This paper shows how decision-making based on new technologies affects society, production and people's lives. The problem is especially urgent now. This is how we observe the process of direct implementation of artificial intelligence in our daily life. Constantly, the specialist needs to make management decisions. Where is the line that separates organizational behavior and emotional intelligence? We demonstrate the management process through educational simulation games. The main feature of simulation games is a dialogue with the simulation program. The program gives a reaction to your answers or assumptions. Games allow you, the participant to change your answers, to receive another computer reaction, to object to computer, to conduct your own mini research and others. The article analyzes the gaming experience gained by students in making managerial decisions. In addition to organizational skills, intellectual ones are identified. Particular attention is paid to such qualities as social innovation, social justice, social vulnerability. The pros and cons of each management decision are analyzed by the game algorithm. After game students answer three basic questions: What is the game for? What is the game about? What did the game give everyone? All of the above helps future professionals to acquire the basic key competencies for their successful implementation in life.
Keywords: Developmentethicsmanagement decisionsocial perception
Digitalization is a modern trend in the development of society. The rapid pace of dissemination and application of the principles of digitalization is due to its capabilities (Bylieva et al., 2018; 2019; Riabtseva, 2017).
The close connection of people with machines is already becoming a familiar aspect of modern society. It is the flexibility and programmable nature that contributes to the increasing use of digital technologies and the formation of a new set of human and machine factors (Dufva & Dufva, 2019; Spihunova et al., 2017). From an early age, children get used to working with multifunctional gadgets, which forms their ability to work in multitasking conditions (Riabtseva, 2017; Zaks, 2020).
Digital technologies not only change and improve production and services, but also have a strong impact on people and their minds. Thus, people in a digital society develop great creative and intellectual abilities, and the work related to algorithms and logic goes to machines (Golikov et al., 2018; Riabtseva, 2017).
Robots are able to analyze the situation with greater accuracy, perform data processing, and provide fairly reliable results. And all this in a short time. In this case, digital and physical interaction can be carried out in different ways. This is evidenced by the prevalence of visualization in everyday and professional environments. Thus, digital tools provide new ways and principles of organizing actions in decision-making and management (Dufva & Dufva, 2019; Shipunova et al., 2019; Trostinskaia et al., 2017).
The professional culture of the future specialist should be on the verge of balancing specialist organizational behavior and emotional behavior.
How do I find this edge? And not overstep the bounds of acceptable action? What qualities should a modern person have?
The history of human culture shows us a systematic approach to solving any problems. We need to combine our abilities, knowledge and skills based on the multifaceted educational values of humanity. Today, the need for social and cultural consciousness is particularly important. This need helps you realize that you are a part of your professional group, ethnic community, people, country, and all of humanity (Golikov et al., 2018; Zaks, 2020).
The work of people in the digital world and its components together increases the understanding of digital technologies. A new digital culture, education and business environment is gradually being formed (Dufva & Dufva, 2019; Glukhov & Vasetskaya, 2018). It is becoming necessary to introduce society to the study of more complex digital devices to promote new level of human activity.
Virtual reality can be a complete immersion in a computer simulator, or a specific application (for example, a game). In the virtual reality app, a person can change, supplement and improve the surrounding reality in a playful way. Thus, experience is gained in the use of this tool to predict future events and their consequences or prevent threats. And you can identify ways to improve the quality of life of the population. This is the practical use of game simulators (Razinkina et al., 2019; Riabtseva, 2017).
At the moment, there are many examples of interaction between physical and digital content. In the digital society publication (Dufva & Dufva, 2019) several interesting collaborations between people and digital technologies were presented. One of them is drawing. The point is that the artist and the bot (robot) draw on the same canvas, without interfering with each other and creating a complete picture in a short time. The following example is very useful and relevant. Since it is related to information security. This is a browser plug-in that protects against tracking by confusing and creating a lot of useless data for tracking services. Thus, by providing many opportunities, digital technologies become more understandable to society, and they are used in everyday life.
In the context of digitalization, a significant number of industries use so-called "digital twins" (cyberphysical systems) to increase profits. Based on the work of an industrial enterprise, the research authors (Hong et al., 2019) have shown that the use of these digital technologies is possible in any field. For business, important components were identified that are solved by the cyberphysical system in question. The components can be strategic management, customer-market interaction, and value creation. Combined with these components, digital twins will provide senior management with the ability to predict and anticipate future processes on models. In this way, successful decision-making results will be achieved.
Coming further to our topic, we studied an article (Wiselia et al., 2017) about simulation games in the framework of smart city management. According to the authors, simulation games that combine both simulation and entertainment are an excellent learning method. To effectively teach urban management and planning, the game must contain aspects of a "smart city". It includes urban residents, ecology and environment, traffic and transport, General welfare, economy and technology.
Based on the results of the game, participants will learn about problems in managing the city, developing the territory and creating a favorable urban environment. At the same time, during such training, students will remain motivated to learn and master new technologies. This indicates the effectiveness of this method of obtaining knowledge.
An analysis of the literature (Baranova, 2019; Dobryakova & Frumin, 2020; Ladoshkina, 2013) on the impact of digital technologies on the life of society has shown that the variety of spheres of life contributes to the emergence of a variety of digital technologies. Their influence on people's lives is particularly relevant here (Baranova, 2019; Safronova, 2020; Smirnov, 2020).
Games attract society with their virtual reality, where everyone can choose a role and solve problems they like (Bylieva et al., 2018; 2019; Wardaszko, 2013).
The game encourages the use of physiological and psychological factors to solve a specific task in virtual reality (Bylieva & Sastre, 2018; Wardaszko, 2013). Simulation games are identical to simple games but have a number of features. First, it is a simulation in the form of a model where participants make decisions. Second, in the simulation game, the goal is precisely defined. Third, there is a certain algorithm for the development of events based on the actions of participants. Fourth, the participants are part of the game itself, and there are certain roles for themselves to play. And fifth, there is a certain backstory for full immersion in the virtual world.
Business games can be addressed both in the sphere of Economics, Finance and trade, as well as in the adoption of key issues in the management of an enterprise (Bylieva & Sastre, 2018; Wardaszko, 2013). The main important characteristic of an imitation game is the acquisition and development of strategic management skills in certain life conditions. And as a result, improving the management system, decision-making system or management.
It is also possible to study the organizational behavior of employees in a given situation. Organizational behavior is a set of behaviors, reactions, and actions of employees of an organization/groups of the organization/organization as a whole in various life conditions. The purpose of studying organizational behavior is to "improve the effectiveness of organizational activities" (Korneychuk & Bylieva, 2018; Shukhno, 2018).
Along with organizational behavior, there is another rather important characteristic of a person – emotional intelligence. Emotional intelligence contributes to the expression of personal emotions and their own opinions, the efficient formation of social ties, adaptation to assigned conditions by setting priorities and choosing the best ways to achieve the objective (Larina, 2016).
So, based on emotional intelligence in the passing game of the gaming simulation, we will examine organizational behavior of participants.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the research is to substantiate the hypothesis that the use of management games forms practical skills through organizational behavior and emotional intelligence.
The objectives of this study correspond to the goal:
Analysis of the modern management system, including the necessary management principles;
Modeling of organizational behavior based on an experiment involving the use of a game simulator to practice managerial skills in control groups of students (future managers);
Study, review and visual presentation of the results of a game experiment (game);
Reflection in the form of a survey of participants after the game;
Analysis of the effectiveness of business games in the educational process.
As a theoretical and methodological basis for writing this work, we used the results of a social experiment, the studied scientific works, and the scientific literature on the topic under consideration.
Integrating the attractiveness of the game into our research, the social experiment was chosen as the fundamental method. The essence of the social experiment is to conduct the game as an experiment among students studying in the direction of management, and the interpretation of its results.
Analysis serves as the second method in this study. Through the analysis studied the principles of modern control systems, game results and surveys of students and made appropriate findings and conclusions. In this case, quantitative data (the number of respondents, the number of certain game results) and qualitative indicators (organizational behavior and emotional intelligence) are analyzed.
In addition, another theoretical method was used. This generalization. To identify patterns of influence of the game on students, it is necessary to study all the results of the study and present them in the form of a short General conclusion, which is what the generalization is aimed at.
Analysis of the modern management system: necessary management principles
Fast response, adaptation and flexibility become characteristics of a modern management system. Modern management also uses the principle of decentralization, according to which employees are given the ability to control, organize and plan their work. Self-management of qualified employees leads to satisfaction with their work, freeing senior managers from coordinating employees and, as a result, improving the efficiency of the company. The developing comfortable management system is accompanied by strong competition. To stay ahead of competitors and achieve successful performance, management must understand the values and behavior of employees, i.e. analyze their organizational behavior and emotional intelligence (Strielkowski et al., 2016).
The principle of decentralized management contains these two components. The first component is organizational behavior (Bersel, 2017; Gusinskaya, 2018; Saunders, 2019). The second is emotional intelligence (Goleman & Boyatsis, 2017; Hasson, 2018; McKee, 2016). It is important that employees are motivated to perform their work, cooperate with others, help each other, and be responsible for their actions. Figure
Studying the behavior within a particular organization and the emotional intelligence of each employee will take a long time. The solution to this problem can be a simulation game (simulation of an experiment). Behavior during the game, the result and expression of their own opinions will show the level of intellectual and organizational abilities of participants.
Self-isolation seemed to divide people's lives into two stages: before isolation and after. They seemed to have fallen into a stupor. Others actively use this time for all the things they have put aside, and they are actively engaged in sports, self-development, Hobbies, and family. A lot of people are employees. Many people have the impression that they are doing all this not for themselves, but for the sake of the employer. Thus, they are organized only externally. There was freedom. And the man found that he could not organize himself. And when there is no obligation to do something for someone, they do nothing (Kuzin, 2020).
This is why organizational behavior and emotional intelligence are so important. Society needs care and attention.
Conducting a business game and summarizing the results
A game is a state in which a participant (player) tries to experience a sense of control over an organized environment or conditions that simulates the situation they will encounter when completing a specific task.
In the game, all participants and teams are connected to each other to solve the task assigned to them and direct their behavior to a certain win.
Replaying a certain life and professional situation helps the participant in the production process:
It gains experience of interacting with other participants in production processes in various situations;
Helps you to remember the technological chain in the production process;
To learn teamwork;
Find connections and resulting patterns between your game actions on the model and their results based on their analysis.
In the game, you can make a trial move and take a risk, and then go through all this in the workplace.
Us in the form of a game was a social experiment among future managers. Its essence is to analyze organizational behavior and emotional intelligence of participants through a business game.
As a business game, a modern game "2024" was chosen, focused on creating a city of the future
The uniqueness of the game "2024" is that it combines possible innovations of the future and it involves important aspects in making management decisions. The game offers consideration of the following technologies:
Car without driver;
5g Mobile networks;
New generation of drones;
Available satellite Internet;
Computerized shoes and clothing;
Printing of human organs.
Such an extensive list allows you to take into account technologies that can be used in everyday life and in the professional sphere. The game contains the pros and cons of each of these technologies, which makes the forecast more accurate. In addition to analyzing technologies, it is necessary to monitor the balance among the five important aspects for residents, businesses, and the administration of the "happy city" (Figure
The game does not require professional skills, just use logic and rational thinking.
60 students participated in the social experiment of passing the business game. The results of playing the game on a computer simulator for the first time are shown in Figure
There are four possible outcomes of the game: "losing" (prison) and winning to varying degrees, which includes "small paradise", "balance" and "reliable friend of the security forces". As you can see from the chart, half of the respondents lost, and a quarter reached the highest level – "small paradise". This does not mean a lack of organizational skills or a low level of intelligence. On the contrary, this indicates a variety of thinking and different approaches to analyzing the situation.
Full control over the situation contributed to the manifestation of organizational behavior and emotional intelligence.
After the experiment, while the students were affected by the game and experienced emotions about the result, a survey was conducted to assess the real practicality and importance of the business game. Students adequately answered three main questions:
Why the need for the game?
What kind of game is this?
What did this game give everyone?
Students were impressed by the virtual gaming world. This unusual method of teaching motivated students to study key subjects in order to solve the problems they faced in the business game. The majority highlighted the following problems of city development:
Find a balance between all stakeholders;
Analysis of each innovation used, consideration of its pros and cons;
The implementation of preliminary forecast (mentally) with the introduction of technology;
Real responsibility, because the quality of life of residents depends on the decision made;
Insufficient awareness of the functions of new technologies, requires a more detailed consideration of each.
The selection of this information indicates the development of such qualities as social innovation, social justice and social vulnerability. This means that students sought to implement only important innovations and technologies for society that contribute to improving the quality of life. The students themselves identified a number of abilities that they used and developed during the game. These are abilities:
Rapid response to the emergence of new technologies;
Prioritize or act on the importance of technology (when applying it to the life of the city);
Integrating an ethical component into decision-making;
Maintain respect and authority among all stakeholders;
Exploring new real ways of development.
The presence of managers with these abilities and qualities will contribute to the development of the business environment, management, services, labor market, trade, domestic and international relations. The results of the game require long and hard work with students in the study of disciplines related to management, and the application of this knowledge in practice.
Effectiveness of business games in training
There are various ways to develop managerial skills. For example, certain books, professional webinars or courses, the videos. However, the practice is the method through which you can quickly evolve and improve. In our study, the practice was a business game on a computer simulator. These business games, based on real cases, are ways to recreate a typical practical situation without significant time and energy expenditure.
The game has a purpose and content, it uses a simple method of selecting an answer and working together with the teacher in the form of a discussion. The game develops professional managerial and intellectual skills, including social and psychological competence. Through the simulation game, critical thinking, flexibility and reaction are formed (Maltseva et al., 2018; Razinkina et al., 2019; Tabolina & Gulk, 2018).
The presented quality data in comparison of" before "and" after " igropractic shows the importance of using digital technologies, both in the learning process and in the professional environment.
As a result, the participant igropractor can acquire the skills to use information and communication technologies to formalize, analyze and predict the development of problem situations and make decisions at the level of management of the organization.
The business game can improve the educational process by adding elements of creativity and professionalism, and can provide a practical guide to the future profession of students (Bylieva et al., 2019; Gashkova et al., 2017; Maltseva et al., 2018).
If the game is connected with real production processes, then it is good to conduct the "2nd" analysis, after the skills obtained in the game training have been shown in real activities.
The simulation game, as a representative of digital technologies in this study, showed the importance and significance of such technologies. Organizational behavior and emotional intelligence were presented as the two main components of a modern management system. The result of the management game shows the professional competence of the participant, through which you can judge the organizational behavior in real life. Discussion and reaction to the game can help you analyze your emotional intelligence.
The applied effect of games is that the game is a simplified model of reality. Any processes in the game are more intense, so the immersion in the problem and its solution is much faster. Since the game action occurs in limited conditions of space and time according to deliberately set rules. By assigning and passing through a problem, participants can develop their own attitude to it and find the optimal solution.
We are developing digital technologies, and digital technologies are developing us. Business is an area where accuracy and rationality of decisions play an important role and can lead to both success and failure. To develop the ability to make managerial decisions is best possible using the method of simulation games.
Conducted the social experiment proved that the game is able to develop management skills. Half of the students participating in the experiment were able to pass the game with a positive result, taking into account the happiness of the city's residents, the environment, the material part, protection and freedom. At the same time, a quarter of them were able to achieve a high level of development of the city, in which investors invest in the promotion of business in this city.
Thus, the use of the game approach in training reduces the risks of making a wrong decision and develops management skills that can help you achieve high results in the field of business and prosperity of the territory. The research will be useful for both management students and people who already hold the position of Manager. In a digital environment, you need to constantly develop and improve your management skills.
The authors express their gratitude to the developers of the business game "2024" for their openness. This is the Center for research in science and technology of the European University in St. Petersburg, the Greenhouse of social technologies and the Team of 29.
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Larionova, V., Stepanova, N., & Shalina, D. (2020). Management Games: Organizational Behavior And Emotional Intelligence. In O. D. Shipunova, & D. S. Bylieva (Eds.), Professional Culture of the Specialist of the Future & Communicative Strategies of Information Society, vol 98. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 259-270). European Publisher. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2020.12.03.27