The article reflects the main approaches to determining teacher education content aimed at acquiring professional pedagogical activity experience by would-be teachers. The authors reveal conditions under which formation of the required students’ competences in the main professional educational programs is carried out in accordance with principles of dialogue pedagogy and multiculturalism. In lecture-seminar system of higher education the use of practice-oriented training technologies based on an active dialogue between teacher and students allows to purpose fully form students’ working skills in accordance with the teacher’s professional standard, to develop their personal attitude to pedagogical culture and subjective reflective stand in the context of choice. Organization of students’ extracurricular work is aimed at developing ability to evaluate and rethink one’s readiness to acquire pedagogical culture values, gradually shape pedagogical identity by mastering professional skills as well as by improvisation methods via culture with teacher’s support. Pedagogization of university subject-developing space through specialized classrooms introduction allows to master major subjects in conditions that are close to reality, contributes to manifestation of students potential in practice-oriented learning, to formation of a pedagogical activity style and a creative attitude to the regulated education content. The used method of projects involves establishing a dialogue in communication between the teacher and students, in historical retrospective and correlation with the current state of problem being studied, forms the value consciousness of a would-be teacher and axiology of upcoming professional activity.
The updating of educational systems as well as standardization of all levels of education determine new targets and tasks of education, training and development. All that entails a change in the requirements for a teacher.
The history of pedagogy demonstrates numerous attempts to analyze and classify pedagogical activity and, on this basis, to develop requirements for teacher training: general approaches and patterns to shape teacher’s personality (Hamilton & Pinnegar, 2015; Jun, 2016); identification of conditions and ways of updating and developing the system of professional pedagogical education (Holley, 2017; Leonor et al., 2018). When outlining the professionally significant and necessary qualities of the teacher’s personality some authors (Hamilton & Pinnegar, 2015; Jun, 2016) have determined the initial principles and structural components of pedagogical creativity. Atabek et al. (2019), Mayer (2018), Harutyunyan and Hovhannisyan (2017) have highlighted the psychological aspects of pedagogical activity, while Bondarevskaya and Gukalenko (2000) etc. have underlined various aspects of pedagogical culture.
Particular attention in studies, related to the problems of teacher training, is laid on the features of shaping their professional competence. This competence is described as "qualification", "professionalism", "readiness". The development of the competency-based approach has led to the fact that the requirements for the results of mastering teacher training programs, that are described through a system of general, general professional and professional competencies. In this regard, the problem of determining the conditions and means of teacher education, which guarantees the training of a competent specialist, remains relevant.
Scientists provide different definitions of the dialogue concept. For instance, Gemstergois and Jaspers (as cited in Asakavičiūtė & Valatka, 2019) consider it as a means of spiritual unity, self-realization of people. Bondarevskaya et al. (1995) describe it as a method of scientific knowledge, self-awareness and self-awareness of a person, familiarization with the spiritual world of cultural transformations (Bondarevskaya, 1995; Bondarevskaya & Gukalenko, 2000). Bakhtin (1986) assumes that it is the essence of human being. All in all, scientists consider it as a way of searching and recognizing personal meanings.
When developing multicultural content of continuous pedagogical education, we rely on the view of Bakhtin (1986), who presents the dialogue of cultures as the unity of the emerging idea at different stages of its development. Bakhtin (1986) believed that the truth is not inherent in the individual, it is born between people who jointly discover the truth in the process of their dialogue. Dialogue is a dialogue of cultures communicating with each other in the center of the basic (“last”, according to Bakhtin's view) questions of being.
We share Bakhtin’s stand and consider a person as a unique world of culture, that starts interaction with other personalities-cultures, creates himself / herself in the process of such interaction and affects others. This approach was subsequently used by B.C. Bibler, W. Okon and other scholars in the development of the theory and practice of interactive learning. The dialogue in their perspective acted as the main mechanism of the interaction of personalities-cultures, which is interpreted by researchers as a form of communication between individuals and as a way of their interaction with objects of culture and art in a historical perspective.
Based on the consideration of pedagogical culture as a communication between two individuals at different moments of the transfer of human culture (Bondarevskaya, 1995) we argue that the dialogue of cultures is the principle of multicultural education, which determines the tolerant process of interaction between carriers of different cultures in the educational space, providing self-knowledge, mutual enrichment and implementation of subjective culture (Borisenkov et al., 2004). The dialogue of cultures principle requires a careful, respectful attitude to each person, to each human individuality and suggests that any person is unique (Tkach, 2011, p. 54), is able to perceive the intercultural diversity of society in socio-historical, ethical and philosophical contexts and to master competencies in the field of pedagogical activity under the following conditions:
the prevalence of dialogue over monologue in the educational process;
the creation of a university educational environment that ensures the professionalization of students in accordance with the educational program specialization;
introduction of practice-oriented training technologies.
It’s important to consider the abovementioned conditions and the possibilities for their implementation in more detail.
Purpose of the Study
We suggested that the solution to this problem is possible provided that there is a dialogue between the teacher and students, which ensures formation of students’ subjective position and the formation of their professional and pedagogical competence. Thus, the study aims at designing and testing technologies of practice-oriented learning that meet multiculturalism and dialogue of cultures principles.
Research methods include design, modeling, project method, observation, testing.
The development of a personality-oriented education theory of a cultural type (Bondarevskaya & Gukalenko, 2000; Bondarevskaya & Karpova, 1999; Borisenkov et al., 2004) is associated with the commitment of pedagogical community to "non-violent culture-like education, creation of conditions for creative self-realization of a person in a new cultural, educational and socio-religious environment” (Tkach, 2011, p. 46). In particular, Bondarevskaya (1995) defines such education
as a pedagogically driven process of cultural identification, social adaptation and creative self-realization of a person, during which the pupil enters the world of culture, the life of society, the development of all his / her creative capabilities and abilities. Its main mechanism is personality’s own activity, who is included into developing interaction as its subject and co-author. (p. 47)
At the same time, the scientist notes that in the system of humanistic personality-oriented education it is advisable to carry out pedagogical management of child development in the form of a dialogue that predetermines psychological and pedagogical correction of individual development as well as pedagogical assistance of the person” (Bondarevskaya, 1995, p. 47). The phenomenon of pedagogical culture based on the dialogue of cultures theory (M. Buber, E.V. Bondarevskaya, O.S. Gazman, A.A. Orlov, etc.) is understood as the process of interpenetration of "I" into "You", "You" in "I", revelations of the teacher and pupil; as a process of creating a pedagogical "world" – an environment of spiritual, aesthetic, intellectual development of pedagogical interaction subjects.
While studying at university students develop a pedagogical style of activity. Its development can result in a monologue style, which is characterized by the development of “subject-object” relations, status dominance, egocentrism, focusing on one’s own needs, etc., which is extremely undesirable and unacceptable in humanistic pedagogy. The opposite, which, in our opinion, is a priority, should be a dialogue style aimed at the formation of a “subject-subject” position in teacher and student relationship. Such pedagogical style is characterized by ability to take into account the needs of both teacher and students, desire for objectivity in assessing achievements, individualization of learning, creativity, personal and professional improvement. The development of this activity style, the formation of the required competencies on the basis of collaboration and dialogue of cultures (teacher and students) are facilitated by the use of the technology that we developed "Immersion in professional pedagogical activity via culture and teacher’s support". The technology is based on students’ need to repeatedly apply to previously studied material, with particular attention being paid to stimulating students' activities, transforming it from external to internal motivation. The gradual development of theoretical knowledge, its acquisition through a system of practical deeds and independent development and implementation of various forms of pedagogical activity allows students to develop axiological attitude to pedagogical reality, to develop a motivational necessity criterion of professional activity readiness.
We believe that along with the need to improve teacher education content, it is important to transform the university space in the direction of its pedagogization, that is, compliance with the meanings and purpose of teacher education. In university educational space it meets multiculturalism principle and ensures students’ professional development, it is necessary to create environments that allow them to show and fulfill their own performance potential. According to Bondarevskaya and Gukalenko (2000), the creation of various cultural environments is aimed at students’ development as well as their acquisition of experience, cultural behavior, at assisting in their cultural self-identification.
So, in relation to environment, our efforts are aimed at creating single purpose classrooms of graduate chair, allowing students to "plunge" into the problems of studied subjects and, in collaboration with the teacher, look for ways to solve them through self-realization in the course of classroom and extracurricular activities. These classrooms are used for:
accumulating and systematizing of teaching and methodological materials;
organizing students’ independent activities;
conducting interactive forms of work, business simulation games and students’ research work;
conducting scientific seminars and practical workshops;
providing methodological assistance to students and teachers.
For example, to conduct classes in fine arts subjects, an art work workshop was created, in which, along with special equipment, an exhibition of students’ works is organized. There is also a collection of reproductions that can be seen by preschool children, samples of children's drawings for analysis, technological maps that reveal the sequence of works creation by various techniques, etc. The workshop allows to hold students’ contests and students to work independently. Extracurricular activity includes hobby classes, such as “Friends of the wizard brush”, “Folk craftsmen”, “Dreamers (Fantazoyry)”, etc. The abovementioned tasks are also solved in other classrooms: a speech therapy room, a teaching and methodological room “Center for Preschool Education”, and pedagogical management.
Regarding the introduction of practice-oriented technologies of vocational training, we argue that;
pedagogical process of vocational training should be aimed at mastering labor functions based on adoption and recognition professional pedagogical activity goals, assimilation of new knowledge and formation of ideas about methods of their application, shaping individual style of pedagogical activity on the basis of independent practical implementation of the mastered content of pedagogical education and establishing their own conformity to the profession by creative solution of professional tasks in pedagogical activities implementation. (Tkach & Nedelkova, 2019, p. 97)
This approach is ensured through the use of business simulation game, the project method, and various forms of extracurricular activities.
So, the subject “Pedagogical foundations of intercultural communication” involves knowledge acquisition and professional competencies formation in the theory and practice of intercultural communication of different ethnic groups representatives; approval of positive emotional and moral characteristics, overcoming communication barriers and achieving mutual understanding with educational environment subjects, self-assertion of the individual as an active participant in intercultural dialogue (Bondarevskaya & Gukalenko, 2000).
The structural component of the subject "Multicultural education" is the educational project "Narodovedenie Pridnestrov’ya" (Ethnology of Transdniestria). Multicultural aspect of midterm assessment by project method is to provide students with the opportunity to make a choice of topics, demonstration forms of the acquired materials, to show individuality, creativity in their design; to take into account students’ individual characteristics and, in accordance with them, to distribute activities types by degree of performance, workload, responsibility.
Midterm assessment in “Family Pedagogy and Home Parenting” course includes a business simulation game in which students demonstrate the ability to interact with parents as specialists in educational organization by counseling, laying out folders, information boards, setting up a board of trustees, etc. It has become a tradition to conduct "family club meetings" on various topics. Students choose the topic and types of work independently, then together with the teacher they discuss possible options for presenting information.
The introduction of technology-oriented training allows students to consciously identify themselves in the profession. Students’ creative activity, their acquisition of pedagogical culture values through independent research are the most effective ways to establish the acquired profession significance, to experience personal development by means of educational and extracurricular activities at university. At the same time, it is important to provide students with freedom of choice, create success context and use methods of activating cognitive and creative activity, which corresponds to the conceptual approaches of personality-oriented education and competency-based approach logic.
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20 November 2020
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Sociolinguistics, discourse analysis, bilingualism, multilingualism
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Borisenkov, V. P., Gukalenko, O. V., & Tkach, L. T. (2020). Pedagogical Culture Dialogics As A Factor In Competent Teacher Training. In Е. Tareva, & T. N. Bokova (Eds.), Dialogue of Cultures - Culture of Dialogue: from Conflicting to Understanding, vol 95. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 184-189). European Publisher. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2020.11.03.20