationships. These social relations include hosting a banquet, holding open and positive communication between employer and employee (Shanock & Eisenberger, 2006).
Training and Development
Effort to set up training programs to provide employees with career development, knowledge and work skills and all these efforts can improve the quality of work life of employees (White et al. 2003).
Team Based Practices
Form of work approach that is focused for working groups with a positive practice of cooperation, commitment, creativity and warmth to develop a quality work environment (Kozlowski & Ilgen, 2006).
Important aspect for organizations and employees because effective leadership through leadership style, communication, decision-making approaches, problem solving and caring for employees are among the key elements in building a quality work life (Cheung & Wong, 2011).
Above all, this study focuses on the term
The problem statement of this study was basically focused on the following issues as per related with the green quality of work life dimensions:
Job satisfaction creates many positive and negative perceptions for employees such as satisfaction of a work environment that has different tastes and emotions in each employee. It is difficult to meet the needs and satisfaction of the employee because the job satisfaction of the employee depends on the attitude and personality of the employee, the working practices of the workplace and the relationship of co-workers and leaders (Niels, 2003).
Salary also raise many issues in the workplace as the issue of pay is always discussed in the workplace as whether or not wages are derived from employment is indeed enough or competitive from other similar job in addition to the rising cost of living and the increasing challenges of living. community economics (Baines, 2004).
Supervisory support addresses issues of difficulty in obtaining chief support especially in emotional and physical support related to achievement of work performance. Leaders lack communication and improve positive working relationships with employees (Schulte et al., 2006).
Social relationship and management and colleagues focus on the problem of social gaps that occur between management and employees especially in the communication gap and provide opinions and views on work. The head is acting autocratically and the workers receive only non-motivational directives for proactive action (Chawsithiwong, 2007).
Training and development is a problem for many workers in various industry sectors as the training and development aspects of the workforce are not taken seriously and workers feel that they are not receiving training and development in line with their work efforts (Muldrow et al., 2002).
Team based practices exhibit problems of teamwork and commitment because group leadership is not in line with group work objectives. Work groups are less creative and less sensitive to work group problems (Meterko et al., 2004).
Leadership also poses problems in working quality lives because aspects of leadership charisma are irrelevant to the goals of the organization. Leaders are unable to communicate effectively and are unable to bring the employers-workers union to work (Saraji & Dargahi, 2006).
The research question focuses on efforts to identify the dimension of green quality of work life as follows:
What is the perception of public sector employees on green job satisfaction?
What is the perception of public sector employees on green salary?
What is the perception of public sector employees on green supervisory support?
What is the perception of public sector employees on green social relationship with management and colleagues?
What is the perception of public sector employees on green training and development?
What is the perception of public sector employees on green team-based practices?
What is the perception of public sector employees on green leadership?
Purpose of the Study
This study was conducted to identify the perception of public sector employees on green quality of work life dimensions which was conducted in the northern zone of Malaysia, namely in Kelantan, Terengganu and Pahang state.
This study focuses on a descriptive approach which emphasizes on efforts to identify the level of perception of employees in the public sector on the green quality of work life.
6.1 The research questionnaire used was adopted from Mc Donald's (2001) study "
The numbers of statement for each scales of dimensions are shown in Table
6.2 The respondents consisted of public sector personnel in the eastern states of Malaysia namely Kelantan, Terengganu and Pahang. Green Quality of Working Life questions are measured using a 5 point Likert-scale ranging from Likert scale is used as a scale measure from the highest scale 5 which is strongly agree and the lowest scale 1 which is strongly disagree.
6.3 The data collection of this study was focused at the city centres of the eastern zone state of Malaysia, namely Kelantan, Terengganu and Pahang. Data was collected within four months starting from May 2014 to November 2014.
Kelantan State – Code (EZ1)
The focus of the study in Kelantan is around Kota Bharu are which is the capital city of Kelantan and the center of Kelantan state administration and business focus for the people of Kelantan.
Terengganu State – Code (EZ2)
For the state of Terengganu, the study was conducted around the city of Kuala Terengganu which is the capital state government administration and the center of trade and business for the people of Terengganu.
Pahang State – Code (EZ 3)
For the state of Pahang, the city of Kuantan is the site of study in which Kuantan is the capital of the state of Pahang and the center of state administration and the focus of trade and business for the people of Pahang.
6.4 The number of respondents of Kelantan state are 130 respondents, Terengganu state are 120 respondents and Pahang state are 150 respondents. The rate of response shows that both Kelantan dan Terengganu state achieved 100 percent whilst Kuantan state achieved 87 percent which total up of overall rate of response was 92.5 percent. Table
The results of the study are presented in the following categories:
The Demographic Profile
The summary findings of respondent demographic profile of the eastern zone state of Malaysia are shown in Table
As shown in Table
The Perception of Employees on green Job Satisfaction
The results of the study for green job satisfaction show that for the Eastern Zone, Kelantan state and Kuantan state get the same average total score of 61 percent only 1 percent more than Terengganu state which gets 60 percent average total score as per shown in Table
The Perception of Employees on Green Salary
The results of the study for green salary show that the average total score for Terengganu state and Kuantan state got 60 percent while Kelantan state got 57 percent average total score as per shown in Table
The Perception of Employees on Green Supervisory Support
The results of the study for green supervisory support show that the average total score for Terengganu state is the highest with 62 percent whilst Kuantan state gets 59 percent and finally Kelantan state gets 56 percent as per shown in Table
The Perception of Employees on Green Social Relationship with Management and Colleagues
The results of the survey on the dimensions of green social relationship with management and colleagues showed that the three states had a similar agreement with Kelantan 58 percent, Terengganu 56 percent and Pahang 57 percent as shown in Table
The Perception of Employees on Green Training and Development
The results of the study for green training and development show that the average total score for Terengganu state and Kuantan state got the same 56 percent while Kelantan state got 59 percent as per shown in Table
The Perception of Employees on Green Team-Based Practices
According to the results of the Green team-based practices study, the highest percentage agreement for average total score was Kelantan with 60 percent followed by Pahang 54 percent as shown in Table
The Perception of Employees on Green Leadership
Green leadership results show that the agreement average percentage total score for the two states namely Terengganu and Pahang are equal to 59 percent while Kelantan states have an average total score of 56 percent as shown in Table
The overall study results for the green quality of work life dimension are as shown in Table
The findings on the average total score of agreement on Green Quality of Working Life show that the dimensions of Green job satisfaction for Kelantan and Pahang score the highest with 61 percent. The average total score on Green salary shows Terengganu and Pahang State scoring the highest at 60 percent. The green supervisory support total average score shows Terengganu scoring the highest at 62 percent. The Green social relationship with management and colleagues total average score shows that Kelantan has the highest score at 58 percent. Kelantan also scored the highest in Green training and development and Green team-base practices at 59 and 60 percent respectively and Terengganu and Pahang however, score the highest for the Green leadership dimension at 59 percent.
Based on the results of the study as mentioned above, the following are suggestions to improve the management of green quality of work life for public organizations in the Eastern Zone state of Malaysia.
Green Job Satisfaction
The results show that green job satisfaction is still at an acceptable level of 60 per cent, which is moderate. Therefore, management and employees need to sit down on the aspects of job satisfaction dimensions in order to improve job satisfaction, workplace safety and space and think of the opportunity for employee to build a career in the organization. All these elements are important for the harmony of employee life and also the employer.
The green salary dimension shows that the average total score of 60 percent is also moderate in terms of employee perceptions. Organizational management, therefore, needs to reflect on efforts to increase employees' salaries with rewards, remuneration and incentives that complement the needs and wants of workers in the face of current economic pressures and challenges.
Green Supervisory Support
Green supervisory support shows that the results of the study were within the medium range of 60 percent. Supervisors or leaders need to further assist subordinates with effective communication, guidance and assistance in terms of knowledge and skills so that employees feel good and secure in the supervisory support.
Green Social Relationship with Management and Colleagues
The results show that the overall average total score for green social relationship with management and colleagues is only at the level of 56 - 58 percent. Therefore, public sector organizations need to strengthen the information that needs to be disseminated to employees more clearly and accurately related to green management. The relationship between bosses and staff needs to be more positive and lead towards high professionalism to give employees the confidence to work and be proud of the organization.
Green Training and Development
The results show that the average total score for green training and development is at the level of 56 percent - 59 percent for the three states in the east which is a moderate level. Therefore, it is suggested that the training and development system for green management should be strengthened in terms of training, training incentives, training methods and skills in green management.
Green Team-Based Practices
Based on the results of the study shows that the average total score for green team based practices is in the middle position with 54 percent lowest and 60 percent at the highest level. Therefore, improvements need to be made in terms of working group cooperation, skills and information dissemination for working groups more effectively to ensure that green management can be practiced successfully
Based on the results of the study shows that the average total score for green leadership is in the middle level with the average total score is between 56 percent to 59 percent. It is hereby recommended that group leaders, department heads and management pay attention to aspects of leadership style accepted by employees, have communication skills, problem solving and crisis, encourage employees and also together employees build a strong image of the organization in aspects of green management
Our research team would like to thank the Ministry of Higher Education, Malaysia for funding the research under FRGS Grant with study code 20160133FRGS entitled "
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30 December 2020
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Siron, R., Saad, N. M., & Tasripan, M. A. (2020). The Study On Green Quality Of Work Life For Public Sector Employees. In N. S. Othman, A. H. B. Jaaffar, N. H. B. Harun, S. B. Buniamin, N. E. A. B. Mohamad, I. B. M. Ali, N. H. B. A. Razali, & S. L. B. M. Hashim (Eds.), Driving Sustainability through Business-Technology Synergy, vol 100. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 734-746). European Publisher. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2020.12.05.80