Interaction Of Educational Organizations To Develop Students' Visual Abilities Based On Continuity
The definition of abilities and their proper development act as the most important pedagogical tasks requiring special attention, solutions, and approaches. For the solution of such problems to have a result, it is necessary to pay attention to the integration of educational activities, which allows the rational use of the resources of all participants in the educational process. The article discusses the activities of educational institutions at various levels, contributing to the development of the visual abilities of students in the modernization and reform of modern Russian education. An integral part of general education is the additional education of minors, which goes beyond the state educational standards and is implemented through educational programs in institutions of additional education for children, as well as in general educational organizations. A condition for the development of students 'visual abilities is the transfer of interaction between organizations of general, secondary and higher vocational education. The author has developed and successfully implemented a system of interaction within a multi-level educational complex in order to expand the content of the concept of continuity of secondary vocational and higher education developed by him. An attempt has been made to supplement it with substantial components of general education in the preparation of future designers and teachers of technology and design in the structure of multi-level vocational education as potential directions for its development. An interesting point of view is the fact that the theoretical content of the article has been successfully confirmed in practice.
Keywords: Conceptmodeleducational activityobjectpedagogical conditionscontinuity
The problem of educational integration in modern pedagogical research is considered as one of the most important issues. For the first time in the Federal Educational Standard of basic general and primary general education, the national project “Education”, the national educational initiative “Our New School”, as well as in the new version of the Law of the Russian Federation “On Education in the Russian Federation”, attention is drawn to the role of extracurricular activities of students.
This activity becomes especially popular when the student is motivated to receive a certain profession or specialty, they have already chosen the institution of secondary or higher professional education, but the abilities necessary for admission and successful training are not enough or they are not developed (Belyakov, 2003).
We faced a similar problem in practice when implementing a model of multilevel professional education based on continuity.
The Kurgan State University and the Kurgan Technological College, which successfully implement the integrated educational program in the specialties “Design” and “Teacher of Technology and Design,” were chosen as the experimental base.
In the practical implementation of the model, the problem of low readiness of applicants at both levels (grades 9 and 11) to master special cycle subjects was updated. So, in subjects of graphic profile and drawing, the performance of first-year students of KTC in 2015 amounted to 3.1 points, the first-year students of KSU 3.7 points, which affected the general level of current performance.
We conducted an experimental control of the level of formation among students of artistic skills, which showed that only 18% of freshmen they are formed in the volume necessary for mastering the program.
We decided to attract a multilevel complex of comprehensive schools to the educational space.
According to the federal state educational standard of basic general education, one of the important components of the educational process is the extracurricular activities of schoolchildren, which are organized at the expense of the resources of organizing general and additional education for children (Sorokina, 2008). However, as a learning environment, we developed the program of the Young Artist studio for their implementation in the structure of the college and university, which are interested in preparing the applicant for the successful development of the educational program.
Based on our research, we can argue that integration is a concept of systems theory (a state of connectedness of separate differentiated parts into a single whole), as well as a process that leads to such a state. Integration processes can act both in existing systems, and when creating new systems from previously unrelated, relatively autonomous elements. Many scientists note the great importance of integration processes in education, with respect to both basic and additional education of children (Legenchuk, 2011).
An integral part of general education is the additional education of children, which goes beyond the state educational standards and is implemented through educational programs in institutions of additional education of children, as well as in general educational organizations. Providing the functional completeness of the educational space, additional education of children is based on the following ideas (Shipilina, 2013):
free choice by the child of areas and activities;
orientation to personal interests;
the needs of the child;
the possibility of free self-determination and self-realization.
All this can be successfully implemented because of integrated programs in a multi-level educational complex, where there is a staff of high-class teachers who provide additional education in accordance with the requests of a specific profile and program.
Purpose of the Study
The low quality of the formed visual abilities among high school students determined the purpose of the study as improving the quality of training applicants in special disciplines. To achieve it, it is necessary to create an integrated educational environment within the framework of a multi-level educational complex.
As components of an integrated environment for the development of visual abilities of students, we noted:
Objects of the surrounding reality.
The subjects of the process of performing various types of visual activity.
Means, methods, forms of organization and implementation of the process of development of visual abilities.
A methodological association aimed at the interaction of teachers of the fine arts of secondary schools and university and college teachers.
Development and support of individual educational routes for the development of the visual abilities of students.
Integrated authoring program as a model of joint activity of a teacher of fine arts of public associations, university and college teachers and students.
The effectiveness of the integration process of general, secondary and higher professional education depends on how well thought out the organizational structure is, which ensures the interconnection of various objects and is a prerequisite for the functioning of the entire educational system (Kosheutova, 2012).
There is the possibility of modeling the process of development of the visual abilities of students, like any educational process. Based on the environmental, continuity and system-activity approaches, as well as taking into account the specifics of the development of the visual abilities of schoolchildren within the framework of a multi-level professional complex, a model of the process of the development of visual abilities has been developed (Figure
This model is a theoretical understanding of the process of development of the pictorial abilities of schoolchildren in the process of interaction between general, secondary and higher professional education. The structure of this model includes three components: target, organizational and activity, and evaluative and effective.
The model of development of visual abilities that we developed is based on monitoring the development process, which allows us to track and evaluate the effectiveness of all components, identify positive and negative aspects in the implementation of the model and, if necessary, adjust the development process of the visual abilities of schoolchildren.
In accordance with the purpose, content, and features of the process under study, we determined the criteria for the development of the pictorial abilities of schoolchildren: artistic-cognitive, emotional, strong-willed, visual-analytical, sensorimotor, artistic-active). In the process of development of visual abilities, personal qualities, all three levels of development of visual abilities (high, medium, low) reflect the degree of knowledge, abilities and skills of the students, the adequacy and objectivity of self-esteem (Lazarenko, 2005).
Based on the study, we were able to formulate the following conclusions.
1. The concepts of educational space, the integrity of the integrated developmental environment, and the intrinsic value of general and vocational education are the theoretical foundations of interaction in a multilevel educational complex for the development of the visual abilities of students.
2. In the development of the visual skills of students, continuity of interaction is an inextricable link of a single holistic system of activity of educational institutions. This system ensures the consistency of each component in the organization of visual activity (goals, objectives, content, methods, means, forms), which ensures the continuous progressive development of these abilities, and implements the principle aimed at taking into account the previous, present and future levels of development of visual abilities children.
3. The main program and methodological conditions for the continuous interaction of educational institutions in the framework of the development of the visual abilities of schoolchildren include:
Creation of an integrated development environment for non-governmental organizations, secondary professional education and higher professional education, facilitating the interaction of all components of the educational space: external (art museum, exhibition hall, workshops of members of the regional branch of the Union of Artists of the Russian Federation, off-site exhibitions and competitions of creative works), and internal (lessons, classes, plein air , exhibitions of creative works, etc.);
an integrated program of the class of the studio “Young Artist” for the development of visual abilities, which provides a meaningful basis for cooperation between teachers of public organizations and teachers of secondary and higher professional education;
conducting joint methodological work of schoolteachers, college and university teachers.
4. The effectiveness of the proposed conditions for the interaction of educational organizations for the development of visual abilities is provided by:
the creation of an author’s concept of the development of visual abilities of students, a model of the process of development of their visual abilities in an integrated environment of a multilevel educational complex;
expanding the scope of cooperation between college and university teachers and school teachers in order to improve the content and forms of work to develop the visual abilities of students.
Thus, the integration of general, secondary and higher vocational education makes it possible to put into practice the development strategy of the student’s visual abilities, track his personal growth and, if necessary, carry out corrective and developmental activities, identify ways to create an integrated developmental environment for general and additional education as a necessary condition for the successful development of visual abilities of schoolchildren (Belyakov, Vakhstein, & Galichin, 2016).
Based on the foregoing, we have developed an integrated program for the development of the visual abilities of schoolchildren (the program of the studio class "Young Artist"), which is based on the principle of continuous interaction between the school, college and university, and includes the goal, objectives, methods, forms, tools, diagnostics and result. This program implements both traditional and innovative approaches, and visual skills are formed purposefully, consistently and gradually from a low level to a higher one.
The implementation of the principle of continuity is possible only when the actions of all subjects involved in the development of visual abilities are interconnected, interdependent in time and space. The process of implementing the successive interaction of the development of visual abilities contains several components (Legenchuk 2011):
designing visual activities in secondary schools, institutions of vocational education and higher professional education on a single artistic and aesthetic basis;
integrated planning of the system of development of the pictorial abilities of high school students;
integration of types and genres of art and visual activity during the classes;
implementation of such principles as freedom of choice, voluntariness, variability, unregulatedness, democratic style of relations between subjects and objects of the pedagogical process.
A prerequisite for the development of students' pictorial abilities is the transfer of interaction between organizations of general and additional education to the systemic level of organization of the process of development of pictorial abilities of students. Signs of such a process include certainty and comparability of the goals of subjects of educational activity, differentiation of their powers, coordination of joint activities, resource support (legal, scientific, methodological, personnel, organizational, information and methodological, material, motivational).
The study was carried out as part of the research work "Theory and Practice of Continuity of Higher and Secondary Professional Education".
Special thanks to colleagues from the Ural Federal District who are actively participating in the discussion of the research problem, to anonymous reviewers, who expressed their objective position.
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