This study examines motivational profile of personnel reserve of organization. It provides the analysis of the personnel reserve system which effects include: succession planning in the field of personnel management; development and expansion of the range of professional skills; career management; maintaining employees performance efficiency; granting employees with responsibility and independence in work; management of professional promotion, motivation and stimulating labor behaviour system. The basic approaches to studying the motivational profile are described. The respondents were 78 employees of a construction company, which personnel reserve system has been working for more than 7 years. Two samples were taken: employees from the personnel reserve and employees not included in the personnel reserve of the construction company. The applied research tools: methodology "Studying personality motivational profile"; questionnaire Q12: express method for assessing staff involvement; diagnostics of success achievement motivation. Analyzed results of the study allow us to state structural-conceptual peculiarity of the motivational profile provided by the personnel reserve system. Employees included in the personnel reserve are distinguished by their involvement in the working process, clear work planning, desire to achieve success and willingness to improve, need for influence, power and recognition. For them, the need for wages and certain working conditions is not relevant. Employees not included in the reserve have low level of involvement in the working process, needs for power and recognition, motivation to achieve success.
Keywords: Motivationmotivational profilepersonnel reserve
Timely detection and successful training of personnel for work in various positions is the most important success factor in an increasingly competitive climate in various market segments. Therefore, companies develop system for selecting, training and movement of future managers. They consider management of this system as a strategically important and relevant task. The relevance of the personnel reserve system is based on several key points:
A specialized management personnel reserve is not only necessary, but also much appreciated. Actively developing organizations have increasing demand for highly qualified employees who are prepared for management and are ready to head departments and new branches (divisions) of the company.
The potential of management employees is an equally valuable strategic resource, since the unrealized potential can find a way out in activities that are essentially destructive - in imitating work restructuring, in ignoring innovations, etc. At the same time, properly directed employees potential can be a good basis for strengthening the company's position in the market.
Availability of the management personnel reserve in the organization allows preparing candidates for newly created and open vacancies in advance, on a pre-planned basis, and scientific and practical scheme for organizing effective training and internship of specialists included in the reserve.
Nowadays the Russian market places high demands on senior management personnel. On the one hand, it rises the level of the standard of manager performance, on the other hand, it helps strengthening positions of only those who are able to lead the company to successful activities with minimal costs under constantly changing market conditions (Donskoy, 2015).
So, structural reorganization of the economy is impossible without creating an effective mechanism for managing the human resources development, scientific basis of human resourcing methods, as well as accepting the availability of personnel reserve as the main motivating factor for personnel development. It is known that in crisis situations, under conditions of fierce competition, win those with the most qualified team of professionals, who have high degree of motivation, involvement and loyalty to the company. That is why consideration of the main motivational factors, which are the basis for the formation of highly qualified human resources, has now became the highest priority aspect.
Definition of the category of personnel reserve has quite broad understanding in the works of various researchers. Amstrong (2009) defines the “personnel reserve as a targeted selection of candidates using various assessment tools to fill newly vacant positions” (p. 32). He believes that succession planning, along with vocational training and planning, is a part of career management in the general human resources development system of the company. Eremina (2013) and Bazarov (2011) believe that the personnel reserverepresentsemployees of the organization, capable, when it is required, of fulfilling duties in a new area of work. They consider creating the personnel reserve as one of the methods for maintaining staff performance, along with their assessment, certification, training and career planning. According to Kibanov (2015), the personnel reserve is employees of the organization having appropriate knowledge and skills, able to work in a new place and position. The author considers the personnel reserve as a part of the technology for managing development and behavior of personnel, along with the system of professional promotion, motivation and stimulation of labor behaviour. A group of authors considers work with the personnel reserveas a part of the personnel training and rotation set of measures (Anurina & Andrianov, 2013; Belikova, 2013; Biktagirova & Valieva, 2017). A group of scientists relates issues on succession and career planning to managing talented people (Myakushkin, 2010; Myasoedova & Chibisov, 2013; Zyikov, 2013).
Thus, analyzing definitions of the "personnel reserve" concept, we can distinguish two following things. Firstly, the
The main advantages of creatingpersonnel reserve system in a company are:
possibility of "natural renewal" in the company, when the outgoing generation is replaced by well-trained and qualified new specialists;
personnel reserve makes it possible to retain the best employees in the company, prevents the talented youth flow, when smart managers and gifted persons, understanding lack of prospects of their position, leave the company;
personnel reserve availability reduces the company's costs associated with search and hiring of personnel in order to close one or another vacant position.
In the process of studying the personnel reserve development concept, we found out that it is also very important to take into account typical mistakes in the process of staff capacity building, namely: personnel reserve development becomes a formality; personnel reserve exists in paper only; non-systematic and untimely training of the personnel reserve.
The psychological component plays the leading role in the system of the personnel reserve development and functioning, and the motivational aspect is one of the dominant factors. In the context of this article, the main research task is to study the motivational profile of employees included and not included in the personnel reserve.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study is to study the effect of the personnel reserve on characteristics and structure of the employee’s motivational profile.
The hypothetical statements put forward for empirical verification are as follows:
The personnel reserve determines motivation of the employee, while the motivational sphere acts as an integrative formation, possessing characteristic features of manifestation and structure.
The personnel reserve affects the degree of satisfaction of needs, involvement and motivation to achieve success.
The study involved 78 employees of the “Large-panel House Building” Trust LLC in Ufa. Two samples were taken: employees being the part of the personnel reserve and employees not included in the reserve of the construction company. It should be noted that the personnel reserve system of this organization has been working for 7 years.
The cross-sectional method was used as an organizational method. The empirical data were obtained using the following methods: “Studying personality motivational profile” - to study basic needs of employees (Richi & Martin, 2004); Questionnaire Q12 (2010) which allows assessing employees involvement (Gallup research group www.gsl-consulting.ru); and diagnostics of success achievement motivation (T. Ehlers). The empirical data were processed in SPSS 17.0 statistical program.
In the course of conducting study and processing the results, we found out the following.
The results of construction company employees motivational profile study.The diagnostic results of the motivational profile of construction industry employees included in the personnel reserve are presented in Figure
Identified dominant needs of the reserve employees:
power and influence (92.5%). Such workers are definitely required for the company, as they will do their best to develop and promote business. However, it is important to take into account not only the person’s desire to influence other employees, but also motivation for this influence, as well as how humane this influence is and whether it is aimed at achieving the company’s goals or only personal interests of the employee. Influence on other people is accompanied by resistance of the latter, so it is important that the employee knows methods of influence and his own power implementation, which have positive effect on subordinates. It is important that employees constructively exercise influence on other people to achieve the organization’s goals. (Figure
social contacts and establishment, maintenance of long-term stable relationships (80%). Commitment to social contacts is represented by the employees will to communicate with a wide range of colleagues, easily establish trusting relationships with partners, customers and colleagues. Such employees derive enjoyment and get positive emotions from numerous contacts with the environment. They are tolerant of noise and fuss, often accompanying joint work. Job satisfaction of such employees will increase if you do not limit their communication with colleagues and clients. Employees committed to the need for establishing and maintaining long-term stable relationships seekt hose that enhances staff morale. For such workers it will be easy to interact and fulfill their labor duties in a well-coordinated/dedicated team with favorable working and personal rapport.
creativity (72.5%). Employees, who wish to be creative, express their inquisitiveness, curiosity and non-trivial thinking. However, the authors of the methods claim that it is important for the use of such employees creativity to be focused on the tasks set in this business. Otherwise, it is impossible to make such people achieve professional goals, since their ideas will be unacceptable and incorrect from the point of view of business.
diversity and changes (70%). Employees, who are interested in diversity and changes, try to avoid routine, tend to be always ready for action, for any changes, and are on a permanent high. It is necessary to provide for such employees conditions under which they will have constant opportunity to switch to some other type of activity, as in case of monotonous work, they start to feel bored. Such employees are often unconsciously inclined to avoid planning their own activities. Such workers will be useful when the company needs changes, constant flow of fresh energy, and display of initiative. The diagnostic results of the motivational profile of construction industry employees not included in the personnel reserve are given in Figure
set difficult goals and achieve them (65%). The main feature of such workers is that they want to do all the work on their own. They may voluntarily work extra hours and will do their utmost at that moment to achieve the goal, since complex goals require increased time input and labor resources. However, before starting to perform labor activity, such workers try to realize and understand how the goal can be measured and evaluated. Otherwise, they will not undertake to perform this activity. It is very difficult for such employees to carry out activities that cannot be measured. Reaching the goal, workers experience triumph for several moments, and then proceed to setting new complex goal and achieving it. However, it is difficult for such employees to perform management activity, although they often occupy senior positions.
Identified outsider needs: for high wages (25%); for clear work structuring (27.5%) and for interesting, socially useful work (30%).
In the group of employees not included in the reserve, the dominant need found was for high wages (70.2%). Employees, who are interested in high wages, tend to choose such jobs where there will get high payment, various benefits and allowances. Before satisfaction of this need of the employee, head of the company should make sure that this employee is important for them and has high level of competence. As for diagnostic results of labor activity involvement among construction industry employees, they are given in Figure
Evaluation results of staff involvement in accordance with the Q12 questionnaire.
90 % of construction industry employees, Included in the personnel reserve, and only 33.8% of construction industry employees, not included in the personnel reserve, are involved in labor activities. These employees noted in their answers that their point of view is considered, they have the opportunity for professional and career development, the employer respects their personality in the process of interaction, the company's strategy and mission cause a sensation of significance of performed activities. They have friends at work, gain approval and praise from the management team.
10 % of construction industry employees, Included in the personnel reserve, and 66.2 % of construction industry employees, not included in the personnel reserve, are not involved in labor activities. Such employees do not know what their employer expects of them, they do not always have tools and material necessary to do their work. They rarely gain praise from the management team, they are rarely listened to in the process of performing labor activities, and are not interested in advanced training.
Results of success achievement motivation study. The diagnostic results of success achievement motivation among construction industry employees are given in Figure
Moderately high level of success achievement motivation was showed by 42,5 % of employees included in the personnel reserve, and by 28.6% of construction industry employees not included in the personnel reserve. Such employees lose their patience if they are not assigned tasks for a long time, they often “go nap on” when they perform work orders, try to complete tasks as soon as possible, censure has greater effect on them than praise. Suchemployees tend to rely only on themselves, rarely put things away for later, and try to make decisions quickly. Employees with average level of success achievement motivation are not tough on themselves, they are friendly, tend to refuse complex tasks, need periodic rest, often give up when they face obstacles in achieving the set goal, rely on the help of colleagues while performing complex tasks, often hesitate to make decisions. High level of success achievement motivation is manifested among employees not necessarily in the framework of their work in the company, but in hobbies, interests, as well as in the field of interpersonal relationships outside their work. People motivated for success and having great expectations of it, tend to avoid risk. Those who are motivated for success and have high risk appetite are less likely to get into accidents than those who have high risk appetite, but high motivation to avoid failure (protection). And vice versa, when a person has high motivation to avoid failure (protection), then this prevents the motive for success - achieving the goal.
Next thing to discuss is statistical verification of hypothetical statements. Specific features of content and structure of the employees motivational profile identification was verified in the framework of Pearson correlation analysis. The critical values of correlation relationships for a group of 40 people (included in the reserve) are 0.30 when p≤0.05 and 0.39 when p≤0.01; for a group of 38 people (not included in the reserve) - 0.33 when p≤0.05 and 0.42 when p≤0.01. Comparable variables correspond to the normal distribution condition.
The structure of the motivational profile of employees included in the personnel reserve consists of: involvement in the labor process (0.725 when p≤0.01); need for self-improvement (0.715 when p≤0.01); motivation to achieve success (0.770 when p≤0.01); need for interesting work (0.683 when p≤0.01); need for influence and power (0.658 when p≤0.01); need for recognition (0.416 when p≤0.01); need for clear work structuring (0.345 when p≤0.01); need for wages (-0.511 when p≤0.01); need for working conditions (-0.472 when p≤0.01). Thus, the personnel reserve members understand the importance of work, are interested in the best results, aimed at improvement and optimization of the work process. It is worth noting personal interest of employees in performance of the assigned task, their independence and responsibility, clear performing their labor activities. They should exactly know what is required of them, since they regard lack of information or guidance as a demotivating factor. It is important for company personnel to satisfy their need for power and influence, which is manifested in the work by demonstrating competitive assertiveness and constantly comparing their achievements with the results of other company employees, as well as in the desire to influence and manage colleagues. They consciously control their own development, possess clear tendency to success. Such professional and personal ambitiousness reduces significance of the need for wages and working conditions. Most likely, the income level of this group of employees is higher than that of their colleagues and is a kind of a “side affect” of their professionalism and confidence in being in high demand both as specialists for the company and in the labor market.
The structure of the motivational profile of employees not included in the personnel reserve contains such components as: involvement in the labor process (-0,704 when p≤0.01); need for social contacts (-0,353 when p≤0.01); need for stable relationships (-0,371 when p≤0.01); need for influence and power (-0,289 when p≤0.01); need for recognition (-0,478 when p≤0.01); success achievement motivation (-0,564 when p≤0.01); need for wages (0,637 when p≤0.01); need for working conditions (0,549 when p≤0.01). Employees of the construction company, not included in the personnel reserve, have significant difference in the content and structure of their motivational profile. Wages level and good set of benefits and allowances are highly important and significant for them. According to Sheila Ritchie and Peter Martin, “motivation with money is fraught with such difficulties as loss of managerial control, determination of a fair level of remuneration, etc. Before motivating such employees, you need to make sure of their competence. Moreover, they need additional control, as they can ignore contractual or technological requirements in the pursuit of money” (Ritchie & Martin, 2004). In addition, their high requirements to working conditions have been found, which shows dissatisfaction with the manager, unfavorable psychological climate, culture. In such situation, management should pay attention to the culture in the company, since some researchers believe, “it is the head manager, who creates and controls culture in the organization, i.e. his inner personal culture forms the culture of social environment. So, the psychological inner culture of the head manager acts not only as a source, but also as a core and the main regulator of the sociocultural context of the company and its overall activity” (Biktagirova, 2009, p. 222). Employees are socially introverted, i.e. not interested in the establishment of stable and trusting relationships with colleagues, distant. They are not aimed at power and success and havelow level of personal interest in performance of task, in development and improvement of professional competencies.
Thus, the hypothesis that personnel motivational profile has characteristic features of manifestation and a structure, and is determined by inclusion or non-inclusion in the personnel reserve, was confirmed in the framework of this study.
Factor analysis was applied in order to verify the second hypothetical statement that the personnel reserve influences satisfaction of needs, involvement, and success achievement motivation. The basis of the factor analysis lies in the fact that if several features change in a coordinated manner, then we can assume existence of one common reason for such variability –a factor as a hidden (latent) variable. The material for the factor analysis is Pearson empirical correlation coefficients, which relates it to parametric methods. Thus, the factor is an artificial statistical value that arises as a result of the table of correlation coefficients transformations. The results of data factor analysis in the group of personnel reserve employees are shown in Table
Three factors were obtained during factorization of variables. The first factor includes such positive variables as personal development and self-improvement (0.758), achievements and ambitious goals (0.706), involvement (0.771), as well as the indicator with negative value - working conditions (-0.615). Employees of the personnel reserve are interested in improving their competence and competitiveness, developing important personal qualities in accordance with the requirements of the organization and personal development program. They have tendency to surpass already achieved results and to compete in this regard with other people or with themselves, they are usually independent, sometimes refuse to cooperate with others. They often evaluate their work in terms of what it can give them, whether there will be professional development in the process of working for the company. They are involved in the labor process and do not pay attention to working, environmental conditions in the process of official duties performance.
The second factor includes the following positive variables: need for creativity (0.755), need for power and influence (0.724), motivation to achieve success (0.621), and also negative variables: need for remuneration (-0.604), need for stable relationships (-0.696) and social contacts (-0.804). Such employees want to show their own power and influence on the others, tend to rely only on themselves, rarely put things away for later, try to make decisions quickly. They show their inquisitiveness, curiosity and non-trivial thinking, are motivated to achieve success - often “go nap on”, try to complete tasks as soon as possible, censure has greater effect on them than praise. Remuneration, aspects of relationships with colleagues for this group of employees are neither relevant nor significant.
The third factor includes the following variables - social contacts (0.878), recognition of merits (0.631), work structuring (-0.618), which are part of the same methods, and therefore do not possess practical significance.
The results of factorization of data obtained from the group of employees not included in the personnel reserve are the following. According to the results of factor analysis, for construction industry employees not included in the personnel reserve, the first factor includes the following negative variables: success achievement motivation (-0.648), trusting relationships (-0.696) and social contacts (-0.804). Employees of the construction industry, not included in the personnel reserve, are not motivated to achieve success, do not look for social contacts and establishment of trusting relationships. The second factor includes the following negative variables: need for changes and diversity (-0.849), involvement (-0.712), and one positive variable - work structuring (0.857). Employees do not need diversity and changes, are prone to monotonous work, are in a depressed state of mind and not involved in the labor process. It is important for them to follow certain algorithm or scheme.
So, factor analysis proved two factors in the group of reserve employees. The first factor demonstrates that employees are interested in improving professional competence, are ambitious and purposeful, involved in the labor process. The second factor shows that reserve employees are able to generate new ideas, want to show their own power and influence on colleagues, tend to rely only on themselves and are aimed at achieving success in their activities. Factorization of variables characteristic of employees not included in the reserve group presents a completely different situation. It is characterized by a low level of success achievement motivation, little desire to establish trusting relationship with colleagues. In such case it is important to structure work, to follow certain algorithm, avoid changes.
Based on the foregoing, the hypotheses are statistically verified during the correlation and factor analysis.
Thus, structure and content of the motivational profile of employees included and not included in the personnel reserve were statistically determined. Significant substantive and structural features of the motivational profile were revealed. Employees included in the personnel reserve are distinguished by their involvement in the working process, clear work structuring, desire to achieve success and aiming at self-improvement, need for influence and power, recognition. For them, the need for wages and certain working conditions is not relevant. Employees not included in the personnel reserve have low level of involvement in the working process, needs for power and recognition, motivation to achieve success. They are not interested in social contacts and stability of relationships with colleagues, however, need for wages and good working conditions is very important for them.
Further analysis on this issue is required. First of all, it is necessary to work and communicate with employees not included in the reserve of the construction company, in which the study was conducted, because demotivating factors, that negatively affect the efficiency of labor activity, were identified. It is necessary to develop and test a program for employees not included in the personnel reserve, in order to provide their further professional development and growth. Conducting study of organizational culture (psychological climate), the results of which will help us to competently organize the corrective work is also necessary. Secondly, it is important to conduct similar study in other companies with operating personnel reserve system in order to identify common patterns and trends.
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Biktagirova, A., Akopov, G., Shurukhina, G., & Chuikova, T. (2020). Influence Of The Personnel Reserve On The Motivational Profile Of An Employee. In & I. Murzina (Ed.), Humanistic Practice in Education in a Postmodern Age, vol 93. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 193-204). European Publisher. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2020.11.21