The author considers the problem of the fishery enterprise management improvement in the context of goals implementing for sustainable society development. Special attention is paid to the specifics of fishery activities caused by characteristics of the raw material base which is based on the bioresources of the world ocean. It is noted that the level of modern anthropogenic interference in marine ecosystems has reached a critical level and without an complex approach covering macro-, meso- and micro- levels of management, the problem of preserving and developing the economic potential of the fishery industry cannot be solved. As a result of the analysis of the UNO, EU and FAO policy documents, as well as scientific publications on the issue of responsible fishery, the author emphasized the need for shifting the focus of management improvement to the entrepreneurial level. The aim of this study is the development of management forms of fishery enterprises in accordance with global trends, focused on the global economic growth. A systematic approach was takes as a methodological basis of the research. The archetype of the environmental policy of the fishery enterprise is considered here as an element of the strategic management system in the context of the implementation of the ecosystem approach to management and practical realization of responsible fishery principles. Its content is defined in the unity and interrelation of the main components: goals, directions, principles, and tools. It is emphasized that the future belongs to active environmental management.
Keywords: Fishery enterprisemanagementresponsible fisheryenvironmental policy
Fishery, both global and domestic, occupies a strategically important position in the system of ensuring food security and sustainable development of the society, being both a source of relevant benefits and means to acquire them, and a generator of threats to their non-receipt. Opportunities and problems of fisheries are largely caused by the specifics of its raw material base, which is an element of the world’s ocean ecosystem and directly depends on its condition and reproductive abilities. Modern reality is so that because of the negative anthropogenic impact on the aquatic and biological environment of seas and oceans in the context of global climate change, there has been a critical deterioration in the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of fishing objects, which is mentioned in a number of scientific and applied publications (Ommer & Neis, 2014; Voss et al., 2017). The world community (represented by international public organizations, including the specialized UNO agencies and individual fishery management organizations) has developed a number of normative documents (within the framework of the ISO 14000 and ISO 19000 series of standards) and policy documents (Hambrey, 2017; European Commission, 2016; European Commission, 2017; Resolution…, 2015) aimed at implementing an ecosystem approach to the fishery, including aquaculture. At the same time, it is obvious that the solution to the problem of conservation and development of the raw material base of fisheries (even with the most advanced macro- and meso- level management tools) is not possible if the relevant recommendations and requirements are not taken into account at the level of individual fisheries entities.
The need for improving management forms of fishery enterprises is determined, among other things, by global fishery trends focused on sustainable development goals, formulated in the policy document approved in 2015 at the United Nations Summit (Resolution…, 2015). Conservation and rational use of the oceans, seas and marine resources (Goal 14), recognized as an essential element of sustainable development, contributes to the maintenance of homeostatic ecosystem of the world’s oceans as a key to solving not only tactical, but also strategic objectives of fishery and fishery business. The strategic approach to the enterprise management is often formal. At the same time, only within the framework of strategic management of economic entities, based on the principles of ecosystem management, it is possible to preserve and develop their economic potential, ensure their own economic growth and make a positive contribution to the implementation of sustainable development goals for the whole mankind.
The problem of careful and responsible attitude to bioresources, as the most important condition for the preservation and enhancement of the economic potential, is regularly discussed in the modern scientific publications. The authors identify various aspects of the essential content and directions of this problem solution. Particular attention in this context should be paid to the innovative nature of sustainable development (Hojnik, Ruzzier, & Manolova, 2017; Inzelt & Csonka, 2017), as well as the need for development and implementation of a system of environmental accounting and analysis at enterprises directly interacting with the relevant ecosystems (Tomchuk, Lepetan, Zdyrko, & Vasa, 2018). These aspects are related to the ecosystem approach to the fishery enterprise management (Staples et al., 2014). It should be emphasized once again that the socio-economic importance of solving the problem of conservation and rational use of aquatic biological resources requires the improvement of forms and methods of fishery management at the entrepreneurial level.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this article is to study the development potential of modern fishery management forms and develop specific recommendations for this area. The environmental policy of the enterprise is considered as a conceptual basis for improving the fishery enterprise management and as a subject of our research work. It is the environmental policy that is considered as a starting point of strategic management, focused both on improving the efficiency of the fishery business entities and the implementation of the sustainable development goals of our society.
The application of such scientific approaches and methods as dialectical approach and logical methods, including economic analysis and synthesis, contributed to the achievement of the research goal. The research work also involved methods of generalization, scientific abstraction, deduction, analogy and others. The methodology of economic analysis predetermined a systematic approach to the formation of the environmental policy of the fishery enterprises.
Violation of the homeostasis of the world’s oceans ecosystem leads to the forces balance violation of fishery activities participants (fishery business, consumers of fish products and the corresponding ecosystem) and determines the need for the implementation of an ecosystem approach to the management of fisheries. The application of the ecosystem approach in national fishery management practices is aimed at the long-term development of the fishery industry and its economic entities in accordance with the interests of the society and specific marine ecosystems, these interests are identified as sustainable development goals.
Introduction of modern forms of management focused on ecological aspects of fishery activity reflects ecological culture of business owners and management of enterprises, their interest in strategic prospects of the own development, and it is realized through the ecological policy as an element of the enterprise’s strategic management system. An effective environmental policy of a fishery enterprise should always be based on appropriate targets for continuous improvement and principles of environmental transparency, efficiency and equity. It's time for an active type of environmental business management.
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09 March 2020
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Yarkina*, N. N. (2020). Modern Forms Of Fishery Enterprise Management: Ecological Aspect. In S. I. Ashmarina, & V. V. Mantulenko (Eds.), Global Challenges and Prospects of the Modern Economic Development, vol 79. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 101-105). European Publisher. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2020.03.14