Genetic Diversity Of North Sumatra Upland Red Rice Genotype On Morphological And Anatomical Characterization
Germplasm or genetic resources (GR) is a very important biodiversity and is the basic capital needed in developing the agricultural industry including in creating new varieties for increased production in support of food security and sustainable agriculture. Rice (
Keywords: Biodiversitycharacterizationfood securityred ricesustainable agriculture
Indonesia is a tropical country with a huge wealth of biodiversity and belongs to the second largest country. The high level of biodiversity of germplasm or genetic resources (GR) is because Indonesia has a vast landscape with the spread and condition of geographic areas that vary (Sujiprihati & Syukur, 2012). Germplasm or GR is one of the most important natural resources and is the basic capital needed to develop the agricultural industry. Genetic Resources management is considered successful if it has been able to provide access to GR as a source of donor genes in breeding programs, and plant breeding is considered to be successful if it has utilized the genetic properties available in GR collections (Sumarno & Zuraida, 2004). Local cultivars are seen as a very valuable asset and need to be well managed. Local rice (landrace) is an GR that has a certain genetic advantage, has been cultivated for generations so that the genotype has adapted well to the various land conditions and specific climate in the area of development. In addition, local rice is naturally resistant to pests and diseases, tolerant to abiotic stress, and has a good quality of rice and generally has a taste and aroma favoured by the community (Siwi & Kartowinoto, 1989; Hayward, Boseman, & Ramagesa; 1993; Sitaresmi, Wening, Rakhmi, Yunani, & Susanto; 2013).
The exploration, collection and conservation of GR has become a global concern, thus forming an international body of the International Plant Genetic Resource Institute (IPGRI) based in Rome, which plays a role in the management of germplasm for a particular commodity Exploration is an activity to find, find, and collect certain SDGs to secure them from extinction. In order for the SDG to be more efficient it is necessary to do more dynamic conservation such as
The use of improved varieties is a reliable technology in increasing the production of food crops. This technology is considered safer and more environmentally friendly and cheaper for farmers. Therefore, the effort to obtain superior varieties through breeding research needs to be given attention so that the local genetic quality of rice can be improved. Indonesian plant breeders successfully tested 180-day-old rice with production of 2-3 tons/ha to be 105 days old with 6-8 tons/ha productivity such as local rice Aek Sibundong local varieties of North Sumatra. To support the sustainability of paddy production in the regions and to support the increase of national rice production, varieties are needed that are adaptive to environmental conditions in the country (Hairmansis et al., 2015).
The development of upland rice is an alternative to increasing national rice production and plays an important role in the Indonesian people's agricultural system, as wetland rice expansion becomes more difficult. Potential development of upland rice in North Sumatra is mostly located in the highlands (> 800 m asl). Particularly in North Sumatra, the opportunity for developing upland rice is in addition to traditional land as well as intercropping plants in line with the opening of new land for plantations.
Local cultivars are seen as a very valuable asset and need to be well managed. Local rice (landrace) is an GR that has a certain genetic advantage, has been cultivated for generations so that the genotype has adapted well to the various land conditions and specific climate in the area of development.
The specific objectives of the study are as follows:
Getting, and collecting and consolidating the local red rice in North Sumatra as a first step in conservation.
Characterization of morphology, especially morphology of red rice from exploration results
3.3.Knowing the genetic kinship of local red rice in North Sumatra
Purpose of the Study
The specific purpose of this research is to explore and characterize the various local rice characters of North Sumatra red rice, and then to improve the nature of North Sumatera rice paddy (landrace) of North Sumatra through further breeding activities. Character that will be improved primarily is the age of plants, posture, and production.
The research was conducted in eight districts in North Sumatra Province from early 2015 to December 2016 (continued). The method used by the study of literature, interviews to the relevant agencies, the Department of Agriculture, Ministry of Agriculture, Indonesian Center for Rice Research (BB Penelitian Padi Indonesia), Agricultural Extension (PPL), the Village Head, and Farmer Groups, as well as visits and interviews directly to the fields Farmers in the District which is a regional producer of rice and has the potential the existence of local upland red rice
Research conducted several stages of research activities, namely:
Exploration and Collection of Upland Red Rice of North Sumatra
Local SDG rice exploration activities are carried out in several regencies in North Sumatra Province. Each of these districts is eligible for exploration activities because it stores the diversity of paddy GR and is preserved for years to come. Prior to the initial exploration conducted preliminary survey, for data collection that contains about the existence of local upland red rice species or even wild relatives in the area. Visits and interviews directly to the fields Farmers in the District which is a regional producer of rice and has the potential the existence of local upland red rice.
Data collection includes name of cultivar, number and origin of collection, based on predefined sampling method. The paddy seeds are then collected and stored in appropriate places and temperatures for the purpose of collecting GR and for characterization purposes
Characterization of Grain Morphology
Cultivars collected from farmers' fields next, collected and identified (characterization) and stored. A total of 19 cultivars derived planted in the garden trial and the Green house Faculty of Agriculture UISU Medan and UNAND Padang, for evaluation, stabilization, and characterization.
Stages of observation of red rice paddy character is done by observing grain quantitatively and qualitatively. All quantitative data is determined by measuring all grain characteristics in accordance with the rice descriptor. From quantitative data obtained, then processed with Minitab program version 16.14 (Iriawan & Astuti, 2006). Observations consist of quantitative and qualitative observations. Quantitative quantities consisting of grain length, grain width, grain thickness, and grain length as measured by using digital slurry in mm, and weight of 100 grains as measured by analytical scales in grams. While qualitative observations consist of grain color surface color, rice color, and shape of rice. The data of morphological characterization (phenotypic data) is then used for the analysis of diversity and kinship. To analyze kinship, the NTSYS Spc 2.02 (Numerical Taxonomy and Multivariate Analysys Systems) program is used.
Upland Genetic Resources Data in Location Collection Field Visit
From the exploration result in 11 regencies, there were 22 cultivars of upland red rice, and agronomic data obtained map location (Figure
Deli Serdang and Tanah Karo districts have the largest number and varieties of upland red rice, followed by Simalungun compared to other districts, especially in the area around medium to high soil, until now still maintained for generations due to local culture. Of the 11 District planting areas are found in different ecosystems with varying heights from medium to high plains with flat topography, bumpy to hilly. The farming or cultivation system is still relatively simple and the planting of upland rice is planted as intercropping plants, intercropping plants in some annual crops such as rubber, palm oil, and coffee. Also found in horticultural plants, such as bananas, and oranges. From this data it can be seen that the cultivation of upland rice is still an odd plant, although the available land is still wide, generally high adaptation and tolerance to pests and diseases. For farmers who do not have wetland or rice field is limited, then on the dry land it has will be cultivated upland rice
In other words, the cultivation of upland rice is more directed to fulfill the interests of household consumption of farmers. Harvest age is long (˃145 days), ranging from 145.00 to 180.00 days after seed (DAS), and production is still low to moderate (1.0 - 4.0 ton/ha). All ages of cultivars are categorized in the age of the deep category. This is due to the age of harvest can be affected by the height of the place and climatic conditions. This is because the collection area is done on medium to high which is above 400 mdpl
Low productivity of lowland rice is mainly caused by environmental stresses, both biotic and abiotic (Hairmansis et al., 2015), and varying climatic and soil conditions, the application of cultivation technology that has not been optimum, especially in the use of improved varieties (VU), fertilization and blast disease control (Toha, 2005). The higher the place is planted, the appearance of harvest age will tend to be longer than the plants grown on the lowlands. Farmers tend to choose potentially high yielding cultivars, and moderately to low plant height characters. This is done by farmers to avoid the risk of crop failure due to fall in the rainy season. Low temperatures in the highlands can inhibit the growth of seedlings and saplings, causing leaf discoloration (yellowing leaves), slow down the flowering time, eksersi abnormal panicles, panicle sterility increases, maturation tassel irregular, and the resulting decline). The productivity of upland rice were lower primarily due to climatic and soil conditions vary, cultivation technology is not optimal, especially in the use of high yielding varieties, fertilizing and controlling blast disease (Toha, 2005), also due to various environmental stress both biotic and abiotic (Hairmansis et al., 2015).
In addition, the decline in production is also caused by the sloping increase in the potential yield of existing rice cultivars. This is due to the narrowness of the genetic diversity of rice that is present as a result of many releasing rice cultivars that are related to each other. As a result, rice diversity is reduced and the potential yields are no different. This causes the existence of local rice both rice paddy and upland rice, currently increasingly abandoned farmers and threatened extinction (Toha, 2005). North Sumatra Province has local varieties of upland rice is very popular consumer products. Local varieties are in fact a major provider of rice in upland area of Bukit Barisan, North Sumatra. Although there has been a lot of upland rice varieties released by the Government, but no one has been able to adapt well in the highlands. High yielding varieties that have been released, such as Situ Patenggang, Towuti, Situ Bagendit, Batu Tegi, and Limboto that have relatively high yield potential (> 3.5 ton/ha), but the rate of adaptation is still limited that is only appropriate in the lowlands (< 500 mdpl) (Toha, 2006; Yusuf, 2009). The results of the field visit and interview with (Mr. Amrizal Yusuf, researcher and breeder of BPTP Sumatera Utara) in terms of releasing varieties in 2016, red rice is the most widely planted by farmers in several cities, including Tanah Karo, Simalungun, Dairi and Pakphak Barat.
In general, farmers cultivate local varieties (Sunjaya, 2011) that taste good, tolerant of marginal land, is resistant to some kinds of pests and diseases, requiring low fertilizer inputs as well as easy and simple maintenance. However, it has low production (Ahadiyat, 2011). Then to the development of planting upland rice should consider soil conservation, productivity levels, sense, also resistance to pests and diseases through modeling approaches crop management and resource integrated (ICM) in the area of specific locations, to achieve food security and sustainable agricultural systems (Toha, 2005).
From the results of rejuvenation and observation of morphological character of upland red rice from 11 regencies obtained 14 cultivars of local upland red rice from North Sumatera. Observations both in the field and by conducting initial studies then obtained morphological characters and component results in Figure
The cultivars that have been collected from the farmers' fields are collected and stored in cold storage, and some are planted for consolidation and rejuvenation by
From the Figure
Character of Grain Morphology by Quantitative Character
From the exploration result in 11 regencies, 21 local rice cultivars of upland red rice from North Sumatra were obtained. Observations both in the field and by conducting initial studies then obtained some characters, both morphological and anatomical characters. Morphological and anatomical characteristics of 19 local upland red rice cultivars. The result of quantitative observation on red rice grain shows the variation between each genotype. Grain and red rice have varying surface and shape colors (Table
In general, there is a difference in the characteristics of each of the rice genotypes of red rice. The observation of quantitative variables on grain shows that the length of grain ranged from 6.72 - 9.60 mm. The width of grain ranges from 1.85 - 2.96 mm. Grain thickness ranges from 1.53 - 2.17 mm. The weight of 100 grain seeds ranged from 1.66 to 3.46 g.
Based on observations obtained in Table
Based on the clustering of red rice genotypes grouping at 79.79% similarity, the upland red rice genotypes were grouped nto three groups. The first group consisted of 10 genotypes, 1, 2, 8, 6, 13, 10, 16, 19, 4, and 18. The second group consisted of 3 genotypes, 3, 15, and 9. The third group consisted of 6 genotypes, ie 5, 7, 12, 11, 17 and 14. Dendogram of grouping results based on genotype is shown in Figure
The level of kinship should be known to facilitate breeders in producing new varieties that have a wide or narrow diversity through crosses. To produce varieties with a narrow diversity varieties are used that close kinship level, while to produce a wide level of diversity crossing of varieties that have A distant kinship level. The further the kinship relationship, the recombinant will be more diverse. To determine the proximity of kinship relationships between plant taxon can be done by determining the similarity between plant taxon using morphological properties because morphological properties can be used to recognize and describe kinship of type. In the characterization activities that have been done can be known the character of each cultivar to be used and developed in plant breeding activities in accordance with the purpose of superior varieties who want assembled. Given this variation, further selection activities can be performed because the selection will be successful if the plant population to be selected has variation or diversity.
From the results of research on the following conclusions can be taken:
Germplasm exploration/conservation plays an important role in avoiding the extinction of local/wild rice species due to the rapid growth of modern high yielding varieties, the opening of new land, the transition of rice cultivation to other crops, and the development of settlement.
Results of exploration in 11 districts obtained 22 local rice genotypes of upland red rice in North Sumatra.
Grain morphology characterization and molecular analysis results indicate variation on quantitative and qualitative characters. The widest level of diversity is obtained from the long feather characters.
Based on the morphological character of grain at the similarity level of 79.79%, the genotype of upland red rice of North Sumatra can be grouped into three.
This study suggests the need to be collaboration between government, farmers, businessmen, and colleges in the application of technology for the development of upland rice, including conservation and collection of local cultivars to the next can produce new varieties in order to support food security and sustainable agriculture, as well as the welfare of farmers.
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Budi, R. S., Suliansyah, I., Yusniwati, Y., & Sobrizal, S. (2020). Genetic Diversity Of North Sumatra Upland Red Rice Genotype On Morphological And Anatomical Characterization. In & N. Baba Rahim (Ed.), Multidisciplinary Research as Agent of Change for Industrial Revolution 4.0, vol 81. (pp. 64-75). European Publisher. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2020.03.03.9