This article considers modernization as one of the society development stages. Moreover, development is characterized as quantitative and qualitative transformation of the system, which is community of people united by any fundamental features. Such transformation can be an innovative process, and not only in economic, but also in social and political life. One of the development process elements is modernization, which is accelerated implementation of set of innovations, such as accelerated throw. Modernization may vary by types, including spontaneous, organic and forced changes by the course of history. Generally, if we consider modernization as modification, or development phase, which has different flow rate at different periods of history and in different human communities, increasing with the development of nations and states, then it can be argued that with common goals - increasing economic growth, increasing living standards, GDP growth, and so on, the ways of its implementation for different peoples may be different. In this regard, various types of modernization were analyzed and the choice of path that was most in line with modern Russian realities was substantiated. This article emphasizes that under modern conditions, each state, each nation should independently make decisions about the modernization model necessary for their conditions. When making this kind of decision and determining the necessary type of modernization, it is necessary to take into account existing traditions, codes of conduit, national mentality and rely on them.
Keywords: Economic development, economy modernization, informal socio-economic institutionsmodernization typology, state economic policy
When considering modern processes of economic development, it is necessary to take into account the modernization category, which is the most important stage in the life of society, however, the interpretation of "modernization" concept has many options, its appearance dates back to different times and eras.
The term “modernization” is currently used in several different meanings.
Firstly, as transition process of traditional society to modern society, and secondly, as synonym for general evolutionary development without reference to any particular state; thirdly, as internal development of Western European states; fourthly, as reforming periods of the state living environment. Each of these values can have its own variations.
Each of the considered values of a concept modernization means development. However, modernization and development are different concepts and the difference between them must be determined. Both development and modernization embody change and movement. But development can be defined as movement from simple to complex, which is characterized by set of quantitative and qualitative directed transformations of system that represents humanity as a whole or a certain part of human community that has its own velocity vector (Sycheva et al., 2020). Besides that, considering this category in relation to Russia, it is necessary to specify which of the changes in economic, social, and political life can be interpreted as development.
Socio-economic transformations, characterized by the term "development", can be expressed as emergence of new methods and means of management, allowing for lower material and physical costs to achieve better quantitative or qualitative results; new social, political and society other institutions that improve the codes and rules of the community; technical innovations leading to the rapid goal achievement.
The main, necessary and sufficient signs of development are the qualitative nature, irreversibility and change direction (Shevelev, 2015).
Development is "such status change, which is based on impossibility for one reason or another to maintain the existing forms of functioning. Here, the object seems to be forced to go to different level of functioning, previously inaccessible and impossible for it, and the condition for such exit is a change in the object arrangement" (Yudin, 1978, p. 132).
As vector quantity, development may change the speed and acceleration of its movement and, being a function of many parameters, describes trajectory of random process (Armin et al., 2018).
This trajectory is continuous, has relatively smooth sections, but when additional exposure parameters appear at certain points in time, it forms extremes. Sharp emissions on such curve are modernization processes, whose nature of appearance has a different origin (Gagulina et al., 2019).
Modernization is set of innovations in various areas of society.
Modernization is accelerated motion and throws. And this throw can be spontaneous, that is, due to or some natural influences (solar activity, climate change and the like, phenomena independent of human will) on the subconscious of certain group of people, or planned by the human mind, provoked, most often, by geopolitical reasons.
This is a process whose need was determined by the internal or external challenges of our time. The beginning of this process is attributed both to the first stages of formation of civilizations, and to later eras (Noussair et al., 2014).
This gives rise to two main types of modernization. The first of them can be defined as natural, primary, spontaneous, organic modernization, and the second, as secondary, reflected, inorganic, forced modernization, "delayed modernization" (Melyantsev, 1996).
The essence of the first type - "spontaneous modernization" - lies in transition to qualitatively new status based on internal development. That is, this type of modernization represents certain changes that have unfolded in number of countries either due to internal factors, such as evolution in the sphere of culture, mentality, worldview, or due to extreme change of external conditions.
Purpose of the Study
It is necessary to understand how spontaneous modernization arose and why some peoples suddenly began to accelerate their economic system, and also strengthen the political, military, industrial spheres, becoming development leaders, while others continued the process of movement without acceleration, moving into "backwardness" realm (Chan, 2014). Such throw is connected with the geographical, geopolitical, and climatic living conditions of given community of people, which, in its turn, together with a number of informal institutions of society, forms such important informal institution as the national mentality and, as one of its hypostases, the nation economic mentality (Altunyan & Kotsofana, 2016). Thus, the purpose of this work is identification of the nature of emergence of various types of modernization and also finding of optimum modernization strategy for Russia. At the same time, this optimum strategy has to consider both formal, and informal institutional structure of society.
Spontaneous modernization can be considered as phenomenon and process, as one of modifications, or development phase that began with the appearance of mankind, but having different intensity and speed of flow during different periods of history and in different human communities. This is process of natural restructuring of the technological foundation of civilization and associated change of living standards (Moiseev, 1995).
Such examples of this type of modernization are the West European states. The new socio-economic relations, dictated by the natural course of development, begin to actually act "from below", and after that reform is carried out - that is, legislative consolidation of these already existing relations "from above". Consequently, "European-style" reform is a bottom-up movement. This purely illustrates the essence of spontaneous modernization (Fernando & Jaume, 2016).
The essence of the second type, "forced modernization", is to use the experience of other countries along the path of the first type of modernization.
The main reason for forced modernization is any external impact on the part of more economically developed or more aggressive countries on less developed or less protected ones (Bierbrauer & Boyer, 2016).
Forced modernization is a kind of response to "challenge", protection method or submission method, which defines the "answer", that is, the model of modernized forced processes in each case.
Forced modernization is process that results either from attacks when the initiative comes from outside and is aimed at benefiting the country initiator, or protection, when the decision on the need for changes is made within the country, and the goal is set to both prevent defeat in the economic or military sphere, and (if generally put) improving the population life quality (Novikov & Zhulega, 2020).
In the first case, this is the process of improving some economy sectors that are beneficial to the initiator. In the second case, this is the process of improving, first of all, technological or military-technical base, economic relations, and then changing social consciousness, psychology, adjusting them for best functioning in the new conditions (Boffa et al., 2016).
Forced modernization is historical complex and multidimensional, discrete, with periods of varying lengths and intensities, proceeding with different speeds and accelerations of the world civilization process associated with the uneven economy development of various human communities (states) and, to some extent, with varying degrees of aggressiveness of these communities (civilizations).
The implementation of forced modernization is carried out in various forms, depending on the point of application of force vector initiating its acceleration (Altunyan, 2015).
This model of modernization was practiced in Russia over the period from the end of the 17th to the beginning of the 20th century. In accordance with this model, only those institutions that are necessary for making up the gap in economy, industry and weapons were adopted. The rest of institutional structure either remained unchanged or slightly adapted to the requirements of our time.
In both of these cases, modernization is one of directions and one of forms of the general development of mankind, which has embarked on the path of "technicalization" and "technologicalization" of foundations of its being, special form whose essence is the improvement of technological and technical components of civilization under greater or lesser influence of certain external forces (Korostishevskaya, 2014).
However, for Russia of the twentieth, and especially of the twenty-first century, it is possible to identify another one - the third modernization path. It is characterized as "mobilizing modernization". And the degree of "mobilization" is determined by the severity of economic and political situation which the country finds itself. In accordance with this model, the whole country becomes single modernization camp, and it affects all or almost all socio-economic and political institutions, relying on the society informal institutional structure. The 1930s industrialization, accelerated economic recovery after World War II, and partly the economic growth of early 2000s can be attributed to this type of modernization. The current Russian economic situation, which developed after the events of 2014 and introduction of the sanctions regime, also necessitated mobilizing modernization. And it will manifest itself to a greater extent, the further the global economy as a whole and the Russian economy in particular enter the recession phase.
If modernization is considered as modification that has different flow rate at different time periods and in different human societies, increasing with the economic development of these societies, then the following feature of modernization process can be identified: process revolution (cardinality of changes), complexity (coverage of all spheres of society existence), systemic nature (change in one sphere entails changes in all), global process (new countries are forced to or voluntarily drawn into it), length of time (multi-generational life span), the unified nature of process (all countries strive for the same ideal), irreversibility, inevitability and progressiveness of the process.
Based on these characteristics, modernization should be considered as the only way that humanity is prepared to go. However, at the moment, the differences between nations are very significant, and in the near future it is precisely these differences that may and will play decisive role in development of the entire human community.
Each nation, each country must decide for themselves what kind of modernization they need. And in this context, in modern conditions of Russia, it is necessary to take into account own traditions, codes, national mentality, that is, cultural and civilizational basis. Only in this case, Russia will be able to be competitive on the world stage, and not catch up with other countries in all respects of development.
Thus, we must conclude that modernization is historical phenomenon given to states by virtue of the very existence of mankind in form of many ways to carry out its development. The main task is to correctly assess the situation, to choose trajectory of further development in accordance with the historical path and features of institutional environment - factor of national mentality and other informal and formal institutions of society.
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21 October 2020
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Economics, social trends, sustainability, modern society, behavioural sciences, education
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Novikov, A., Samoylov, A., Zhulega, I., & Drozdova, A. (2020). Typology Of Modernization And Economic Development Of Modern Russian Society. In I. V. Kovalev, A. A. Voroshilova, G. Herwig, U. Umbetov, A. S. Budagov, & Y. Y. Bocharova (Eds.), Economic and Social Trends for Sustainability of Modern Society, vol 90. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 1310-1315). European Publisher. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2020.10.03.151