The article considers the correlation of pedagogical phenomena “learning-cognitive activity” and “educational activity”, as well as the student’s position as the basis for solving the issue of removing the teaching process by the learning process. The following concepts are revealed: educational and cognitive activity, individualized educational activity, educational design, understanding, educational communication, reflection, autonomous cognitive position, and cognitive competence of a student. It is proved that the transition from learning-cognitive to educational activity is ensured by the development by students of universal cognitive procedures as methods of activity: educational design, understanding, educational communication, reflection. The educational results are defined as a set of parameters of the student’s cognitive competence and autonomous cognitive position and their continuity is shown. The idea of developing an independent position of the subject of learning and its subjectivity in teaching on the basis of didactic conditions is highlighted: consideration of the specificity of the essential characteristics of the development of the knowledge tradition in the content of education and changing the essence of pedagogical management of educational and cognitive activity. The characteristic of modern knowledge tradition is given, the purpose of pedagogical management of educational and cognitive activity is shown, the leading principles of pedagogical management of educational and cognitive activity of students for the transition to educational activity are revealed: didactic resonance, flexibility and situationality, eventuality and subsidiarity.
Keywords: Learning and cognitive activity of the studenteducational activitychanging the student’s positionlearningteaching
We have entered the modern information age, when the whole world is learning. Young children learn not only from their parents, as it was before. Modern children use a variety of means for learning - electronic media, and these are not only educational games, but also videos, photographs, that is, various means of cognition that expand the picture of the human world. Previously, the child was formed, observing the immediate environment, exploring its closest habitat. Today, through electronic means, they can even see the movements of the luminaries, which means, in fact, explore the Universe, and this changes the scale of perception of the world, the work of the brain and all (or many) cognitive processes. Today, the role of the global hypertext information system (the World Wide Web), which provides new opportunities for self-knowledge, for digital, open education, is becoming more clear. This fundamentally changes the process of cognition and the process of learning and, accordingly, the educational activity of the subject. The organization of education in the broad sense should correspond to the cognitive processes of the emerging (or forming) person of the 21st century, work on the development of their cognitive abilities and the expansion of their personal resource. Learning provides these processes, but the learner forms independence and activity in the process of their own learning and cognitive or educational activities. Therefore, the need arises to raise the question of the relationship between teaching and learning, the relationship of learning and cognitive and educational activities. In the 20th century, scientists' interest was centered around the interconnectedness of teaching and learning (Davydov & Markova, 1982), and this problem was solved. And the problem of the withdrawal of instruction in learning has only been outlined. The issues of learning and self-education throughout life (Baumer, Preis, Rossbach, Stecher, & Klieme, 2011), the search for a new educational methodology are becoming increasingly relevant. (Belova, Arsaliev, Khazykova, Krasnokutskaya, & Chubanov, 2019; Kiselyova, 2016). The problem of the relationship between formal, non-formal and informal education (Labelle, 1982), the training of teachers for the conditions of the information society (Zemlyanskaya, Galyamova, & Bezborodova, 2018) and the assessment of their competence (Pisareva, Puchkov, Rivkina, & Tryapicyna, 2019) is stated in international documents on educational issues and in primary pedagogical research. Clarification of the question of the relationship between learning and cognitive and educational activities is needed in the search for solutions to all these fundamental problems.
There is an active search for solutions to this problem (Asmolov & Guseltseva, 2019; Gasanova, 2018; Maseleno et al., 2019; Slobodchikov, 2010). The first step is to identify the specifics of the modern educational and cognitive activity of the student (both in the conditions of school and university education), its mechanisms and conditions, in order to understand and learn how to manage the process of transition to individualized educational activity.
In the Federal Law “On Education in the Russian Federation” the concept of “education” is interpreted as the unity of the processes of education and training. Thus, the logical connection between education and training, according to the normatively recommended point of view, is established very definitely: education includes training.
Meanwhile, phrases with the definition of “educational” in a didactic context has been active introduced into the pedagogical science and practice in recent decades. For example, such terms as “educational activity”, “educational technology”, “educational results”, “educational goals”, “educational environment” are more and more often used instead of such well-established terms as “learning-cognitive activity”, “learning technologies”, “learning outcomes”, “learning objectives”, “learning environment”. A change in didactic terminology indicates a change in meanings that the old terms do not convey in a changing sociocultural situation, a changed educational paradigm, and reflects the importance of understanding all processes associated with the student’s independence and subjectivity.
The correlation of pedagogical phenomena “learning and cognitive activity of a student” and “educational activity of a student”, as well as the position of the student in which there is a transition from one activity to another, is fundamentally important. The regularity recorded back in 1982, which fixes the orientation of education on its own denial, on the “withdrawal of teaching in learning" should be taken into account to resolve the issue” (Skatkin, 1982, pp. 133-134). With the development from the junior to senior grades there is a transition of learning in the form of independent cognitive activity. As a result, the didactic ratio will gradually, but invariably, transform into a cognitive attitude in teaching, with a decrease in the share of teaching.
To date, scientists, considering this problem, put forward four fruitful ideas:
about withdrawal of teaching in learning;
that learning takes the form of independent cognitive activity;
about self-education as the most important task of training;
that a didactic attitude is replaced by a cognitive attitude when a student enters into independent cognition.
Obviously, independent knowledge has the knowledge of the world in its entirety and the knowledge of oneself in the world as its goal; education is finding of one's own image.
The purpose of both learning and cognitive and educational activities is new knowledge, but the fundamental question is how they are assigned by the subject. This article presents the results of studies on changing the student’s position in modern conditions due to the mastery of universal cognitive procedures as a possible mechanism for the transition from learning-cognitive to educational activities. The didactic conditions necessary for this transition are also determined, related to the changes in the knowledge tradition, characteristics and principles of pedagogical management. We consider the cognitive position and cognitive competence of the student as educational results that indicate that the student’s position changes in the learning process, i.e. the transition from learning-cognitive to educational activity is being carried out. The mechanism for ensuring activity dynamics are universal educational procedures. Among the factors affecting the process of the transition from learning-cognitive to educational activities of a student, we especially note the accounting for changes in the knowledge tradition (substantive aspect) and changes in the characteristics of pedagogical management, which goes over to student self-government (activity aspect).
How has the understanding of learning-cognitive and educational activities changed with a paradigm shift in education?
What universal cognitive procedures can provide this transition?
What educational results indicate a change in the student’s position, and therefore, the transition from learning-cognitive to educational activities?
What are the most important didactic conditions for ensuring the transition from learning-cognitive to educational activity?
Purpose of the Study
The study of the problem of changes in the learning process is the most important strategic task, the solution of which includes the implementation of a chain of necessary actions (comprehension, forecasting, modeling) that ensure the reality and scientific validity of the process of modernization of education, which so far is largely implemented on the basis of trial and error.
The purpose of this article is to discuss the specifics of the transition from learning-cognitive to educational activities of the student, the presentation of copyright ideas for solving this complex problem, which focus on the convergence of the modern teaching process with education in the broad sense of the word.
The results of the study can be used to improve the educational process at different levels of education, as well as in the preparation and retraining of the teaching staff.
To study the changes in the understanding of the learning-cognitive activity of a student with a change in the paradigm of education, sociocultural analysis, theoretical literature analysis, modeling, pedagogical experiment were used; 350 lessons were observed; 1223 teachers were surveyed.
In order to determine and justify universal cognitive procedures that ensure the transition from learning-cognitive to educational activities of students, a set of methods was used: theoretical analysis of information sources on the problem, modeling, forming experiment.
The study of the situation of changing substantive aspects in school education was carried out on the basis of an analysis of 37 textbooks for secondary and high school in various subjects of the natural sciences (chemistry, physics, biology, geography), humanitarian (literature and history) cycles.
Sociocultural analysis, theoretical analysis of literature, modeling and pedagogical experiment were used and 103 teachers and 897 students took part for the identification of changes in the characteristics and principles of pedagogical management in the transition from learning-cognitive to educational activities of the students.
Definition of the concepts of “learning-cognitive activity” and “individualized educational activity” in the modern paradigm.
Learning-cognitive activity is a type of activity of a subject that carries out goal-setting based on the coordination of subject and personal tasks; based on universal methods of activity, solving these problems with an orientation to the system of significant value relationships “I-world” with the assistance and support of a teacher in order to adopt the content of education (Dautova, 2011).
Individualized educational activity is the type of activity of the subject, aimed at knowing the world, knowing oneself, knowing the strengths and weaknesses, managing oneself and the knowledge; a stable personal need for knowledge and self-development is the main driving force in this activity.
The transition from learning to educational activity is provided by the development of universal cognitive procedures by students:
Educational design is the design of the study of their own educational and cognitive activities/or individualized educational activities, including goal setting, planning, selection of means and sources of knowledge by the subject. Based on the design, the subject of activity can determine an individual curriculum, an individual educational route or trajectory, draw up a program of self-education and self-development.
Understanding is an educational procedure that is comprehensive and is related to the level of knowledge; the first layer of understanding is associated with understanding the source of information (teacher, text, assignment), the second layer with understanding of the information itself through the implementation of the thought process, aimed at identifying the essential properties of objects and phenomena of reality that are cognizable in one’s own experience, the third layer of understanding is associated with understanding oneself in this learning situation, the fourth layer of understanding is related to understanding the Other.
Educational communication is an interactive cooperation of subjects of education related to the process of information processing and aimed at value-semantic coordination and understanding of the content of education with a view to its appropriation. Communication allows learners to gain experience in communicative actions in different communities and in different contexts.
Reflection is a special organization of processes of understanding of new educational material and understanding of oneself and others in a wide system context based on the process of introspection and active understanding of the state of one’s actions and the actions of other people involved in solving educational problems. We distinguish five vectors of reflection: I myself in educational activity (personal), I am - the content of the knowable (ontological or substantial); I am - others (social); I am - the subject of activity (subject); I am - a process of activity (procedural) (Dautova, 2011).
Educational results indicating a change in the student’s position as a transition point from learning-cognitive to educational activities.
An autonomous cognitive position is the totality of relations realized by a student in the “I-world” system that determine their readiness for self-education and lifelong education.
Autonomous cognitive position includes the following parameters:
openness to cognition, cognitive interest as the main motive and sense-forming motive;
key skills - to set goals; to design educational and cognitive activities, an individual educational route, education in general; solve educational problems and tasks with the choice of substantial, instrumental, technological and communicative means; reflection and self-management skills (Dautova, 2011).
Cognitive competence is a combination of complex skills to manage one’s own knowledge, which determines the success of a person in educational and cognitive activities. Cognitive competency characteristics are the following:
value-motivational - knowledge and ability to work with it as a value, the result of a constant revision of one’s own knowledge in the light of the requirements of the current sociocultural situation and the ability to work with it as a sustainable motive for learning;
operational-activity - is aimed at achieving a balance in its educational and cognitive activity of its substantive and operational sides; manifested in the ability to build a holistic and organic personality of the system of personal knowledge to use technological, psychological, pedagogical, managerial and other skills to work with knowledge (different in stages of its life cycle); demonstrates the experience of effective knowledge management strategies;
communicative - readiness for the exchange of knowledge and methods of action in educational communication with its participants;
reflective-evaluative - the ability of the individual to improve the system of personal knowledge and methods of working with it critically evaluating them, determining gaps and directions of cognition;
emotional-volitional characteristic, including emotional-volitional mechanisms in the regulation of educational and cognitive activity (Ignateva, 2015).
As a result of theoretical studies and generalizations, analysis of empirical data, i.e. correlation of necessary and sufficient conditions for fixing the fact of changing the student’s position, the transition from educational-cognitive to educational activities, the following didactic conditions are highlighted.
Taking into account the specificity of the essential characteristics of the development of the knowledge tradition in the content of education, which is understood as the set of certain types of knowledge that is characteristic for each stage of the development of education, forming the student’s individual thesaurus, allowing to recognize the acquired knowledge, include it in the personal picture of the world and apply it in activities.
The modern knowledge tradition is characterized by the fact that:
the role of procedural knowledge used in the methodology of cognition is strengthened;
the content includes evaluative knowledge used in evaluating the world around us and adopting public values;
reflexive knowledge appears, focused on self-knowledge, the formation of one's own values and a critical interpretation of information, assessments, opinions, judgments, the development of personal motivation;
the context of obtaining, applying, adapting, translating knowledge is expanding (interdisciplinary, meta-subject, suprasubject, transdisciplinary) (Krylova, 2010).
Changing the essence of pedagogical management of learning-cognitive activity is the joint management (co-management of the teacher and the student in interaction) of the process of solving the educational problem, during which the construction of content takes place. The purpose of pedagogical management of educational and cognitive activity is the development of the cognitive competence of the student and its transfer to self-government. The choice of technologies and teaching methods by the teacher is aimed at creating situations of mastering universal cognitive procedures regarding jointly designed content.
The following principles of pedagogical management are appropriate for the transition to educational activities:
subsidiarity, providing for all the systemic characteristics of the learning process, the inclusion of students in the co-management of educational and cognitive activities, their entry into self-government; implemented when creating situations of choice, delegating authority to students and taking responsibility for learning outcomes;
the flexibility and situationality demanded by the conditions of the nonlinear model for harmonizing the components of the learning process as a didactic system;
didactic resonance as a natural element of the learning process, through which the learner is included in the construction (personification) and “tuning” of the individual educational route with the support and guidance of the teacher; its activation in the implementation of their own educational activities;
events arising at the intersection of semantic, emotional, value, and activity spaces of participants in the learning process as a powerful incentive to active educational and cognitive activity, generating a feeling of joy from learning and self-confidence (Ignateva, 2015).
The study of the problem of the transition of learning-cognitive to educational activities of the student allowed us to conclude that the modern educational situation gives rise to new trends in the development of learning-cognitive and educational activities. Meanwhile, the general tendency of their approchement, which is provided by the development of informative (ever-increasing volume of information and its availability) and technological (means of communication, providing previously unthinkable in training opportunities) educational resources, is more and more evident.
The idea of developing an independent position of the subject of learning and the development of its subjectivity in learning comes into play in the conditions of lifelong education. Formal educational institutions are losing their usual monopoly. Everywhere a student learns today to be involved in his own education. But huge opportunities for knowing the world and oneself in it require the subject to form an autonomous cognitive position, the continuous development of cognitive competence and personal resource.
The tendency of self-education and self-learning again, as in all reconstruction eras, gets a new sound. The transition from learning-cognitive to educational activity cannot occur abruptly, suddenly, like an insight. This is a long process of transforming the student’s position from the subject of teaching to the subject of learning, the transition from a specific process of cognition driven by the teacher (from learning) to education and educational activities. This process requires the creation of special conditions that ensure the harmony of the substantive and operational aspects of cognitive activity:
redistribution in the content of education of various types of knowledge (reduction of information knowledge of the fundamentals of sciences (describe phenomena, laws, concepts, etc., answer questions: “What, who?”), an increase in the proportion of procedural (I, reflect methods of activity, characterize how to learn, how to use phenomena; answer the question: “How?”), evaluative (reflect the relationship, answer the questions: “Why? What is the role and significance of this phenomenon?”) and reflective knowledge;
reconfiguration of the learning process for the mastery of the students by universal cognitive procedures of understanding, designing, communication and reflection;
a gradual change in pedagogical management of educational activities to self-management by students of their own educational activities.
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26 August 2020
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Educational strategies, educational policy, teacher training, moral purpose of education, social purpose of education
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Dautova, O. B., Ignateva, E. Y., & Krylova, O. N. (2020). Change Of Student's Position At Transition From Learning Activity To Educational Activity. In S. Alexander Glebovich (Ed.), Pedagogical Education - History, Present Time, Perspectives, vol 87. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 171-179). European Publisher. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2020.08.02.22