Practical Basis Of Training Future Hotel Managers For Intercultural Interaction
The issue of the preparation of would-be hotel managers for intercultural interaction in the context of the content and language integrated environment is quite a topical one, and theory and practice of higher education have accumulated considerable experience in this process. However, we have to admit that in modern pedagogical science no research has been so far dedicated either to the development of effective and logical system of preparing future specialists of the hotel service for intercultural interaction, or to the identification of optimal conditions for the functioning of such system. The statements above convinced the authors in the need to develop the respective proprietary system and the elective course, which would meet the peculiarities of the given qualification, the requirements of the Federal State Education Standards of higher education and the requirements to the personality of the modern world reflected in national and international documents. The main goal of our system is to prepare future hotel service managers for intercultural interaction at a level that will contribute to the preservation of cultural differences in all their richness and diversity.
Keywords: Intercultural interactionintegrated learningintegrated environmenthotelservice manager
The content and language integrated environment (or CLIL) is an integral set of factors for preparing students for intercultural interaction. CLIL also determines the coordinated study of various courses and stimulates increasing of the academic level of education. Content and language integration contributes to the intensification of the educational process since it is aimed at deepening the relationship between educational courses (Savelyeva & Nevraeva, 2019a; Zimnyaya & Zemtsova, 2008).
It is significant to develop the theory of content and language integrated studies and to develop a theoretical model of how future hotel service managers can be prepared for intercultural interaction in the modern global world.
A complementary set of systemic, activity, cultural and integrative approaches, representing the theoretical and methodological basis for the study of the problem of training future hotel services managers to intercultural interaction in the context of the content and language integrated environment allowed building a pedagogical system for the development of which we used the method of modeling (Zakharova, 2017).
We consider the training of future hotel service managers as a complex and multifaceted process, as a system consisting of many elements that function, obey and agree with each other (Savelyeva & Nevraeva, 2019b). The system of training future managers of hotel service to intercultural interaction in an integrated content-and-language environment has its own purpose, objectives, content, methods and organizational forms, which should be oriented goals, objectives and content of training. The main goal of our system is to prepare future hotel service managers for intercultural interaction at a level that will contribute to the preservation of cultural differences in all their richness and diversity, as well as mutual understanding and cultural contacts.
To analyze the current state of the term “Intercultural Interaction” based on the consideration and definition of the conceptual and categorical framework and the analysis of theoretical concepts that are strategically important for the following development of the studied questions;
To develop the pedagogical system based on the extra course “Effective Intercultural Dialogue”;
To prove the effectiveness of the developed pedagogical system and the extra course.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the study is to develop a pedagogical system based on the elective discipline “Effective Intercultural Dialogue” to prepare future hotel service managers for intercultural interaction in the context of the content and language integrated environment.
To achieve the research purpose, the following theoretical scientific methods are used: comparative, system, and structural types of analysis, synthesis, and pedagogical modelling. Pedagogical papers and pedagogical system in Russia, exemplified with teaching foreign languages to the students of non-language faculties is the empirical material in this paper.
The cognitive core of the system of training future managers of hotel service was the elective discipline "Effective intercultural dialogue", consisting of the following modules: normative-theoretical, content-conceptual, integrative-procedural (Davitishvili, 2017; Romanov & Snegurova, 2017).
In the first module, future managers of hotel services got acquainted with the socio-economic factors that determine the need to prepare for intercultural interaction. In addition, they have formed the knowledge about the requirements for professional training of managers of hotel services, as included in the Federal State Educational Standard 43.03.03 "Hotel business", providing for the implementation of hotel activities, meeting standards and satisfying consumer needs.
The emphasis was placed on the mandatory general cultural (GCC) and professional competences (PC) of the hotel service specialist, expressed in the ability to communicate verbally and in writing in Russian and foreign languages to solve problems of interpersonal and intercultural nature (GCC-5); the abilities tolerantly to perceive social, ethnic, religious and cultural differences (PC-6); readiness for service activities in accordance with ethno-cultural, historical and religious traditions, the development of client relations (PC-6). Thus, students could outline their educational professionally-oriented trajectory of development and self-development.
In the course of training within the content-conceptual module future hotel service managers got acquainted with the basics of the theory of intercultural communication and the history of its formation as a discipline. The second module also involved the development and conduct of cross-cultural trainings to familiarize future hotel service managers with the peculiarities of cultural norms of representatives of other ethnic groups and facilitate communication with them. A separate aspect of the students were offered to consider non-verbal communication channels: proxemics, studying the spatial behavior of humans and animals; kinesics, dedicated to the study of communication processes through "body language"; paralinguistics, specializing in the study of the influence of intonation on the final meaning of the statement. The last aspect is particularly important due to the differences in non-verbal communication between representatives of different cultures and the expansion of economic ties between Russian enterprises and business structures with other countries.
Besides, the content of the second module of the special course developed by us provided consideration of processes of assimilation of culture by the person during ontogenesis:
enculturation, which is a process of attaching the individual to the culture, which consists in the assimilation of them existing norms and patterns of behavior characteristic of a given culture;
socialization as bilateral process of continuous transfer society and the development of the individual throughout life, social norms, cultural values and patterns of behavior;
acculturation as a result of the adaptation of the individual to life in a foreign cultural environment, reflected in the change of attitudes, transformation of social roles, changing the identity of the person (Savelyeva & Nevraeva, 2019b).
Within the framework of acquaintance with psychological aspects of intercultural interaction the main strategies of politeness theory were highlighted:
implementation of a direct speech act to prevent the confusion associated with incorrect interpretation of the statements of the addresser;
strategy of predominant use of positive politeness as a means of establishing and maintaining contact with partners in intercultural interaction, manifestations of the location of the speaker to the addressee;
strategy of predominate use of techniques of positive politeness as a means of establishing and maintaining contact with partners in intercultural interaction, manifestations of the location of the speaker to the addressee;
implementation of indirect speech act as expressed in metaphors, rhetorical questions, unsaid phrases, allusions, tautology.
To consolidate the achievements already made in the previous sections and ensure effective training of future hotel service managers for intercultural interaction, the last section of the content-processing module it was decided to include the study of the basics of linguistic pragmatics, which studies the person’s ability to express his intentions using linguistic and paralinguistic tools and understand the interlocutor’s intentions. In this section, students get acquainted with the principle of cooperation and maxims of Herbert Paul Grace.
The third, integrative-procedural module included the study of such topics as speech etiquette, literary norms and requirements of correctness of speech, especially business communication on the phone. The integration of creative forms of education contributed to the development of critical thinking and professional qualities of the individual. The language component of this module was to introduce and study the system and structure of the language and its levels (phonetic, lexical, and grammatical).
Speech training was aimed at the formation of a complex of communicative knowledge and skills. Within the framework of this module, future hotel service managers not only got acquainted with the above topics in theoretical terms, but also had the opportunity to exteriorize their knowledge in the course of participation in business and role-playing games, case studies and other interactive forms of training.
The elective special course that we developed is based on integrated knowledge acquired by futurehotel service managers as part of other training courses provided for by their professional training program, which allows making the professional training of a would-be hotel service manager deeper and more effective.
Synthesizing knowledge of interdisciplinary nature future managers of the hotel service are better aware of the importance of their professional activities. In addition, it allows using the potential of these disciplines in the process of their professional development.
The content of the elective course is presented in table
Familiarity with the content of these sections contributed to a better understanding by futurehotel service managers of the importance of their profession and formed their belief in a successful practical trajectory and career growth.
Motivation ensures the success of any activity, and, in particular, professional. If a specialist works with interest, the effectiveness of his activities increases significantly, this has a positive impact on the growth of the welfare of the whole country, on the development of the economy and management mechanisms.
In order to increase the motivational background of educational and cognitive activity of future managers of hotel service, we used a case-method in the process of experimental work, which allowed revealing the creative potential of students and form a steady interest in business professional communication. In addition, the participation of students in problematic situations of a professional nature contributed to the increase of this background.
The analysis of the specifics of professional training of future hotel service managers allowed identifying objective and subjective factors that determine professional needs of future hotel service managers. We consider that there are objective factors such as the condition of professional equipment used in practical sessions on the organization of hotel services, the orientation and content of educational process, methods of teaching special disciplines, the level of curricular requirements, teacher's personality, emotional coloring of classes. Subjective factors include personal significance, motives, interests, assessment of the state of the entire system of the hotel industry in the country, professional satisfaction, and spiritual enrichment.
Taking into account this fact, when implementing the process of preparing future managers of hotel services for intercultural interaction, we have ensured the consistency of both objective and subjective factors that determine the degree of management of the process of preparation for intercultural interaction and determine the level of need to improve the quality of service and the prestige of the Russian restaurant and hotel industry. A systematic increase in the degree of manifestation of this need was achieved by creating the following conditions:
holding conferences, discussions, stories, conversations, study-comparative character on "Swiss service", "Austrian air service", "Italian service" that allows organizing purposeful process of formation of future managers of hospitality services professional and individual motives and needs, combining personal interest and professionally relevant goals;
presence in the content of classes in a foreign language of a professional orientation in the framework of the educational topics “Greeting guests”, “Dishes and drinks”, “Types of breakfasts”, “Guest groups”, “Menu”, “Complaints and suggestions of guests”, “Farewell to the guest” etc., allowing introducing future hotel service managers and discuss with them the principles and technologies of effective service, possible problems in customer service and ways to overcome them, etc.
maintaining existing and discovering new professionally significant interests of future hotel service managers in carrying out design and creative tasks.
This research was supported by the Ural Federal University named after the first President of Russia Boris Eltsyn.
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