Development Of Adequate Self-Esteem Of Adolescent Based On Reflective Activity
Self-esteem of a person is formed throughout life under the influence of various social factors, which allows considering age-related features of self-esteem. Each age is characterized by its determinants of the development of personality self-esteem and the specifics of its influence on mental activity. The specificity of self-esteem in adolescence is that the adolescent is not inclined to adequately assess themselves and their abilities. The purpose of the study is a theoretical justification and experimental verification of the socio-pedagogical conditions for the use of reflexive activity as a means of forming an adequate self-esteem of a teenager. The research methods were theoretical analysis and generalization of philosophical, pedagogical and psychological literature on the research problem; empirical: observation, testing, survey; diagnostic and formative experiments; statistical: mathematical and statistical processing of the results obtained during the study. At the ascertaining stage of the study, a study was conducted of the level of self-esteem of the adolescent. Generalization and systematization of the results obtained at the control stage of the study identified the need for the prevention and correction of deviant self-esteem of adolescents. During the formative stage of the experiment, the developed program for the formation of adequate self-esteem based on the reflexive activity of a teenager was implemented. The forms of work offered to participants are focused on active inclusion in collective activity, the ability to better develop their own and group reflection.
The research is dedicated to the study of specificity and the formation of adequate self-esteem in adolescence. Adolescence itself is a difficult period in life of every child, which brings qualitative changes to the life and consciousness of a teenager. Along with this, there are a lot of problems and difficulties that are difficult for the younger generation to cope with (Berinskaya et al., 2019; Zhdanko et al., 2019).
The teenager’s self-esteem reflects what she or he learns about her/himself from the people around. Its increasing activity is aimed at awareness of their own actions and personal qualities.
A teenager is more dependent on the opinions of one’s peers, but relations with adults are an important indicator in this area. Abstract communication at this age is communication with peers (Fedosova et al., 2017).
Studying the specifics of self-esteem in adolescence, we saw that teenagers are prone to not adequately assess themselves and their capabilities. She or he studies her/himself more, evaluates how peers accept her/him, but in connection with the processes taking place in her/his mind, she or he encounters difficulties in forming own self-esteem, which directly affects the interaction with the society around (Meierdirk, 2017). Often it is possible to see misunderstandings between a teenager and an adult, as in the eyes of an adult a teenager is not responsible enough and independent in contrast to the teenager’s opinion of her/himself (Nam, 2017; O’Neill et al., 2017).
In our research, we wanted to study what features in the formation of self-esteem of a teenager are found in theory and practice, and it is possible to form an adequate self-esteem in adolescence through the reflective activities of the adolescent her/himself, to identify features and formulate recommendations.
A theoretical analysis of the research problem allowed putting forward the following hypothesis: reflexive activity will act as a means of forming an adequate self-esteem of a teenager if:
special socio-pedagogical conditions will be created in the educational process: the teenager’s participation in the goal-setting and analysis of joint activities, the organization of feedback between the teacher and the teenager, individual support;
to develop and implement a program of reflective activity of a teenager.
In accordance with the purpose and hypothesis put forward, the following research objectives were identified:
to analyze the main theoretical approaches to the study and formation of self-esteem of a teenager;
to determine the characteristics and specifics of self-esteem in adolescence;
to analyze the socio-pedagogical conditions for the formation of an adequate self-esteem on the basis of reflective activity;
to determine the stages and methods of organizing experimental work on the formation of adequate self-esteem on the basis of reflective activity;
to introduce the developed program for the prevention of psychological and pedagogical negative consequences of the age crisis in adolescence.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the study is to provide theoretical justification and experimental verification of the socio-pedagogical conditions for the use of reflexive activity as a means of forming an adequate self-esteem of a teenager.
Object of research: formation of adequate self-esteem of a teenager.
Subject of research: reflexive activity as a means of forming an adequate self-esteem of a teenager.
The study was conducted 2018–2019 and included three stages.
The first stage (2018) – the analysis of the main theoretical approaches to understanding the self-esteem of adolescents in general, the formation of adequate self-esteem of adolescents, the level of claims, reflexive activity in adolescence in domestic and foreign psychological and pedagogical literature. At this stage, the conceptual design of the study was carried out, the theme was formulated, the object, subject, scientific apparatus and empirical base were determined. The research methods were studied and selected. A program of empirical research has been developed.
The second stage (2018–2019) – a ascertaining experiment was conducted to identify the self-esteem of adolescents. A formative experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis; a psychological and pedagogical program for the formation of adequate self-esteem of a teenager was developed and implemented.
The third stage (2019) – a control experiment was conducted, processing, registration and systematization of the results of the study was carried out, the wording of theoretical conclusions was clarified, the text of the final qualifying work was issued. The experimental base of the study included Irkutsk school No. 76 named after Guards of Irkutsk–Pinsk division, and school No. 31 of Angarsk (Russian Federation). The study was conducted with students of 8 classes. The experiment involved 87 people.
The following research methods were used:
theoretical: study and analysis of philosophical, philological, psychological, pedagogical literature;
federal state educational standards of higher professional education, pedagogical modeling, generalization, comparison;
empirical: observation, experiment, analysis, evaluation, testing, questioning, understanding;
mathematical: data registration, qualitative analysis of quantitative parameters, mathematical and statistical processing of experimental results, etc.
The following research methods were used to solve our tasks:
Theoretical: analysis and generalization of philosophical, pedagogical and psychological literature on the problem of research; empirical: observation, testing, survey; diagnostic and formative experiments; statistical: mathematical and statistical processing of the results obtained during the study. Testing was carried out: Methodology of self-assessment of personality; Test “Determination of the level of self-esteem”; Complex diagnostics of the formed level of cooperative reflective skills of Usheva (2017a).
At the ascertaining stage, the diagnosis of the level of self-esteem in adolescents of the experimental and control groups was carried out. The methodology of the study of self-assessment of personality is based on the fact that the statistical norm is a natural discrepancy between the real and ideal concepts. The teenager was asked to rank 20 qualities she or he selected first in “ideal” and then in “accordance with her/his qualities”. The subject presents her/his ideal and real self-concepts, the difference between which corresponds to the level of her/his self-esteem. The results of diagnostics of adolescents, the research methodology of self-identity to identify the level of self-esteem of a teenager showed that the observed prevalence, the average self-assessment of students is 63 %. The indicators of these respondents are normal. According to the data of the ascertaining experiment in the control group, most adolescents have adequate self-esteem; they adequately assess themselves and their capabilities. 2 % of respondents with low self-esteem were revealed in the control group and 3 % in the experimental. Teenagers who have this indicator are not confident in themselves, have an underestimated idea of themselves and their capabilities. In adolescence, this plays an important role as it can negatively affect the social sphere and success in educational activities. Adolescents with low self-esteem do not show their strengths in the process of interaction, most often detached from a group of peers, are not active. All this can have a negative impact on the formation of life skills and values of the teenager.
Comparative analysis of data in the experimental and control groups by the method of self-assessment of the personality showed that 24 % of respondents in the experimental group and 29 % in the control group showed a tendency to overestimate themselves and their capabilities. Adolescents with this indicator may have problems, as they, inadequately assessing themselves, may experience difficulties in relationships with people around them.
Adolescents with high self-esteem, without developing their strengths and overestimating weaknesses, declare themselves in all spheres of activity without giving an opportunity to express themselves to other peers. This type is prone to inciting conflicts in a group of peers, is able to use their influence for personal gain. According to the results of the diagnostic test “Determination of the level of self-esteem”, in 50 % of adolescents of the experimental group, the self-esteem index was found, which almost corresponds to the average. Adolescents with an average level have a normal healthy self-esteem. Without special difficulties are able to overcome problems on their own. 24 % of adolescents in the experimental group had an overestimated self-esteem. They may have a need to dominate over others, to highlight their own importance; they tend not to perceive criticism into their own address, but are willing to criticize others.
Self-esteem was at a low level in 31 % of adolescents in the experimental group. They tend to underestimate themselves and feel dissatisfied with their data, tend to reject themselves. In adolescence, this can cause serious problems in accepting oneself and the world around. From the above data, we can conclude that the percentage of inadequate self-esteem of adolescents, which tend to underestimate and overestimate themselves, is quite high. The rate of adequate self-esteem among adolescents is quite high. In adolescence, mental states are unstable. To help a teenager to form adequate self-esteem and prevent its rejection in the future, to avoid later problems, a program of formation of adequate self-evaluation based on reflective activities is developed. According to the diagnosis of the formation of the level of cooperative reflexive skills of adolescents, at the first stage of the study, the following results were obtained: 45 % of students had high rates, both for the control and experimental groups. The low level of self-esteem for the control group was 18 %, and for the experimental group 19 %. Thus, based on the results of the survey, studied material and literature, it is stated that adolescence has its contradictions and features.
The program of formation of adequate self-assessment of the teenager on the basis of reflexive activity. Reflective activity is a characteristic of adolescence, but the stability of the formation of an adequate self-esteem of a teenager depends on socio-pedagogical conditions, developed and tested the program of formation of self-esteem teenager “Turns”. All methods used in the program allow a teenager to see and evaluate strengths and weaknesses, and with this in mind to work on them. Reflexive activity, in the content of the developed program, is organized through basic processes such as: goal-setting, situations of collective activity, analysis of the results and products of activity. Reflection methods in the program allow organizing individual work with each teenager. After each session, the teenager fills out a “Personal diary”, assessing her/his individual work and work in the team; participates in collective reflection, which is carried out in groups, as well as pairs of replacement composition. In the latter case, the teenager has the opportunity to speak in more detail and confident, because in this situation, such a neoplasm of adolescence as intimate and personal communication, is realized. The program has three modules: I-biological, I-social, I-personality, for a more complete and qualitative coverage of all activities of the teenager. For comparison, the overall results obtained during the control stage of the study in dynamics were compared with the results of the ascertaining stage. According to the results of the diagnosis, there was a positive dynamics in the evaluation of adolescents themselves. When conducting a re-study of self-esteem of Budassi, a number of indicators of high and low self-esteem in the experimental group significantly decreased from 24 and 13 to 13 and 4 %, respectively. The change in performance was observed according to the results of diagnosis identifying the level of self-esteem of Kovaleva (2010). In the experimental group at the initial stage, the following indicators were: high self-esteem – 24 %, and low self-esteem – 31 %. According to the results of re-diagnosis of the experimental group, we found that the indicators have changed: high self-esteem – 13 %, and low self-esteem – 23 %. At repeated diagnostics, formed by the level of cooperative reflexive skills of adolescents of Usheva (2017b) also saw positive dynamics.
At the ascertaining stage of the research, we studied the level of self-esteem of teenagers. Generalization and systematization of the results obtained at the control stage of the study determined the need for prevention and correction of deviant self-esteem of adolescents.
During the formative stage of the experiment, we implemented the program which we developed for the formation of adequate self-esteem on the basis of reflexive activity of the teenager. The forms of work offered to participants are focused on active inclusion in collective activity, the opportunity to work out their own and group reflection more qualitatively.
To verify the effectiveness of the program developed and implemented by us, at the end of the formative stage, a control experiment and a comparative analysis of the data obtained at the ascertaining and control stages were conducted. Based on the data we can draw the following conclusions:
as a result of implementation of the program of formation of adequate self-assessment of the teenager on the basis of reflexive activity, the number of students with the deviating self-assessment decreased;
positive changes in the indicators of the experimental group may indicate the effectiveness and efficiency of the program of formation of adequate self-esteem in adolescents.
Thus, the purpose of our study was achieved, the hypothesis was confirmed.
The relevance of our research on “the Formation of adequate self-esteem on the basis of reflective activity” is determined by the fact that currently the study of self-esteem in adolescence and its formation remains one of the most important topics in age psychology.
The purpose of our study was: theoretical justification and experimental testing of socio-pedagogical conditions for complex reflexive activity of a teenager for the successful formation of adequate self-esteem of a teenager.
To achieve this goal in the theoretical part, the concept and specificity of self-esteem in adolescence, the specificity of reflexive activity in adolescence, as well as socio-pedagogical conditions for the formation of adequate self-esteem teenager were considered.
In the preparation and conduct of empirical research, we have applied forms, methods based on reflective activity that contribute to the formation of adequate self-esteem.
At the ascertaining stage of the empirical study, we conducted a diagnosis of the level of self-esteem of adolescents. The obtained quantitative data determined the need to prevent deviant self-esteem and its adequate formation.
To verify the effectiveness and efficiency of our program, at the control stage of our study, we conducted re-diagnostic techniques that were used at the ascertaining stage. The results showed a positive trend in reducing the number of respondents with inadequate self-esteem and increasing the number of respondents with adequately formed self-esteem.
- Berinskaya, I. V., Gordina, O. V., Kibalnik, A. V., Fedosova, I. V., & Usheva, T. F. (2019). Reflective Approach in Training Counselors at University. Opción, Año 35, 20, 1124–1139.
- Fedosova, I. V., Berinskaya, I. V., Gordina, O. V., Usheva, T. F., & Kibalnik, A. V. (2017). Healthy lifestyle of modern university students: new methods of diagnosis and development. Man in India., 97(15), 539–558.
- Kovaleva, S.V. (2010) Determination of level of a self-assessment. Mysl.
- Meierdirk, C. (2017). Reflections of the student teacher. Reflecti. Pract., 18(1), 23–41.
- Nam, J. (2017). Critical reflection on the ESL teacher’s subjectivity. Reflect. Pract., 18(1), 123–132.
- O’Neill, T. A., Fitzgerald, A., Briend, A., & Van, J. (2017) Constructive controversy and reflexivity training promotes effective conflict profiles and team functioning in student learning teams. Acad. of Managem. Learn. & Ed., 16(2), 257–276.
- Usheva, T. F. (2017) a. The role of the teacher in the issues of reflexive support of students in the educational process. Vestn. SUSU. Seri. Ed. Pedag. Sci., 9(1), 42–51. https://doi.org/10.14529/ped170106
- Usheva, T. F. (2017) b. Technological features of the formation of reflective competence of students. School technol., 6, 34–40.
- Zhdanko, T. A., Shumovskaya, A. G., & Usheva, T. F. (2019). Creative competence and reflexive competence as required characteristics of a modern student. Europ. Proc. of Social and Behavioural Sci., LVIII, 1773–1781. https://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2019.03.02.206
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.
About this article
Cite this paper as:
Click here to view the available options for cite this article.