Approbation Of The Psycho-Correction Program Of Work With Convicted Terrorists

Abstract

The urgency of the need to train psychologists in the penal system to use a targeted approach in dealing with persons convicted of terrorist crimes is undeniable. This need is outlined in a number of regulations and in particular in the Concept for the Development of the Criminal Executive System of the Russian Federation until 2020. The use of the targeted approach implies taking into account the main characteristics of these persons: criminal-legal, criminal-executive, socio-demographic, psychological. The Federal correctional service has set a goal to ensure that targeted approaches are implemented in dealing with those convicted of terrorist activities through the development of appropriate methodical material and training organization for prison psychologists in the process of professional development. In order to achieve this goal, it was necessary to collect the necessary empirical material, analyze it and interpret it to establish the general characteristics of those convicted of terrorism. The article examines the issues of disclosure of these characteristics, the development on their basis of a basic program to work with convicted of terrorist crimes, the testing of this program and the development of appropriate methodical materials, used in the training of prison psychologists to work with the category of convicts.

Keywords: Prison psychologistspsychologist trainingconvictsapprobationbasic programpsychological characteristics

Introduction

The relevance of the corrective impact on the identity of those convicted of terrorist activities.

At the present stage, reality dictates more and more tasks for the domestic penitentiary system

One of them is the dynamics of a significant increase in the number of persons convicted of terrorist and extremist activities in the institutions of the penal system. These individuals do not just enter the system, getting into it, some of them are trying to spread extremist ideology in prisons, recruiting more and more adherents. The headlines in the press are full of reports about the creation of numerous Islamic Jamaat sprees in correctional institutions, whose representatives agitate adherents in the ranks of extremists and terrorists.

Effective counter-extremism in the prison system is possible only if the systemic methodical work of all the structural units, institutions and bodies of the Federal Correctional Service is carried out Russian Federation

The existing domestic and foreign experience in countering terrorism and extremism clearly illustrates the fact that by force it is possible to withstand only specific terrorist threats ( King, & Taylor, 2011). For systemic and effective counteraction, it is necessary to identify and destroy the very ideological basis of extremism, the ways and ways of its dissemination. It is extremely important to carry out systematic work on corrective psychological and educational impact on identified carriers of extremist ideology ( Kazberov & Bovin, 2019). But such work requires appropriate training of prison psychologists ( Bollinger, 2007), as well as the development of the necessary methodical products. Prior to the author's publication, no research work on the subject was carried out, which makes it relevant and of scientific importance ( Kazberov & Bovin, 2019).

The resolution of the above tasks can be implemented only on a qualitative methodical basis ( Gelfand, LaFree, Fahey, & Feinberg, 2013), systemically developed and used as part of the training of prison psychologists using a targeted approach to work with those convicted of terrorist activities.

A number of legal regulations, including the Concept for the Development of the Criminal Executive System of the Russian Federation until 2020, define the need to establish a basic program of psychological personality correction for persons convicted of committing extremist and terrorist crimes (further- the basic program). The condition for the development of a truly effective program was the need to use a targeted approach in corrective psychological and educational work with these individuals, which in turn determined the nature of the research and the contents of the program ( Petrov, Kokurin, Ekimova, Vovk, & Berezina, 2019).

The use of the basic program as a basic methodical product in the training of prison psychologists makes it possible to significantly improve their professional competence in the direction of working with convicted terrorist activities ( Borum, 2011)

Problem Statement

The main task for the study was to develop a methodical basis for the process of training prison psychologists to apply a targeted approach in the process of corrective influence on the identity of convicted criminals terrorist nature.

Research Questions

It was necessary to determine the criminal-legal, criminal-executive, socio-demographic and psychological characteristics of those convicted of terrorist activities ( Khabriev, Kulakova, Partly, & Spasennikov, 2019).

Having identified the main characteristics of the convicts in the category in question, it was necessary to identify the targets of psycho-correctional influence in working with them.

On the basis of the identified psycho-correctional targets, it was necessary to develop a basic program.

In the process of research, the approbation of the basic program was required

As a result of the successful testing of the basic program, it was necessary to introduce it into the process of training (training) of prison psychologists in the departmental educational organization FSIN of Russia

Purpose of the Study

The aim of the study is to ensure that prison psychologists are trained to take a targeted approach in the process of correcting the identity of convicted persons who have committed terrorist crimes.

Research Methods

A method of monitoring convicts who have committed terrorist crimes.

The method of research (content analysis) of the materials of personal cases of convicts, court decisions on them, testifying to some aspects of life of these persons.

The survey was carried out through the use of two author's questionnaires designed to identify the general characteristics of convicts.

Testing was implemented through the following methods: Minnesota Multifactor Personality Survey (MMPI), developed by S. Hathaway and J. McKinley, and adapted by L.N. Sobchik titled "Standardized Method of Personality Research" ( Sobchik, 2003); psychodiagnostic technique of Simbardo F. - ZTPI (VPO "Temporary Perspective of Convicts") ( Doosje, Loseman, &Van den Bos, 2013); LSI (Lifestyle index) questionnaire developed by R. Plutchik ( Karelin, 2007); Bass-Darki aggressiveness questionnaire ( Karelin, 2007); methodology of self-relation research (MIS) S. R.Panteleyeva ( Karelin, 2007); "Meaningful Life Orientation" test (MLO) D.A.Leontieva ( Karelin, 2007); multivariate questionnaire MMPI (Mini-Mult) ( Karelin, 2007).

Psychological modeling

Experiment on the approbation of the base program. The experiment was carried out in 122 correctional institutions, 30 territorial bodies, five federal districts of the Russian Federation. It was attended by: 326 convicts of the experimental group, 364 convicts of the control group.

The mathematical method of the Student t-criterion, which determines the validity of statistical differences in the results of psycho diagnosis.

Findings

Comparative analysis of the results of disciplinary practice and psycho diagnosis of convicted experimental and control groups before and after the testing of the basic program has led to a number of conclusions.

Table 1 -
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There has been a significant decrease in the number of penalties for convicts of the experimental group during the testing period: from 501 in 2018 to 395 in 2019, i.e. by 21.2%. At the same time, it should be taken into account that at the same time the number of penalties from the convicted control group on the contrary increased from 539 in 2018 to 677 in 2019, i.e. by 20.4% (see table 1 ).

There is an increase in the number of rewards in the convicts of the experimental group during the testing period: from 22 in 2018 to 30 in 2019, i.e. 20.4%.

Checking the data for the reliability of statistical differences using the Student t-criterion determined that there were no significant changes in the rates of the convicts in the control group. Consequently, there were no significant personal changes in the convicts of this group.

In the indicators of the convicts of the experimental group, there are significant changes in methods: Zimbardo F. - ZTPI (GPO "Temporary Perspective of Convicts"), multidimensional self-relationship study (MIS) test, "Meaningful Life Orientations( (MLO)" test.

According to the method of Zimbardo F. - ZTPI (GPO "Temporary Perspective of Convicts") there are the following changes:

Table 2 -
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the increase in the average "Temporary perspective of hedonistic present" (HP) scale from 44.7 to 45.4 (see table 2 ) indicates an increase in the orientation of convicts to the hedonistic present, i.e. the situation in which they arrive ceases to be so difficult to bearable, they begin to show interest in something new, try to avoid traumatic experiences and events, experience a surge of strength, energy, the rise of mental strength, a sense of a full life returns to them;

the increase in the "Temporary Future Perspective" (F) scale, the scale average increased from 44.8 to 46.2 (see table 2 ), due to the tendency of convicts to give up short-term pleasures for the sake of greater remuneration in the future, following the principle of reality when planning your life. There is a tendency to rethink one's life, its values, based on the realities of life, which make you reckon with the interests of others, social norms of behavior, taking into account the life, pro-social values of others and society as a whole;

the reduction in the "Temporary Perspective of a Positive Past" (PP) scale from 33 to 32.4, combined with scale (B) (see table 2 ), determines a greater focus of convicts on the present and the future than on the past. They are less "stuck" in the past, expect from life something positive, good. The past as a repository of errors and traumatic memories is no longer so burdened by the consequence of their psychological development;

The reduction of the indicator on the scale "Temporary Perspective of a Transcendental Future" (TF) from 38.3 to 37.1 (see table 2 ) determines the weakening of the fatal belief of convicts that everything is predetermined with the above and the person himself is not able to change anything. The belief in one's own strength is being strengthened, that the person himself determines his future to a large extent, and now lays the foundation of his future with his actions.

"Meaningful Life Orientations" (MLO):

Table 3 -
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increase in the average of the "Goals of Life (G) scale" from 33.6 to 32.6 points (see table 3 ) characterize the strengthening of internal work on the formation of goals in life in the future, which give life meaning, focus and temporary perspective. Man ceases to live only today or yesterday;

the increase from 25.4 to 25.9 on the "Result of Life (R) scale(see table 3 ) reflects the assessment of the distance of life traveled, the feeling of how productive and meaningful part of it was. A score below 25 points determines extreme dissatisfaction with the life of the lived part of life.

the increase from 26 to 27.4 of the "Locus Control - Life or Control of Life" scale (LC-L) (see table 3 ) reinforces the conviction of convicts that they are given control, decision-making and implementation. Fatalism and the belief that a person's life is not subject to conscious control are a thing of the past.

According to the multidimensional questionnaire of self-relation research:

Table 4 -
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The increase in the "self-value " (S-V) scale from 9.46 to 9.94 points (see table 4 ) determines a more constructive perception, evaluation of the convicts themselves, greater interest of convicts in their own self and a sense of self value. At the same time, doubts about the value of self and detachment, bordering on indifference to their self.

The increase in the "self-acceptance" scale (S-A) from 6.78 to 7.74 (see table 4 ) determines the decrease in the expressed intrapersonal conflict over the issue of approval of the convicts.Their expectation of a positive attitude on the part of others is increased, as well as the belief that their personality, character and activity can command the respect, sympathy, approval and understanding of others.

Thus, a comparative analysis of the results of psychodiagnosis of the convicted experimental group before and after the testing of BP, tested for the reliability of statistical differences with the help of the Student T-criterion, determined the presence of positive personal changes at cognitive, affective and behavioral levels (spheres) of personality.

  • 6.7.1. At the cognitive level (sphere) of the individual: convicts begin to show interest in everything new (information, events, people); refusing the momentary pleasures they begin to plan their lives based on the principle of reality. There is a tendency to rethink their lives, its values, based on the realities of life, which make to reckon with the interests of others, social norms of behavior, taking into account the life, prosocial values of others and society as a whole. Work is intensified to form goals in life, which give it meaning, focus and time perspective, as well as to assess the past segment of life, how productive and meaningful was the part of life.

  • 6.7.2. At the affective level (sphere) of the personality: convicts seek to avoid traumatic experiences and events, experience a surge of strength, energy, the rise of mental strength; they are less "stuck" in the past, expect something positive, good, from life, the past as a repository of errors and traumatic memories is not so burdened in the consequence of their psychological development. The persuasion of convicts that they are given control over their lives, decisions and implementation is growing. Fatalism and the belief that a person's life is not subject to conscious control are a thing of the past. The reduction of the expressed intrapersonal conflict on the issue of approval of the convicts is determined.

  • 6.7.3. at the behavioral level (sphere) of the individual: there is a significant decrease in destructive actions, so, the analysis of disciplinary practice has determined a decrease of 20% penalties applied to convicts. Convicts begin to reckon with the interests of people around them, social norms of behavior, taking into account the life, prosocial values of others and society as a whole.There is a decrease in the expressed intrapersonal conflict on the issue of approval of the convicts, their expectations of positive attitude on the part of others as well as the belief that their personality, character and activity can make others to be respectful, sympathetic, approving and understanding.

Conclusion

By collecting, processing and interpreting the obtained empirical material established: criminal-legal, criminal-executive, socio-demographic and psychological characteristics of persons convicted of terrorist crimes.

On the basis of the identified characteristics of the convicts in the category in question, the targets of psycho-correctional influence in working with them have been identified.

On the basis of identified psycho-correctional targets, a basic program has been developed to work with persons convicted of terrorist crimes. This program was successfully tested in 122 correctional institutions, 30 territorial bodies of the FSIN of Russia, five federal districts of the Russian Federation, which was attended by 326 convicted pilot and 364 convicted control groups.

At present, the materials of the basic psychological adjustment program for persons convicted of extremist and terrorist crimes are the main methodical material in the training process of penitentiary psychologists in the educational organizations of the FSIN of Russia in this area of work.

References

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Publisher

European Publisher

First Online

26.08.2020

Doi

10.15405/epsbs.2020.08.02.40

Online ISSN

2357-1330