The given article represents the research results of the ways of a linguistic personality representation in personality-oriented social networks. The authors propose to research a linguistic personality representation depending on the speech strategies and the speech tactics. These strategies and tactics are applied by a linguistic personality in the social networks. Characteristics of the speech strategies and tactics of a virtual linguistic personality are demonstrated on the example of speech utterances taken from the personality-oriented social network Facebook. The ways of the linguistic personality representation in the personality-oriented social are identified on the basis of these speech strategies and tactics. The authors consider that the axiological speech strategy allows to represent the speaker’s attitude to oneself, to the surrounding virtual reality, to all participants in communication. The linguo-creative speech strategy lets to represent one’s linguistic skills as part of the use of gaming language features. The emotionally expressive speech strategy supposes to represent emotions, nomination of feelings, the detailed display of the external manifestations of these feelings. The corrective expert speech strategy helps to represent the leading position of the linguistic personality. The separative speech strategy permits to represent the one’s opposition to the Internet community.
Keywords: Linguistic personalitysocial networkrepresentationspeech strategyspeech tactics
In the frame of the anthropological focus researches the term “linguistic personality” is widely used in linguoculturology, ethnolinguistics, psycholinguistics, text linguistics, sociolinguistics, pragmatics, cognitive science, pragmalinguistics and other sciences. Karaulov (2007) definition is the most well-known in linguistics he presents «linguistic personality» as a personality embodied in the language (texts) and through the language (p. 26). Such personality transforms his/her main features though linguistic means (p. 23). The personality use the pronoun «I» for representation and implementation personal presence in social networks (Cantoni & Danowski, 2015).
Evsyukova and Agababyan (2015) adds dependence on many extra-linguistic factors to the linguistic personality characteristic, i.e. the influence of social, ethnic, economic, political and living conditions where the certain linguistic personality formation process is taking place (p. 23).
Germasheva (2011) notices that “linguistic personality has mental and social components and they are reflected in the communication” (p. 78).
The person’s verbal behavior in the social networks is rather interesting. During the communication in the social networks a linguistic personality can modify different speech strategies and tactics. According to this process, oral and written speech occur and new speech genres appear. Network logic diffusion is explained due to communication technology growth due to introduction new information technologies which crowd out the hierarchical modes and put computerized networks on the first place (Saussure, 2006).
The problem of learning the ways of a linguistic personality representation in personality-oriented social networks consist of the fact that linguistic personality can possess usual features when the user’s profile is filled with the real personal data, and on the other hand the can possess peculiarities of the virtual linguistic personality when full, reliable information on communication, physical or status parameters lacks. In the latter case the communication is rather difficult and has its own specificity.
Complex study of the linguistic personality using approaches to differential scientific research, determines the complexity and ambiguity of the methods to determine, to structure, to select criteria and ways to characterize the existing term.
It the context of our study we are interested in the clarification of a number of issues. What the main speech strategies do the linguistic personality use in social networks? What are the main speech tactics? What are the basic ways of a linguistic personality representation in personality-oriented social networks? What the dominant language means are used by the communicants?
Purpose of the Study
The main goal of this article is to create the classification of the ways of a linguistic personality representation in personality-oriented social networks.
To reach the aim of the study, it is urgent to solve the interrelated tasks including such research objectives as:
The usage of the speech strategies in personality-oriented social networks
The usage of the speech tactics in personality-oriented social networks.
The research uses a symbiosis of distributive, contextual and descriptive linguistics methods in combination with psycholinguistics approaches.
The method of distributive analysis allows to research definite lexical and grammatical units in the text.
The method of contextual analysis allows to research the functional specificity of words and their meanings, it is an analysis of the text in which the given word is used, as well as analysis of the dependence of the word's value in this context.
Psycholinguistic methods permit to find out how fragments of linguistic consciousness are structured for speakers, reveal semantically related words objectively existing in the psyche of a speaker, and reveal the presence of a psychological component in the meaning of a word.
Social networks are the theoretical structure whose essence is to study the connections among individuals, groups, organizations and even whole communities.
Such values as the economic, cultural, social and symbolic capital can be realized through the social networks (Cornwell & Schafer, 2016).
The specific status of the social networks is based on the modification of speech strategies and speech tactics of the linguistic personality. Also the social networks can be considered as the communication phenomenon in the paradigm of other types of communication in the Internet (Cherednikova, 2013).
It is often perceived that the global level of the understanding of the circumstances must be the main component of the strategy. In this case the speech strategy should be dynamic and flexible. The strategy can be corrected and reconsidered in accordance with discourse context (Dijk, 2013).
Every linguistic personality’s needs in the virtual communication environment consist of the needs in identity, self-representation, self-realization and self-esteem (Evsyukova, Agababyan, Kotelnikova, & Germasheva, 2017).
Issers (2006) fundamental monograph «Communication strategies and tactics of the Russian speech» contributed much in the study and development of this issue (p. 280). This work, using materials of current interest, presented different speech strategies and tactic of the Russian speech, linguistic methods to teach communication strategies and tactics are recommended.
In this research we rely on the opinions of those scientists who are working on the communication strategies and tactics positioning the speech behavior as one of the kinds of human life. The verbal communication has certain purpose, satisfying an individual’s communication needs (Urry, 2012). In this case there is a final result. In this case there is an end result, which indicates the effectiveness of communication.
The results of the conducted linguistic analysis of the utterances from the social network Facebook showed that the dominant speech strategy used in social networks of personal communication is an axiological speech strategy (Shilova, 2018).
Having studied the utterances of Internet users, we have determined that the axiological speech strategy is often expressed by such speech tactics as: tactics of admiration, tactics of favorable attitude, tactics of approval and sympathy.
The following fragment from the virtual dialogue shows tactic of the favorable attitude:
Axenova Oxana All Kazan Birch,
Beauty is famous!
Let the sadness and tears go away,…
Ludmila Oberkovich Thank you!!
Axenova Oxana It is a poetic photo!!!
Margarita Koshina Lusik, you are great!!!
Ludmila Oberkovich Thank you my lovely girl!
Tatiana Chebukova Love those places, not been a long time ago...
And you are beautiful!
Ludmila Oberkovich Thank you, thank you, thank you.
An axiological speech strategy can also been implemented through pragmatic tactics of censure, ridicule and neglect. The next example shows this tactic in use:
Tatiana Moskvina I hate.....
And that's their word "need"...
Aleksey Merinov Must relax
But none had enough fantasy to predict such a thing
Svetlana Anisimova What kind of fantasy writer came up with this?
Michael Maximov And then they'll say, " well, I didn't...
Aleksey Merinov If they get to explain. But it's unlikely
Inna Kryzhanovskaya Something in a bright future forever has to go through a breakthrough, or through a gap.
Galina Umyarova (2019) The paper of course will erase a lot, but why hallucinations and fantasy mania are issued for a strategy? it's of course to doctors would address the question
Having analyzed the examples of the utterances related to the axiological speech strategy implementation, we can note that this speech strategy reflects such way of the linguistic personality’s representation speech assessment, activity and appearance of the communication partner. The linguistic personality shows his/her attitude towards oneself, towards the virtual reality, towards all participants of the communication through assessment.
As s big part of the social activity (Hjarvard, 2017) in the virtual space belongs to the cognitive and creative spheres it is worth mentioning the social network users are rather active to use linguo-creative speech strategy, which is mostly implemented with speech tactics of the shocking and humorous impact. For example:
Dmitriy Muravlev Then you can put meat on the stove, so you can get the hot pan.
Vladimir Zyablov Dmitriy Muravlev and no frying pan and plates! Fry right on the glass and eat also from the glass!
Konstantin Gofman Dmitriy Muravlev yeah what's up!!! Immediately in the meat chop :))))
Mikhail Kovnatski Does the bow save pre? Pan warm up, butter....
Denis Dean Panferov Onions are spinning along with meat and is awesome in the process of roasting the ground. I don't like when the onion is visible in the ground.
Mikhail Kovnatski Denis Panferov theme for buttle ;)
Artyom Petrovich Denis I have an extra grinder electric , don't you have an hour? :)
Denis Dean Panferov No, the electric place is taking. This is the question of organizing working spaces . Thank you.
Artyom Petrovich With place then you like no problem)
Vladislav Goloviznin brilliant!
Max Doc Tor Hand Grinder!!!! Current Hardcore!!!
ILya Abramenkov Hand Grinder. Respect.
(Retrieved from: https://www.facebook.com/dean.panferov).
The language means used to implement the entertaining function and to reach a comic effect are rather well studies by both Russian and foreign researchers. However one and the same set of language means intended to create a comic effect implies different interpretations within different types of discourse (Coons & Weber, 2014, p. 566). While using this speech strategy the linguistic personality represents his/her linguistic skills in the frame of the gaming capabilities of the language.
In the course of our research we have noticed that the emotionally expressive speech strategy (Shilova, 2018) is often implemented using reflective speech tactics. With this speech tactics the authors of the virtual utterances reason on a certain deed, in particular, and his/her life in general. For example:
About Finding yourself
Sitting at work, I often talk to my inner voice. No, don't think, I'm not crazy. So, that voice says to me, " Vika, what the hell are you doing here? It's not your place! It's not your job! That's not what you're supposed to do! It's not yours!"
Of course, if you think so, in fact, not everything is as bad as it could have been, because there is free time to engage in your development, what to like. But, you're still tied up, you're sitting with and before.
I often think about what I would like to do, on what kind of activity I would enjoy, where I could invest my soul, be valuable, so that something important depends on me. And there were a lot of thoughts.
Yeah, I'm trying to accept everything that's happening now in my life, but I'm also trying to change this life to the one I want.
Listen to the inner voice, don't score on it. He won't advise you bad. True.
Here. Such a scream of the soul.
The emotionally expressive speech strategy allows the linguistic personality to represent his/her emotions; it might be both just the nomination of feelings and a detailed demonstration of the external manifestations of these feelings.
Linguistic analysis of the speech utterances taken from the social networks has showed the communicants often try to correct the communication partner’s utterances and take an expert position in a certain sphere.
The corrective - expert speech strategy and in particular, expert assessment tactics is used to achieve these goals. For example:
As for me, parenting is still much less from knowledge than in the approach offered. All children are different - due to genetics, nude pregnancy and etc., situations in families are different, the parents are different - that is, playing this game, acting out of their psychological features. Someone in one model of behavior will feel and lead organically, someone is in another. It is clear that the child doesn't need to be a fool, a tyrant, and a fool. But fake kids can smell too. Infantil will never convince a child that he is " higher " that " do like me if he starts playing this game. Baby baby can grow up, that's yes. Trying to drink. And if it takes his nature - well, maybe he will try to adjust it for the good of the child - and will look natural, it will not fake - then the chance that the relationship will be complicated, more, in my opinion. In Short, describe how correctly, how wrong - in algorithms and disaggregated scenarios, if you want, the case is empty. It is better to follow some more general approaches. And the first rule of parents - on mine, again, look - like in medicine: don't hurt. You can't be "Alpha" - don't climb. You can't be a friend, you better don't try. Such thoughts. (Retrieved from: https://www.facebook.com/prodvizheniernd).
With the corrective - expert speech strategy a linguistic personality tries to represent his/her leading position and play a role of a professional, expert in this or that discussed issue while speaking to the communicants.
With the separative speech strategy the social network users can resist people’s interests. It is usually manifested in the selection of themes, poems and utterances interesting for a person. Let us illustrate it with the following example:
Faster day, faster and faster.
And it's cold at night and it seems dark.
You can't see yourself. You can see how slides
This whole world is leaning somewhere.
It is moving fast.
It doesn't hold
(Retrieved from: https://www.facebook.com/harchenko.slava).
Friends! Before adding me to your groups, at least ask if I need it at all. Anyone who thinks it doesn't concern him deleting and blocking
(Retrieved from: https://www.facebook.com/profile.php?id=100002047810057).
When the cooperation principles are violated during the communication process, such tactics as spam speech tactics, flooding speech tactics and flaming speech tactics, trolling speech tactics are worth mentioning. Curiosity, interest, the desire to assert oneself, to be witty and to argue can be a reason for trolling to appear and develop in the social networks (Buckels, Trapnell, & Paulhus, 2014, p. 97).
While using this trolling speech tactics the communicants can make fun of each other, using irony. For example:
Larisa Belkina Well done!
Kateryna Samoilyk Rising Bravo!
Ulia Mihailova Bodrenʹko yes
Denis Kohreidze Awesome song, right to my checkout now
Ilya Fedoseev I don't know what's the point in the writing of this song invested Marina Sergeevna)
(Retrieved from: https://www.facebook.com/fedoseev.ilya).
While using the separative speech strategy the linguistic personality oppose herself/himself to the Internet community. This opposition can occur through immersion in oneself, one’s inner world, and may also cause disagreement among communicants resulting from the deviation from the «safe» communication situation.
The article looks the linguistic personality in the communication aspect as an average native speaker’s communication model located in a certain virtual communication environment. It is necessary to take into consideration the fact, that new communication environment possesses the features inherent to the real communication, but possesses the peculiar features inherent only for internet communication as well.
The research proved that such speech strategies as axiological, emotionally expressive, linguo-creative, corrective-expert and separative, implemented through various tactics are the most productive in the social networks of personality-oriented communication.
The axiological speech strategies are expressed by the speech tactics of censure, ridicule, neglect. Also the axiological speech strategies can be expressed by such speech tactics as: tactics of admiration, tactics of favorable attitude, tactics of approval and sympathy.
The linguo-creative speech strategy of the Internet interlocutors is mainly implemented through the speech tactics of shocking and designing a humorous effect using the gaming capabilities of the language.
To implement the emotionally expressive speech strategy, speech metaphorization tactics are often used, which is an information model of speech works that allows optimizing the perception or assimilation of new presented data.
The corrective - expert speech strategy requires interlocutors to take appropriate decisions.
Using the separative speech strategy the social networks users oppose themselves the Internet community.
Consequently, the linguistic personality's communication behavior in the social networks of personality-oriented communication is implemented through certain speech strategies application, allowing choosing the best means and methods of communication.
It is important for the linguistic personalities to use different speech strategies and tactics in the process of personality-oriented communication. The research results are presented in the Table
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12 March 2020
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Evsyukova, T. V., Agababyan, S. R., Barabanova, I. G., & Shilova*, E. S. (2020). Ways Of A Linguistic Personality Representation In Personality- Oriented Social Networks. In O. D. Shipunova, V. N. Volkova, A. Nordmann, & L. Moccozet (Eds.), Communicative Strategies of Information Society, vol 80. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 394-402). European Publisher. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2020.03.02.46