C Package Program is one of the informal education program which is parallel to senior high school or vocational school in Indonesia. This program is intended to replace the formal education for students who cannot continue his/her education in a formal education program. One of the compulsory sources that must be learned in this program is English. Many experiences show that the students’ achievement in English is far from being satisfactory. Therefore, a model of learning that is potential to enhance students’ achievement in English should be created. The research aims at describing the development of the model, the validity of model, and the students’achievement in English. The model developed is called Model of Market Need-Oriented. The research and development design was used in conducting the research. The preliminary research is done to know the design of Model.The research syntaxes used in this model are (1) orientation activities, (2) presentation (which covers many activities, namely: (a) cooperation in the study group, (b) role playing, (c) group showcase, (D) assessment of the work of group as the feedback, and (e) reflection), and (3) closing. The result show that the model has met the requirements, the model is valid, and the student’s achievement is satisfactory and the students under the model can work together and perform the responsibility to the teaching materials.
Keywords: C PackageProgramModel of MarketInformal EducationStudent’ Achievement
Basically, the learning model is a system of instruction that is presented by the educator from the beginning to the end. In other words, the model of learning is a structure for implementing an approach, process, and technique of the learning. Hutchinson and Waters (1987) present 4 (four) groups of learning models, namely: (1) models of social interaction; of (2) modelsof processing information; (3) models of personal-humanistic and (4) models of behaviour modification. However, the use of the term learning model is often identified with learning strategies.
Learning models consist of (1) Direct Teaching, a model of teaching that is actually a teacher- centred, where the teacher must demonstrate the knowledge or skills that will be trained to students insequence. The teacher is required to be a model in class that is attractive to students. (2) Cooperative Learning, a learning model that emphasizes on small groups whose learning members have different abilities. In completing group assignments, each member works together and helps to understand a lesson material. (3) Problem Based Learning (PBL), a learning model that consists of giving students with authentic and meaningful problem that can make it easier for them to conduct investigations and inquiry. The teachers’ roles in PBL is to propose problems, facilitate student inquiry and dialogue, and support student learning. PBL is to organize around real life situations that avoid simple answers and invite various competing solutions. The main characteristics of PBL include the submission of questions or problems, an interdisciplinary concentration, authentic investigations, collaboration, and produce works and demonstrations.
Based on the description above, the development of an English learning model which market need-orientation to improve student competence is important to implement. This is aimed at providing the teacher many choices of learning models as an effort to carry out active, innovative, creative, effective and enjoyable learning, as hinted in the 2013 National Curriculum.
The problem of the irrelevance of C Package Program graduates with the demands of the market needs and the low results of the Equality Education National Exam (UNPK) remain interesting to discuss up to now. Many C Package graduates are unable to compete in getting jobs because the knowledge they have got has not linked and matched market needs yet. In taking the UNPK, many C Package students failed. The result of Equality Education National Exam for C Package (the same level as senior high school) which was announced on August 14, 2009, showed that as many as 655 students or 40 persent from 1648 were declared failed. This statement was conveyed by the Head of the Field of Non-Formal and Informal Education in the City of Medan (Kepala Bidang Pendidikan Luar Sekolah, Pendidikan Non Formal dan Informal Kota Medan, 2009).
The lack of ability of the examinees in taking the national exam and the graduates who are unable to compete in obtaining work is caused by factors such as teachers, students, learning methods, and learning models used. In the selection of teaching models, most teachers still rely on the lecture method to convey theories, facts, and rules or learning material. Learning material is not associated with the environment of work-oriented students. As a result, student learning outcomes cannot be applied in the actual setting and cannot be used to solve everyday life problems. Teachers always rely on intuition and treat students like robots to understand, remember, and memorize their knowledge in the form of accumulation of facts, concepts, and theories. C Package Program allows students to learn while working based on strong motivation and desires. Thus, the knowledge they have gained is beneficial for him in living life and overcoming life's problems.
Based on the problem of English learning in the C Package Program above, the research questions are formulated as follows: (1) how is the development of English based on the market need-oriented learning model to improve student competence?, (2) how is the validation of the development of English based on the market need-oriented learning model to improve student competence?, and (3) how is the effectiveness of using the development of English based on the learning model of market need-oriented in inproving student competence?
How the development of English based on the market-need oriented learning model to improve student competency?
How the validation of the development of English based on the market need-oriented learning model to improve student competency
How the effectiveness of the English market need-oriented learning model to improve student competency
Purpose of the Study
To describe the development of English based on the market need-oriented learning model to improve student competence.
To describe the validation of the development of English based on the market need-oriented learning model to improve student competence.
To describe the effectiveness of the English market need-oriented learning model to improve student competence.
For development of the model, this study uses research (R) & development (D) methods which begins with a preliminary study. The results of the preliminary study were used as the basis for developing teaching materials. In connection with this study, it was found that English learning models based on market needs in the school where the research was conducted and the results of the questionnaire to students and teachers, it identified the demand to develop an English learning model.
Furthermore, in developing the model, development steps suggested by Sugiyono (2015) was applied as follows:
Conduct the research to obtain the initial data needed in the development of English based on the learning model of market needs.
Design activities related to the development of English learning based on market needs. Furthermore, a limited feasibility test is carried out on the design developed.
Develop and verifie the model to see the effectiveness of the learning model based on market needs.
More clearly, the research steps are made in the form of fish bone in figure
The development of the English learning model developed in this study is based on the particular program to respond to the needs of learners and the world of work. ESP is an approach to language teaching based on designing courses to meet learners need (Hutchinson & Waters, 1987).
The factors that distinguish ESP from General English (GE) is the purpose of learning English itself. Learning the English with ESP nuances emphasizes to communicate skillfully, especially in finding work. Then, ESP focuses on the context rather than teaching grammar or language structure. The difference lies not only in the learner, but also in learning objectives. In GE, all the four language skills have the same proportion, while in ESP, particular kill is determined through a need analysis (Lorenzo, 2005). ESP integrates the subject matter with teaching English which can motivate them because what is learned in the classroom can be applied to the fields of work, such as in the fields of accounting, corporate management, economics, computers or tourism. ESP students are led to master specific vocabulary and components of English. Learners of ESP are supposed to be special masters of vocabulary concerned as well as English language teaching (Lorenzo, 2005) Thus, ESP learners are more mastered and able to use English to get a job because more specific vocabulary about job positions has been mastered.
Judging from the framework of the development of education system renewal, the application of market need-oriented learning models is suitable with the idea of autonomy in implementing the education that is being echoed today. Autonomy is one factor that related effectiveness and efficiency of education and is expected to be able to develop the ability of C Package to increase its potential independently and get incentives from the application of this model. Therefore, the development of learning models is needed to enrich students' English knowledge and also equip students in the work environment. The development of this learning model involves teachers and English language education experts in North Sumatra so that it is expected to produce effective learning strategies and paths that are in accordance with the demands of the receptionist world of work.
Working at the reception desk is something exciting because we meet important people in daily life. Therefore, working in the reception area requires the ability to express themselves in English. The ability to understand and express transactional and interpersonal conversation is an ability that is very important for every individual who wants to live in the field of business or who wants to work in an office.
When students are carrying out receptionist activities, the teacher performs an authentic assessment, which assesses learning outcomes and makes observations on student behaviors and interactions related to the role played and sees the achievement of indicators. In addition, the teacher provides motivation to learn, encourages each student to improve collaboration and communication, and provides assistance as needed (according to the type of difficulties) so that each student can do his tasks correctly and can be a source of learning for other students.
After a while, they can complete the task, namely, making a conversation in the Receptionist Section. Next, they divided the roles. There are students acting as families who order food, and other students act as guests, receptionists and cashiers.
Four male students were assigned to arrange five tables and ten chairs in front of the class to sit in the learning community who would present the results of the study. One table and three chairs were prepared for the waiters and cashiers to sit and four tables and seven chairs for the servants' seats. After the table and cursor are arranged, the teacher says, "One study group is welcome to present the results of their study".
Study groups immediately occupy the seats provided. Two of them who served as servants said Waitress: "Good evening Sir, madam. Please come in, answered by all students from all learning communities, "May I help you”. Next the students practice the following conversation:
Receptionist:Good morning. Nusantara Hotel. Herawaty is speaking. May I help you.
Caller:Good morning. I am calling to book a room for this weekend.
Receptionist:Well, Madam. May I have your name please?
Caller:I am Herawaty. H-E-R-A-W-A-T-Y. So what is about the room availability?
Receptionist:I am sorry Madam. I am afraid that we are fully booked this weekend, Friday and Saturday.
Caller:So, what is about the coming weekend?
Receptionist:It looks like we have some rooms for you to book, but we suggest that you make a reservation soon because it is the peak season.
Caller:Okay. Do you have a twin room and a double one of the coming Saturday?
Receptionist:Yes, we do Madam. We have deluxe rooms with that criterion. Each room rates 100 dollars.
Caller:That's sound good. And what is about the extra-bed?
Receptionist:We charge 300 rupiahs for it.
Caller:Okay, I will confirm during the arrival day.
Receptionist:Alright Madam and for your information we will ask your 500 rupiahs for the deposit.
Caller:Great, and what is about the payment method? Do you accept credit card?
Receptionist:Yes Madam. We accept major credit cards. Is there anything I can help you Madam?
Guest:Well, Thank you for your help. I will call if I need further information.
Assessment and Feedback
Next, the teacher explained, "Our next activity is to grade to your work. You as a learning community member knows the quality of questions and responses or answers and explanations from each learning community. On this occasion, every learning community is assigned to give value to each other learning community honestly, objectively, and responsibly. Learning communities that are considered may submit objections to the score they receive. The learning community who grade the other members must be accountable for the score they provide.
The teacher continues the explanation as follows, "An assessment activity like this is to train you to be honest, objective, responsible, and so on something that you have done. Alright, you will make an assessment column. "After that, the author assigns Bruce and Weils (1986) to write down the values given by each learning community into the assessment column. Every learning community takes turns mentioning the value it gives. Bruce and Weils (1986) wrote it in the column until it's finished and then together sets the average value.
At the end of the lesson the teacher reflects. The reflection phase is used by teacher to require the students opinions about the model used in teaching learning process. In this occation, the teacher asked the students about the model used. The students answered that the market need-oriented English language learning model is useful .One student, Reni hoped that other learning be done like this and said that she loved learning like this. Table
Before learning is ended, the teacher will assign assignments to each study group to practice applying the knowledge and skills students actual situation. Every learning community is assigned to make a conversation that takes place on a flight. The teacher checks the students' understanding of the assignment given by assigning two students in turn to explain again the tasks of the teacher. After the teacher assesses that the two students' explanations are correct, then ask for confirmation from the other students by asking questions. "Do you understand you assumption?" If students understand, they will answer, "Yes Sir" but if they haven't answered, "I'm sorry repeat again Sir" now the learning time is up. The teacher hopes that these learning outcomes can be used as provisions in living life and overcoming life's problems in the present and future. Thank you. At the next meeting.a presentation of tasks were implemented in the real world.
Design Validation by Experts
Design validation activities are carried out by experts. The results of the assessment are shown in the Table
The results of t count (1.647) compared with critical t 76-2 (df = 95%) (0.678), it turns out that t count is greater than t critical. Thus, the market need-oriented English learning model effectively increases the results of the English language learning.
The Market Need-Oriented Learning Model above was tested in two C Package Programs, which turned out to make students enthusiastic, because they were immediately involved in implementing the conversation and were given a certain time to finish it. The attitude of students shows a change in student behavior in addressing the learning process. Students have begun to dare to ask in simple English. The ability to ask is the minimal ability to express thoughts, i.e. transactional and interpersonal conversations which are very important abilities for every individual who wants to live his life in the field of business or who wants to work in an office.
The author’s thanks are due to Rector of UMN Al Washliyah for funding the research. Then, thanks are also conveyed to the organizers of International Conference on Multidisciplinary Research (ICMR 2019, USM Penang) who accepted this article.
- Bruce, J., & Weils, M. (1986). Models of Teaching. New Jersey: Prentrice Hall.
- Hutchinson, T., & Waters, A. (1987). English for Specific Purposes: A Learning-centred approach. New York: Cambridge University Press.
- Kepala Bidang Pendidikan Luar Sekolah, Pendidikan Non Formal dan Informal Kota Medan (2009, 30 August). Ujian Nasional Pendidikan Kesetaraan (UNPK) Paket C. Analisa Daily.
- Lorenzo, F. (2005). Teaching English for Specific Purposes (ESP). Retrieved from http://www.usingenglish.com/articles/ eaching-nglish-pecial-purposes.html
- Sugiyono, S. (2015). Metode Penelitian & Pengembangan. Bandung: Alfabeta.
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30 March 2020
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Hasibuan, A. L. (2020). Developing English Based On Model Of Market Need-Oriented To Enhance Students’ Achievement. In & N. Baba Rahim (Ed.), Multidisciplinary Research as Agent of Change for Industrial Revolution 4.0, vol 81. (pp. 369-377). European Publisher. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2020.03.03.44