Organizational And Pedagogical Factors Of A Specialists’ Professional Development In Modern Conditions

Abstract

Problems of professional development of a specialist’s personality are considered from many points of view, such as: theoretical basis of professional development in the process of intellectual activity; various aspects of self-management and personal efficiency management; professional success of specialists in various fields of studies; the essence of the process of personal professional development, etc. We have determined a task - to study the system processes and features of specialists’ personal professional development, to reveal the features of their professional development in modern market relations and to identify causal factors of the pedagogical structure of their professional development. Using the theoretical analysis and modern practice techniques enabled us to develop the following confinement models: “Personal factors of a specialist’s professional development”, “Organizational factors of a specialist’s personal professional development”, “System of socio-psychological relations as a factor of a specialist’s personal professional development”; all of these models act as a complex of organizational and pedagogical factors of a specialist’s professional development. The study is relevant from the practical point view as this three-group complex of factors serves as a means of a specialist’s personal professional development; this complex is recommended to be adopted in the education system as a means of specialists’ professional development during their work. A binary-structured system of psychological and pedagogical support is recommended to be used in corporate education to ensure a more effective professional development of specialists, the system is also recommended to be implied during higher professional education.

Keywords: Ongoing educationprofessional developmentprofessional self-managementpsychological and pedagogical supportspecialist’s personalitytypes of a system of socio-psychological relations

Introduction

In modern market conditions, the specialists’ professional development is particularly relevant in the context of the digital economy, project management and development trends in the WorldSkills movement standards. The existing vocational education system does not meet this need to the end, this fact inspires to create the necessary conditions for the professional development of specialists in the process of their professional training (Esaulova, 2010). In this regard, it is important to coordinate and combine the efforts of the departments of the educational organization and various enterprises, ensuring joint systematic work on the specialists’ professional development.

In this context, it is necessary to review the essential substantive elements of professional training and retraining of specialists who are able to independently choose and implement the optimal behavioral strategy in unusual situations, psychologically and professionally prepared for any changes, who are able to think critically, identify and use the educational potential of modern technologies. At the same time, the essential part of a future specialist’s education includes professional activities, as well as social, personal and professional competences developed on their basis (Vakhidova, Gabitova, & Ivanov, 2018). However, experience has shown that these skills tend to develop mainly through traditional methods of academic work at a university; these methods do not meet the demands of the information society and they do not reflect the new assets of a modern student. The relevance of this issue posed the need for the development of scientific, methodological and information technology support of educational process as it should basically provide a suitable educational environment in a pedagogical university with scientific, pedagogical, organizational and methodological and information technology materials, as well as some technical means, which are necessary for the successful development of social , personal and professional competencies of students (Gromova & Saitova, 2016).

In the course of the study, we have tried to identify organizational and pedagogical factors that initiate the process of a specialist’s personal professional development. This is why it is necessary to create special pedagogical conditions for a subject’s necessary transformation: firstly, the activity structure determined by conceptual pedagogical technology should be organized in a particular manner; secondly, the subject should be tasked with modeling and designing types of professional activity (at this stage, higher forms of mental activity are activated, macro- and micro-navigation procedures are performed, so it results in the formation of professional and personal skills) (Vakhidova et al., 2018). Logical-semantic models; cognitive visualization of knowledge (connects the subject of the educational process with visual aids that support cognitive activity) (Steinberg & Manko, 2017); activation of three reflection mechanisms (sensually presentative, verbally logical and modeling) – all these methods contribute to creating special pedagogical conditions. In this case it can be said that the specialist training process is getting intense (Gromova & Saitova, 2016), even in modern work conditions. A specialist’s personal professional development comes through qualitative changes leading to a new level of its integrity. This factor suggests a personality change, transformation of prevailing attitudes and stereotypes, orientations, motives of behavior under the influence of changing social relations.

Problem Statement

An analysis of related literature showed that a lot of investigations have been devoted to the problems of a specialist’s personal professional development. The theoretical basis of professional development during the work process are described in the works by Vesnin (2008), Drukker (2007), Bazarov (2014), etc. Various aspects of self-management and management of personal effectiveness were considered by Andreeva (2002), Arkhangelsky (2008), Gastev (1924). Professional success of specialists in various areas of activity is considered by Zagainov (2012), Zazykin V.G. (Bogdanov & Zazykin, 2001), Kuznetsov (2007), Korchemny (1986), Laptev L.G. (Dergach & Laptev, 2017), Krichevsky R.L. (Krichevsky & Dubovskaya, 2008) and others. The essence and content of the process of professional development of a person is examined in the works by Klimov (2003), Pryazhnikov (1996), Derkach A. A. (Dergach & Laptev, 2017), Zeer E.F. (Zeer & Symanyuk, 2005).

However, these scientific works do not fully investigate the features of the process of a specialist’s personal professional development in the vocational training system, especially in modern market relations that are characterized by high competitiveness, rapid information changes and high tension. The presented works do not investigate the systemic processes of professional development of a specialist’s personality in educational organizations that are able to reflect the changes in the external environment and that ensure harmonious systemic development of both the organization and the specialist’s personality.

The insufficient theoretical elaboration of this issue in the psychological and pedagogical literature and its great practical significance made it possible to determine the research problem, which is to determine the ways and conditions of psychological and pedagogical support of a specialist’s personal professional development.

Research Questions

The analysis of psychological and pedagogical literature in theory and practice of vocational education and in the field of personnel management poses the following research questions: how to organize the professional development of specialists with insufficient scientific and theoretical studies of this issue? What is necessary to develop psychological and pedagogical support for the professional development of the personality of a specialist who is responsive to changes in the professional environment? What are the most effective methods for a specialist’s personal professional development?

Purpose of the Study

The article is aimed at revealing the groups of organizational and pedagogical factors of a specialist’s personal professional development. The study has also a purpose of theoretical justification of its psychological and pedagogical support.

Research Methods

In order to determine the personal factors of the professional development of a personality, we have used confinement modeling, which allowed us to distinguish the following personal factors of a specialist’s personal professional development: the result of working practice; the quality of the work performance, as a combination of knowledge and skills which determines the self-efficacy skill of a specialist; professional self-efficacy (Vakhidova et al., 2018) and professional self-awareness; professional craftsmanship; the level of readiness to work, which includes the motivation of a specialist (Ilyin, 2006) as a reason for the quality of functions and for improving professional skills; work assessment using technologies such as KPI, grading, statistical methods.

Having examined the economic and managerial prerequisites for constructing a system of organizational development conditions and personnel training, we used the confinement modeling method to build a systemic model “Organizational factors of professional development of a specialist’s personality,” which allowed us to single out the following factors: the result that the organization strives for, i.e. effective training and development of employees of the organization with minimal costs and the maximum level of professional development; the job goals; work facilities; self-esteem of the work, which is expressed in the subjective correlation of the possibilities of fulfilling official goals; organizational culture; innovativeness as the basis for career goals and organizational culture; remuneration technology, where the remuneration method sets the principles of work experience depending on the results of an enterprise’s success; strategy as a connecting component with the technology of remuneration, innovation, organizational culture (Bityanova, 2008); feedback, including assessment and certification, involving the assessment of employee knowledge (in accordance with the Labor Code of the Russian Federation and other regulatory legal acts in the field of labor legislation) (360 degree method, NASA certification).

Findings

After having examined the processes of the staff’s influence on a personality as a whole, an enterprise as a system, the staff of this enterprise as a subsystem and establishing the diversity of relations between the individual and the enterprise as a whole (Zhuravlev & Drobysheva, 2011), we designed the model “The system of socio-psychological relations as a factor of a specialist’s personal professional development”, represented by a systematic unity of the following components: work attitude, attitude to development, self-attitude, social role, attitude to management, relationships in the team, attitude to remuneration, attitude to the philosophy of an enterprise (Kapitonov, Zinchenko, & Kapitonov, 2007; Zabrodin, 2002).

Considering socio-psychological relations in the context of system analysis (analysis of the enterprise’s team as a social subsystem), relying on the identified invariants, we have identified eight types of socio-psychological relations systems that characterize the factors of the professional development of a specialist’s personality (Figure 01 ).

Figure 1: Types of systems of socio-psychological relations
Types of systems of socio-psychological relations
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The confinement models “Personal factors of a specialist’s professional development”, “Organizational factors of a specialist’s personality professional development”, “System of socio-psychological relations as a factor of a specialist’s personality professional development” developed on the basis of theoretical analysis and modern practice, are used as groups of a complex of organizational and pedagogical factors of professional development and allow to highlight the main factors that have relationship lines between them (Kurpatov & Alekhin, 2007).

The following methods were used to study the level of professional development of a specialist’s personality: a questionnaire “Professionalism”, a method of “group personality assessment”, a set of methods for assessing the motivation of professional self-improvement “Logical Square”, and an assessment of the employee’s work activity.

Next, we compared the levels of professional development of specialists in staff teams with various types of socio-psychological relations. As a result of the analysis, it can be noted that the highest level of professional development of a specialist’s personality is observed in the system of socio-psychological relations, type A. The smallest level of professional development of a specialist’s personality is observed in the type of system of socio-psychological relations, type B2. The G type does not have a normal distribution, but assumes a U distribution; while one of the parts of this distribution shows the highest level of professional development of a specialist’s personality, and the other - the lowest level.

Figure 2: Correlation between the type of system of socio-psychological relations and the level of professional development of a specialist’s personality
Correlation between the type of system of socio-psychological relations and the level of professional development of a specialist’s personality
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An adequate self-esteem of the level of professional development, a demonstration of professionalism during the work, readiness for professional development, actual achievement of the necessary results in professional sphere – all of these factors indicate the level of professional development of a specialist’s personality. The indicators of socio-psychological relations were: the specialist’s self-attitude, the specialist’s attitude in the work team, the specialist’s attitude to the enterprise as a whole (Novikov, 2008).

The purpose of the questionnaire ("Professionalism”) was to determine the self-esteem of the professional development of a specialist’s personality. The participants are instructed to focus on the assessment of management and organizational processes, which minimizes the resistance of participants. A ten-point scale to evaluate the indicators. The participant determines the conformity of the statement to his personal assessment within the given points: 0 - does not correspond at all, 10 - corresponds completely. The results are elaborated according to the method of the average score in the questionnaire.

A methodology of group assessment of a personality was purposed to obtain the characteristics of a person in a specific group according to certain indicators, by means of an interconnected assessment of its members according to a specific program. The adequacy of the group assessment of personality as a demonstration of reliability depends on: the cognitive abilities of the subjects who conduct the assessment (experts); the object’s demonstration of their (certified) properties assessment; position (situation) when the subject and the object (expert and certified) have to interact.

The assessment of organizational factors of professional development was carried out in stages. Firstly, we presented a general statistical picture of the study and evaluated the normality of the distribution in the obtained samples. Secondly, we assessed whether the compilation of confinement models was correct, checking the presence of interconnections between the components of the system (personal factors of professional development and the system of socio-psychological relations). Thirdly, we checked the influence of the type of system of socio-psychological relations on the level of professional development of a specialist’s personality. Fourth, we evaluated the normality of the distribution of the level of professional development in the samples, respectively, of the type of system of socio-psychological relations. Fifth, we compared the level of professional development and assessed the organizational factors of professional development of a specialist’s personality.

The statistical analysis of the distribution of data on the motivation of professional self-improvement of specialists allows us to conclude about the normal distribution in the sample for this indicator. It is important to note that the standard distribution of motivation for professional self-improvement is in the range from 40.4% to 87.8% for the complex of methods "Logical Square", which indicates a fairly high level of professional "self-improvement" of employees.

Table 1 -
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Moreover, the analysis of the results on the parameter of professionalism self-esteem shows a rather high level of employees’ professional self-esteem; the standard distribution for this parameter ranges from 53.5% to 91.7%. Considering the data both on the motivation of professional self-improvement of employees and on self-assessment of the level of professional development of a specialist’s personality, it can be noted that with a generally normatively increased level of motivation for professional self-improvement, the level of self-esteem of employees is also high. According to the indicators of group personality assessment, the following data of the normative distribution were obtained: from 43.1% to 80.3%.

The performance indicator shows the normal distribution of the sample. The standard distribution by performance indicator ranges from 59.9% to 90.5%. Such a distribution indicates the likelihood of the following tendency: when setting performance standards, performance indicators are overstated. This situation is explained by two factors: firstly, for planning the performance indicators of the organization, data is generated taking into account the failure to fulfill the plans; secondly, it is normal for specialists to not fully fulfill their plans. Both factors create the orientation of the relativity of the tasks set for the employee and the high probability of failure to complete the tasks in full, which determines the complexity of enterprise management at the crisis stages and increases the degree of risk for the organization at the time of crisis response.

Integrating the distribution of data obtained by all methods and summarizing them in a percentile scale, we obtained the following distribution of levels of professional development of the specialists’ personality: high (87-100%), medium (75-87%), low (less than 75%).

When analyzing the indicators of the level of the socio-psychological climate in a work team, we can talk in general about the normative distribution in the sample.

Integrating the distribution of data obtained by all methods and summarizing them in a percentile scale, we obtained the following distribution of levels of professional development of the specialists’ personality: high (87-100%), medium (75-87%), low (less than 75%).

When analyzing the indicators of the level of the socio-psychological climate in a work team, we can talk in general about the normative distribution in the sample.

Table 2 -
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We have used an integral scale of self-relation, which measured the pros and cons of our own self. The standard distribution according to the parameters of self-attitude in the sample varies from 53.9 to 86.9, which indicates a rather high level of self-acceptance by the subjects themselves. This statistical distribution determines the likelihood of a general level of increased self-esteem of employees. If we compare with the statistics on the indicator of professional self-esteem, we can point out that the parameter of professional self-esteem and the parameter of self-attitude have very close indicators (the degree of difference is about 3.0%). During the study of life-purpose understanding, we have considered the scale of life orientations, which indicates the functioning of the macro relations subsystem of the system of a person’s socio-psychological relations. The point distribution of life orientations ranged from 86.2 to 111. Such a difference in indicators shows a rather low level in the macro relations subsystem, which determines quite an indifferent attitude of enterprise employees to understanding the role and significance of the whole society.

The results were processed in accordance with the confinement model of the system of socio-psychological relations according to the following data: the relationship of the perception of the socio-psychological climate in the team and the general life orientations of employees; the relationship of the perception of the socio-psychological climate in the team and the integral self-relationship; the relationship of integral self-attitude and life orientations. During the study of personal factors of professional development, we have evaluated the connection between the indicators of group assessment of the level of a specialist’s personality professional development, the level of motivation for professional self-improvement, self-assessment of the level of professional development of a person and performance indicators of work performance.

We have analyzed the averaged data from the four studies of the level of professional development of a specialist’s personality (level of motivation for professional self-improvement, level of self-esteem of a specialist’s personality, group assessment of a specialist’s personality, assessment of the effectiveness of a specialist’s professional activity). Based on this analysis, we can point out that there are significant differences in the level of professional development of the specialists’ personality in enterprises with different types of system of socio-psychological relations. This pattern is observed with a probability of no higher than 1.0% for all types of a system of socio-psychological relations, exception for the “G” type.

It is fair to say that the highest level of professional development of a specialist’s personality is observed in the type A of system of socio-psychological relations. The smallest level of professional development of a specialist’s personality is observed in the type B2. The G type does not have a normal distribution, but assumes a U distribution; while one of the parts of this distribution has the highest level of professional development of the specialists’ personality, and the other the lowest level of professional development of the specialists’ personality. Considering the types B and C, it can be noted that there is a sharp drop in the level of professional development of the personality of specialists in the presence of deviations in the subsystem of self-relations. The second most important influence on the professional development of a specialist’s personality is the subsystem of micro relations, then – of macro relations.

Thus, the experiment provided with the following conclusions:

  • the types of the system of socio-psychological relations, based on the invariant triad "I am environment", affect the level of professional development of the personality of a specialist. This effect is not linear. The maximum influence on the level of professional development of specialists is provided by the component of self-attitude (“Me”), the minimum - by the macro-relation (“I am enterprise”)

  • the type of system of socio-psychological relations (“G”) has a U-shaped distribution of the level of professional development of specialists and is a contraindication to the implementation of individual development of specialists;

  • the level of professional development of a specialist’s personality is affected by: personal factors of professional development, organizational factors of professional development and the system of socio-psychological relations, as a factor in professional development;

  • the confinement model “Personal factors of professional development of a specialist’s personality” presented in the work is correct at the 1% error level, and the confinement model “The system of socio-psychological relations is correct at the 5% error level, which indicates the correctness of the presented models;

  • the implementation of the system of psychological and pedagogical support and professional development of a specialist’s personality significantly increases the level of specialists’ professional development.

After the classical methodology of training and development of specialists was implemented in the control sample and in the experimental sample, a system of psychological and pedagogical support of the professional development of the specialist’s personality was introduced in both samples, significant changes in the level of professional development of specialists have appeared. Therefore, we can confirm that both methods show effective changes.

Table 3 -
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The levels of professional development of a specialist’s personality were determined at the stage of the ascertaining experiment. To determine the levels of professional development of the individual, we have used the statistical norm method, the low level has indicators from the minimum value of the level of professional development of a specialist’s personality to the lower threshold of standard deviation (up to 75%), the average level has indicators of standard deviation (from 75% to 87%), high the level has indicators from the upper threshold of standard deviation to the maximum value in the sample (87% -100%).

The qualitative analysis was held with the help of the percentage method, in order to compare the results correctly. With this purpose the number of people was converted in a percentage of high, medium and low results representation. A qualitative comparison of the data on the representation of the level of professional development of the specialists’ personality is reflected in Figure 03 .

Figure 3: Comparison of levels of a personality’s professional development in the control and experimental samples: 1-high rates; 2- average rates; 3- low rates
Comparison of levels of a personality’s professional development in the control and experimental samples: 1-high rates; 2- average rates; 3- low rates
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When analyzing the histogram, several trends can be distinguished: indicators of high professional development in the experimental sample have significantly increased while implementing a system of psychological and pedagogical support for the professional development of a specialist’s personality; the level of professional development has also increased and in the control group. If we compare the samples in percentiles, the difference between the samples will be about 37.0%.

The average indicators of professional development decreased significantly in the experimental group. The difference is about 27.0%, compared in percentiles. In terms of the low level of professional development of a specialist’s personality, the indicators have decreased significantly. The difference is about 9.2%, compared in percentiles. Qualitative and quantitative results of experimental work have confirmed that it is effective to implement the technology of psychological and pedagogical support of the professional development of a specialist’s personality.

Conclusion

Organizational and pedagogical factors of professional development were revealed on the basis of the analysis of psychological and pedagogical literature, relevant technologies of professional development, features of this process within the framework of the concept of continuous education, using the method of confinement modeling. The formed complex of factors of professional development is represented by three groups: personal factors, organizational factors and the system of socio-psychological relations, all of them represent the factors of professional development.

 Having conducted an analysis, we identified the features of the process of professional development of the specialists’ personality. Firstly, the professional development of a specialist’s personality is closely related to several organizational features. Secondly, when organizing this process, it is necessary to take into account a specialist’s personal characteristics and the features of the position occupied. Thirdly, the systemic nature of the factors of professional development of a specialist’s personality in the context of a particular enterprise implies certain results of professional development, any deviations from a given result will lead to disruption of the development process. Fourth, the process of professional development of an individual should be considered as a multi-professional process. Fifth, the process of professional development of t a specialist’s personality is determined by socio-psychological relations within the team, respectively, when organizing the process of professional development, it is necessary to take into account the socio-psychological conditions in the enterprise.

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Publisher

European Publisher

First Online

15.11.2020

Doi

10.15405/epsbs.2020.11.49

Online ISSN

2357-1330