Nutrition culture is universal language of popular diplomacy, strengthening the positive image of the ethnic region and the whole nation. Nutrition culture is a face of any ethnic group and a recognizable image, brand. The article presents results of a sociological survey conducted as part of the project "The problem of valorization and popularization of nutrition culture of the peoples of the North in modern conditions (on the example of Yakutia)." Important issues of valorization and popularization of nutrition culture of the northern peoples are analyzed, both in the historical past and in the modern globalizing world subject to serious transformational processes. It was shown that the traditional nutrition culture of Yakutia is preserved due to the fact that it plays a role in modern e ceremonies and is one of the symbols of ethnic identity. 23 % of respondents prepare daily food in a traditional way. About half of the respondents learn recipes of other nations and prepare new dishes, as they "want something new, unusual." Half of the respondents named national traditional dishes as their favorite ones. However, when receiving guests, only 23 % of the inhabitants of Yakutia cook their national dishes using special traditional technologies, the majority (64.4 %) try to cook a variety of dishes. A quarter of the respondents said that when preparing their national dishes, they try to comply with traditional cooking technologies. 15 % of the inhabitants of Yakutia admit that life is developing and cooking technologies are changing.
Keywords: Cultural heritagenational identityethnicityindigenous peoplesorganic food
The Arctic and the North, which are rich in natural resources, ensured the development of the peoples of the North in the conditions of severe climate and permafrost. Northern peoples have original culture and a high degree of socio-biological adaptation. The development of a national identity through food and nutrition culture are a problem which affects various aspects (Debbi, Elisa, Nigel, Dan, & Eva, 2014).
The issues of traditional nutrition have turned into a global problem of many social groups, communities and states. Specialists associate the actualization of interest in traditional nutrition with an increase in ethnic identity and popularization of a healthy diet. The modern fashion for eco-friendly nutrition, bio products puts traditional local products produced without chemical fertilizers to a new level.
Traditional food is regarded as an organic part of culture of the peoples of the North (Olmoeva, Hamnaeva, Garmaeva, Kholodova, & Gudkova, 2017). Food, its composition, preparation technologies, ceremonial dishes reflect the conditions and landscape of the permanent residence of the peoples of the North. One of the main conditions for a successful life of a person in extreme conditions is high-quality nutrition, which compensates for the negative impact of climate; therefore, the northern peoples pay great attention to healthy food. The culture of traditional nutrition is related to the development of an ethnic identity and a regional brand, which is important for the overall image of a nation (Petrova et al., 2018; Symons, 2010). The transformation of new dishes becomes a positive element in the development of a positive regional identity (Table
In the Nam district, food is cooked in a traditional way every day (31%).
41% of people living in Ust-Aldan district do not cook dishes of other nations
69 % of the population of Tompon ulus prefer national traditional dishes.
In Oymyakon ulus, people often treat guests with their national dishes using special traditional technology (42 %) (Table
In Oymyakon Ulus, people often comply with traditional cooking techniques and use special utensil (40 %).
The relevance, novelty and originality of the problem and the methodology of its solution scientific valorization of gastronomic culture of the peoples of the North and popularization of the northern food brand.
To identify peculiarities of the nutrition tradition of Evens, Evenks, Yukagirs, Yakuts (Sakha);
To study the transformation of food culture on the example of the indigenous peoples of Yakutia;
To identify features of northern cuisine in the context of adaptation of traditional cuisine in modern conditions.
Purpose of the Study
Comprehensive study of nutrition culture of the peoples of the North living in Yakutia
The sociological survey of the population of various regions of Yakutia: in the western, central, and southern regions of Yakutia - Mirny, Nam, Oymyakon, Sunta, Tompon, Ust-Aldan uluses (n=870).)
The majority of respondents (53.7%) answered that they cook food using a microwave. However, 22.6 % answered that they cook in a traditional way." To the question “If you cook dishes of other nations and why?,” the majority (49.7%) answered: “I want something new, unusual”; at the same time, 24.1 % of respondents answered “We do not cook dishes of other nations.
Half of the respondents (50.3%) prefer traditional national dishes.
However, when receiving guests, only 23 % cook their national dishes using special traditional technology, the majority (64.4%) cook various dishes.
When preparing their national dishes, the majority of respondents said that they try to comply with traditional technologies for preparing national dishes and even use special utensil (25.4%); 22.5% of respondents said that they use modern technology and household appliances to speed up cooking, although they note that the taste of dishes changes; 14.7% say that the cooking technology is changing
Everyday traditional food is often cooked in the Nam ulus (31%). In Ust-Aldan ulus, 41% of people do not cook dishes of other nations. 69 % of inhabitants of Tompon ulus consider their national traditional dishes favorite. Residents of Oymyakon Ulus try to comply with traditional technologies of cooking national dishes and use special utensil (40%). They often treat guests with their national dishes cooked by a traditional technology (42%).
Although some ethnic dishes, rites, and customs have been lost, and the national cuisine has been influenced by culinary traditions of other peoples, it still exists. It is crucial to preserve cultural uniqueness in the era of globalization.
The article was funded by the Russian Federal Property Fund within the project "The Problem of Valorization and Popularization of Nutrition Culture of the Peoples of the North in Modern Conditions (on the example of Yakutia)" No. 17-21-08001.
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31 October 2020
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Sociolinguistics, linguistics, semantics, discourse analysis, translation, interpretation
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Zakharovna, B. I., Nikolaevna, P. M., Mikhailovna, V. D., Afanasevna, V. A., & Mikhailovna, L. U. (2020). Nutrition Culture And Ethnicity Of The Peoples Of Yakutia. In D. K. Bataev (Ed.), Social and Cultural Transformations in the Context of Modern Globalism» Dedicated to the 80th Anniversary of Turkayev Hassan Vakhitovich, vol 92. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 2890-2895). European Publisher. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2020.10.05.383