The problem of patriotism and patriotic consciousness of citizens was and remains not only the subject of a scientific analysis of the humanities, but also an important area of work with the younger generation, a condition for strengthening the state and the unity of the nation. The paramount task of studying patriotism is to answer the question of what patriotism is. What is the meaning of this concept, what are the ideas about this phenomenon among fellow citizens, what is the content of the concept of “patriotism” and how much the Russians have uniform and consistent views on this phenomenon. This article analyzes the results of a study of the socio-psychological views of Russians on patriotism as a socio-psychological phenomenon. Based on the results of an empirical study of the ideas of Russians about patriotism, psychological patterns are revealed that reflect patriotism in the minds of Russians, differences in the understanding of this phenomenon among people differing in gender, age, education, and place of residence are determined. It has been established that the fundamental attitude towards patriotism is connected with the manifestation of love for the state, followed by love for one’s people, language, traditions, relatives, relatives. The perceptions of Russians about patriotism are not uniform. The main factors influencing differences in views on patriotism are the age and gender of the respondents.
Keywords: Patriotismpatriotic consciousnessMotherlandsocial views
Recently, in the humanities, there has been an increase in interest in the studies of patriotism and patriotic consciousness of the individual. The realization of this interest is taking place in several directions. The philosophical focus of research on patriotism is related to the development of issues of continuity of the past and present, the relationship of patriotism with the phenomena of citizenship, mentality, nationalism and statehood (Gusenina, 2012; 2013; Nalyvaichenko, 2011; Radosteva, 2018). Specialists in the field of pedagogy study the problems of patriotic education, linking them with historical experience and features of ethnic values and attitudes (Kakadiy, 2018; Makarova & Marakushina, 2019).
Psychological science, for a long time staying away from an active analysis of the feeling of patriotism, has been trying to make up for lost time over the past ten years (Cuperman & Ickes, 2009; White, 2004). A certain number of studies have appeared that analyze the image of the Motherland as the basis of the patriotic consciousness of citizens (Makarova, 2011; Popov, 2005; Tarasov, 2015). A certain backlog in the research was made in the field of studying patriotic attitudes of personality and civic identity, general and special in the experience of patriotism, nationalism and extremism (Grigoryan & Lepshokova, 2012; Koltsova, 2015; Manica, Amos, Balloux, & Hanihara, 2007; Mellars, 2006; Murashchenkova, 2014; Tilly, 2003). Studies appear that analyze the relationship between patriotic experiences and the economic well-being of citizens (Grigoryan, 2013; Reznikova, 2007). However, the conducted studies do not fully reflect the multifaceted nature of such a complex interdisciplinary problem as the patriotic consciousness of the individual. This is due to both the features of the object of study and the ambiguous understanding of the phenomenon of "patriotism", which so far has developed in the humanities.
Among the circumstances complicating the psychological understanding of the feeling of patriotism, the following should be highlighted.
If patriotism is love for the Motherland, then the very concept of "Motherland" is extremely ambiguous; someone understands the word " Motherland" as the place where they were born and raised, another perceives the Motherland as the state in which he lives, for the third Motherland is primarily associated with relatives, family, close people, for the fourth Motherland is, first of all, language, culture, traditions, habitual way of life. In other words, everyone understands the Motherland in their own way, there is no single perception of this phenomenon in the minds of people, which means that love for the Motherland is, in fact, love for the various facets of this object.
The second circumstance, which determines the complexity of studying the feeling of patriotism, is due to the struggle of two opposite trends in the minds of Russian citizens: universalism and individualization (Ragozinskaya, 2015). Universalism is based on the ideas of globalization, the intensification of intercultural interaction, the unification of norms and values and suggests that patriotism is an outdated value that should be replaced by cosmopolitanism—the ideology of world citizenship, in which the interests of all mankind are higher than the interests of an individual nation or state. In contrast to universalism, individualization is aimed at preserving national traditions and traditional values, while often "... narcissistic complacency of a nation with its own cultural ideal can lead to fanatical nationalism, xenophobia and outgroup hostility."
The data associated with obtaining Russian ideas about patriotism largely depend on the characteristics of the sample of respondents due to the polarization of opinions regarding universalization and individualization.
The third circumstance, which must be borne in mind when analyzing the ideas of Russians about patriotism, is due to the fact that in our country, as perhaps in no other country in the world, the state is not indifferent to the formation and cultivation of patriotism. At present, the state program “Patriotic Education of Citizens of the Russian Federation for 2016–2020” is in force in Russia, which defines the goal, objectives, implementation mechanisms, financial support and expected results from the implementation of this program. If we talk about love as a difficult experience of not indifferent to any object, we have to admit the obvious fact that in our country there are no state programs to instill love for mothers, relatives, professions, etc., but there is the program for the formation of love for the Motherland. This, in turn, gives reason to believe that in the minds of citizens, love for the Motherland is a synthesis, on the one hand, of natural attachment to the country, people close to you, culture and language, and on the other, the result of the influence of a special state ideology – the ideology of patriotism, instilled educational institutions, the activities of various public organizations, the media (the concept of “ideology” in this case does not need to be taken literally, because, as you know, in the Constitution of our country “no ideology can be established as state or mandatory ”).
Given the above, a logical question arises: so, what is love for the motherland? What are the social perceptions of this feeling among citizens themselves and what experiences, assessments or actions from their point of view are called patriotic? The answer to this question will allow us to determine what patriotism is and what social ideas of Russians about this feeling are. In addition, the results obtained will help to more accurately determine the guidelines for the patriotic education of youth and the value potential of the very concept of "patriotism".
The subject of this article is the sociopsychological ideas of Russians about patriotism as a social phenomenon.
Purpose of the Study
On the basis of the sociopsychological study, bring out the ideas of Russians about the phenomenon of patriotism, determine the differences in understanding of patriotism among Russians with different social status.
To achieve the above goal, a questionnaire “What is patriotism?” was prepared. It should be noted that attempts to evaluate the social ideas of Russians about patriotism have been made in our country before (Levashov, 2005; Ragozinskaya, 2015). This questionnaire was based on the approach to the analysis of patriotism presented in the paper “Patterns of patriotism in the youth subculture of the border regions of Russia and Ukraine: similarities and differences” (Shapovalova, Shmigirilova, Bykhtin, & Chursina, 2014). In the questionnaire presented in our editorial office, the following principles of the analysis of the feeling of patriotism were laid down:
the principle of comprehensive consideration of the phenomenon; if we analyze the feeling of love for the Motherland, we must offer the maximum number of objects in relation to which this feeling manifests itself;
the principle of integrity; attitude to someone (something) consists of emotionally-evaluative, ideological-installation and active components; all these components should be reflected in the questionnaire;
the principle of completeness and polysemy; the implementation of this principle implied the possibility for the respondent to present his understanding of the questions; in addition to the presented answer options, the author could indicate his preferences that were not taken into account in the answer options.
The questionnaire consists of a number of questions aimed at studying the ideas of what patriotism is. This article will provide data on only one of the questions, namely the question “What is patriotism?”. From the proposed options, respondents should select five, in their opinion, the most significant ones and rank them by putting the number 1 opposite to the exact and correct one, in his opinion, the number 2 opposite the less correct and accurate, etc. to 5.
The sample group of respondents was 174 people. The group included individuals of various ages from 18 to 57. The questionnaire provided for the differentiation of respondents by gender, age, education, and place of birth (city or rural area). The data obtained were processed using the statistical package SPSS 17.0.
The main results of the survey were reduced to the following provisions.
1. The most common wording of the answer to the question “What is patriotism?” is the answer “love for their state” (average is 1.89, variance is 2.75); the most rarely found answers are “love for the native ashes, love for fatherly tombs” (average is 0.84, variance is 3.12) and “patriotism in the context of globalization is losing its meaning” (average is 0.31, variance is 1.28). In other words, respondents understand the concept of “patriotism” as a special attitude towards the state and only after it is followed by love for their people, language, traditions, relatives, relatives, etc. The most contradictory data are presented in the formulations “love for one’s family and loved ones” and “love for all of humanity” (variances were 3.63 and 3.33, respectively).
2. The study revealed significant differences in the views on patriotism among respondents with different social characteristics. Table
Based on the data presented in Table
3. The differences in the selections of the respondents depending on their age were determined. Due to the fact that all respondents were divided into 5 age groups, the differences in the severity of the analyzed characteristics were assessed on the basis of the Kruskal-Wallis criterion, which allows determining the degree of change in the analyzed characteristic, but does not indicate the direction of these changes. The data obtained are presented in Table
Based on the data presented in Table
Patriotism in the minds of the Russians who took part in the study is understood as a feeling of love for their state, and in this sense, the question of the irrelevance and uselessness of patriotism as a sociopsychological phenomenon disappears by itself; Russians still consider patriotic experiences significant and relevant, and these experiences are related to the country in which they live. Along with this, patriotism is associated with the phenomenon of so-called “Small homeland”: love for one’s family, relatives, the place where a person was born and raised, for his native home are of great importance in understanding the respondents' patriotic experiences.
However, the understanding of patriotism in individuals participating in the study is not uniform. The most significant factor influencing differentiation in the understanding of patriotism is age: for three indicators out of seven, persons belonging to different age groups showed significant differences. The second circumstance that affects differences in the perception of patriotism is gender: men and women differ significantly in their views on two indicators out of seven. As follows from the results of the study, the level of education does not have a significant impact on the understanding of patriotism among respondents.
The most controversial among the analyzed indicators is the indicator “love for one’s hometown, village, home”: this indicator differs among respondents both by gender, age, and place of birth of the study participants (city or rural area).
The data obtained during the study also indicate that the idea of rejecting patriotism in the ideas of Russians is absent.
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31 October 2020
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Viktorovna, S. A., Vasilievna, S. I., & Borisovna, P. R. (2020). Development Of The Law-Enforcement System In The Ural Region In 1917. In & D. K. Bataev (Ed.), Social and Cultural Transformations in the Context of Modern Globalism» Dedicated to the 80th Anniversary of Turkayev Hassan Vakhitovich, vol 92. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 2466-5471). European Publisher. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2020.10.05.326