The ideas of the pedagogics of cooperation, which appeared in the 80s of the twentieth century in our country are discussed in the article. These ideas are widely used not only in Russia, but also abroad. The educators-innovators’ books are translated into many languages, their methods are used in the UK, Germany, Italy, the USA, Japan and many other countries. The main ideas of pedagogics of cooperation in training and upbringing in Russia and foreign countries are presented in the article. The principles and ideas of cooperation and interaction in foreign schools have a humanistic orientation and, in one way or another, have something in common with the principles of pedagogics of cooperation: democracy, humanism, natural conformity, success, tolerance, equality of rights, practical orientation, collective creativity, etc. To prove this we analyse the development of the education history and the specific practice of pedagogical systems in English schools. The examples of different English models of the educational institutions are given. They are the following: “Summerhill” by Alexander Neill, “Dartington Hall”, the municipal “Countershop-College”, and “Sands School” by D. Gribble. It is mentioned in the article, that the conceptual ideas of the pedagogics of cooperation are actively used in modern schools not only in Russia, but also abroad. They are modern, meaningful and relevant for all educational institutions of the present and future time.
Keywords: Pedagogics of cooperationcooperationinteractioncreativityeducationcommunication
Nowadays the problems of cooperation, interaction and a joint activity in education are studied by Russian and foreign scientists and used in teaching and upbringing students, which contribute to the humanization and humanitarization of the educational process, the development of a new level of interaction between teachers and students and the creation of humanistic relations. Therefore, the scientific basis for realizing the ideas of joint activities in education is the combined psychological and pedagogical knowledge for professional activities, subject-subject relationships in a modern society.
The analysis of scientific sources shows that at present the educational target is to form a competent-developed creative personality who can achieve great results in education and the future career. To improve the educational quality of highly qualified specialists on the basis of the competence approach (FSES of HE 3+) and interactive technologies it is necessary to use the principles and ideas of cooperation and interaction.
The ideas of the pedagogics of cooperation, which appeared in the 80s of the twentieth century in our country, are widely used not only in Russia, but also abroad. The educators-innovators’ books are translated into many languages, their methods are used in the UK, Germany, Italy, the USA, Japan and many other countries (Bazhenova, 1987; Bim-Bad, 2003; Buckman, 1973; Davydov, 1999; Dewey, 1928; Raparsevich, 2005; Sansom, 1965; Selevko, 2006; Slastenin, 2000; Slastenin, Isaev, Mishchenko, & Shiyanov, 2004; Truhacheva, Avanesyan, & Titova, 1996).
The main features of the pedagogics of cooperation that fully meet the objectives of modern Russian education are: a man, as a value and subject of the integral pedagogical process, interaction, cooperation, partnership, humanism, creativity and co-creation, personal development, collectivism, joint activities, a dialogue, communication and mutual enrichment.
Based on the analysis of various sources, we clarified the essence of the pedagogics of cooperation. It has been established that the essence of the pedagogics of cooperation lies:
in the harmonious development of the personality of children and adults;
in the subject-subject relations, when each participant of the pedagogical process is its equal member with the duties and requirements imposed on him/her.
These are the actions:
in the awareness of the objectives of all participants’ activities in the educational, upbringing and developmental processes;
in children’s involvement in active learning;
in the joint work of teachers and students;
in mutual assistance, mutual understanding, interaction, mutual enrichment, care, respect, in friendly communication;
in the spiritual penetration into the world of each other, as well as in the exchange of certain values realized by both sides in the process of working together, which is manifested in a dialogue, partnership, trust and ease of relations;
in the ability of a teacher to promote the manifestation of schoolchildren’s initiative, to provide motivation for learning continuous joint creation and teachers and pupils’ upheaval, when every pedagogical act, decision, and action are checked for humanity, cooperation and development.
And finally, cooperation is manifested in a collective analysis of the joint activities’ results; in involving into the pedagogical process not only students and teachers, but also parents, the public, the closest environment (a district, nearby educational, cultural, sports and other institutions). It follows that at the present stage of development, the pedagogics of cooperation is a humanistic direction of pedagogical science, built on democratic principles, an equal and subjective position of the participants in the integral pedagogical process, their interaction, co-creation, joint collective activities, aimed at the comprehensive development and self-development of the children's personality.
Taking them into account, the conceptual ideas were identified that are essential for the pedagogics of cooperation of our time (Table
As the table shows (Grebenkinan & Kopylova, 2010), the conceptual ideas of the pedagogics of cooperation in the 80s of the twentieth century form the basis of modern pedagogics of cooperation and are an impetus to the improvement of pedagogical science in general.
Thus, it should be noted that in the pedagogics of cooperation, the category of “cooperation” acts as a pedagogical value that is formed in the educational system, and at the same time as a factor uniting the participants of the educational process and simultaneously putting everyone in a subject position in training, upbringing and development. It is a guideline for developing students’ knowledge, skills and abilities, caring, partner interpersonal relationships based on mutual understanding, love, conscience, mutual respect, care and support in various types of joint activities, students' mastering moral and aesthetic norms and rules, and serves the development of personality, which corresponds to the modern concepts of training, upbringing and development.
The main tasks of the article are:
to view the main ideas of pedagogics of cooperation in Russia$
to view the main ideas of cooperation and interaction in foreign schools;
to compare these ideas;
to analyse the development of the education history and the specific practice of pedagogical systems in English schools;
to give conclusions about the comparison.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the study is to show the importance of the ideas of cooperation and interaction between teachers and students in our time, to give examples of schools that use these ideas, to make the conclusion about the necessity of these ideas’ usage.
The analysis of the scientific sources shows that, at present, teachers’ practical activities, targeted pedagogical attitudes, the meaning of which is to form a competence developed creative personality of an individual, become integrative in nature and contribute to the effective and economical use of pedagogical tools in achieving their objectives.
When organizing the integral pedagogical process at an education institution on the basis of cooperation and interaction, we relied on a set of the following methodological approaches: humanistic, cultural, axiological, competency-based, communicative, person-centered, system-activity, professional, integrative. The maim principles of the research are humanization, creativity, unity of theory and practice, integration, continuity.
The main research methods are: a retrospective analysis and literature review, an observation, a questioning, an interviewing, designing, modelling, monitoring, an experiment.
The analysis of the theoretical sources of foreign and Russian researchers allowed us to identify the main principles and ideas of pedagogics of cooperation in training and upbringing used by practicing teachers abroad (Table
The outlined principles and ideas have a humanistic orientation and, in one way or another, have something in common with the principles of pedagogics of cooperation: democracy, humanism, natural conformity, success, tolerance, equality of rights, practical orientation, collective creativity, etc. (Grebenkina & Kopylova, 2010).
To prove this we analyse the development of the education history and the specific practice of pedagogical systems in English schools.
In the English model of the educational institution “Summerhill” by Alexander Neill (2000), the structure-forming elements of life are the participation of adults and children on an equal footing in self-management and the cultivation of inner relaxedness, openness, freedom of children’s self-development, his/her acceptance as an individual, democratic, equal relationships between children and educators. The main idea of the school is “not to do anything that could wrongly interfere with the child’s identity, fetter, bind the child’s body” (p. 96, 97).
Here are some of the postulates taken from the book of A. Neill:
The happiness and well-being of children depend on the degree of love and support they receive from us. We must be on the side of the child: give him/her our love, but not possessive and not sentimental.
Everything rests on faith in the child. Some adults have it. Most don't. And if you do not have such faith, children feel it. If you accept children, you can talk with them about anything and everything, because the very fact of adoption removes most of the prohibitions.
Parents ruin the lives of their children by imposing obsolete notions, manners, and moral rules on them. They sacrifice a child to the past.
Education needs children much less than love and understanding. In order to be naturally good, they need support and freedom. Only a strong and loving parent (an adult, a teacher) is able to give the child the freedom to be good.
A normal child needs support no less than a difficult one. Here is the only instruction that every parent and teacher must follow: “You must be on the side of the child”. It is submission to this instruction that makes “Summerhill” a successful school, because it stands on the side of the child and the child, albeit unknowingly, understands this.
Adults should take the child as he/she is and refrain from trying to shape it in its own image and likeness. The motto for the family — in education and in life — let people live their lives. This is the only approach that promotes tolerance. This is the right word for a free school. It leads children through tolerance, showing tolerance towards them (Neill, 1960; Neill, 1972; Neill, 2000, pp. 97-102).
In “Summerhill” the educators help children in certain situations. The teachers are open to any questions from the children, which cause them the sincere trust of the students. The schoolchildren are rarely criticized in the truest sense of the word. For A. Neill, it was important to “catch” every moment the initiative of students in order to gradually teach them to direct the initiative in a social direction.
Democratic relations never turned into so-called familiarity. The children respected and loved A. Neill for the fact that he understood each and everyone well and gave everyone the opportunity to act as he/she wanted. In this sense, there was no and there is currently no formal discipline in “Summerhill”. For example, some children go to bed at nine, while others (“owls”) quietly go about their business and go to bed whenever they want. In the morning, noone goes to the canteen. One hour is allotted for breakfast: someone comes first, and someone last. But from this do not make an emergency. The discipline develops naturally as a framework (albeit rather flexible) of generally accepted cases. Each child himself thinks the conditions of existence in this framework and “answers” himself before himself, and not before an adult.
Any initiative is encouraged at school. The principle is: Want? - Do it. The adults in relation to the child do not occupy the position of “a teacher” (a person who has to follow, make comments, interfere with the actions of children, constantly indicating what to do and how). They are just adults who come to the rescue if the pupil himself wants her. Everything else works on the basis of self-organization of older and younger people (Krylova & Alexandrova, 2003, pp. 292-293, 300-301).
Another English school, “Dartington Hall”, also emerged on the basis of the “Summerhill” model, and its main feature was a special atmosphere of cooperation, interaction and communication based on humane principles. At school, none of the teachers are in the position of a leader, neither in relation to the children, nor in relation to the colleagues. The educators never allow themselves to be unaware or disrespectful to children. At “Dartington Hall”, freedom and responsibility help work in the classroom. The children are not punished for their bad behaviour. The teachers react to their misdeeds without any punishment with the help of humorous rewards, persuasion, admonitions, comparisons, distraction, ignoring, mediation in reconciliation, etc. In “Dartington Hall” it is recognized that children - this is a wonderful community, they are – are talented and interesting people. Private lessons are common at school, and the teachers are older friends for the children.
One of the directors of this school, U.B. Kurry made the following conclusion: if life at school is based on respect for rights, then the legal and moral atmosphere automatically begins to act in the classroom. In school, relations between the children and the adults are built on the basis of equality.
The basis of school life is the content of relationships in the school community, the democratic nature of which is constantly maintained. From time to time, everything changes roles and places: children become teachers, and teachers change children (direct role exchange). Therefore, the children and the teachers are distinguished by mutual understanding, openness and friendliness, care. The school community is not divided into the children and the teachers (Krylova & Alexandrova, 2003, pp. 301-302).
The experience of organizing activities in the municipal “Countershop-College” (England) is indicative. It is built on democratic principles and includes the teachers and students’ cooperation in all spheres of life. The students enjoy the right to choose subjects and teaching methods, as well as forms of education. The curriculum creates the conditions for the students’ initiative and ensures their autonomy. This does not contradict the program of studying any subject, but it gives everyone the opportunity to master it individually and in the context of their own interests.
The main principle of the school is the principle of “self-directed learning”, according to which a student masters the chosen subject on the basis of his/her own approach (interests, values, experience, abilities and capabilities) with the consulting support of a teacher or tutor who understands the characteristics of a teenager. In such an individual curriculum, the forms of psychological and academic support, cooperation, mutual assistance, humane relations are combined.
The students with similar curriculum are combined into teams. Group work is built on the basis of discussions and a joint analysis of each learning experience. Everyone has their own table, which can have everything that the child considers necessary for himself/herself. Often, by what lies on the table, you can see what the child is doing and at what stage his project is. The subjects of the projects are varied: “Study of children's imagination in the process of working in the first class”, “Report on practical work in the local library”, “Game, writing and crafts of local primary schools’ children”, “Photo series”, “Tree of generations in the family since 1584”, “Comparison of the life of a model and the life of my mother”. In college, a child becomes the leader of an educational activity, a teacher becomes a colleague, an assistant in research.
Almost all tasks are done at school, so homework is little. The students study with friends, do not wear a uniform, select their own schedule. In school, there are no laggards, because everyone learns together and from each other. Nobody forces schoolchildren to work, but according to their confession, they do much more (Krylova & Alexandrova, 2003, pp. 303-305).
At the heart of “Sands School” by D. Gribble are the “Summerhill” and “Dartington Hall” models. The main principles are:
free choice of the program and forms of education;
joint (children + adults) school management, in which everyone has equal rights;
diverse educational environment;
project work methods, the purpose of which is to expand the life experience of children.
But the peculiarity of this school is that it acts effectively and consistently in everything, down to the smallest detail, the ethical standard is trust in the children and the teachers, faith in their capabilities and abilities. The great importance is attached to voluntary responsibility, which helps in self-organization (in fact, there is no administration at school). In an atmosphere of trust, there is no place for coaction, pressure, or the imposition of someone else’s will.
The children feel a free personality, the students are on a par with the teachers who do not command and do not force them to do something in their own way. Attendance is optional. However, according to the students, the lessons are fun, but not because the teachers make fun, but because everything is done together. At school, the students become adults, because they themselves organize everything, learn to get along with people, to resolve conflicts. The schoolchildren have the right to choose, are interested in work, meet with mutual understanding on the part of teachers (Krylova & Alexandrova, 2003, p. 305-306);
Based on the above, the following conclusion can be thought: the English schools actively use the ideas of the pedagogics of cooperation, in particular, the educational productivity of specially organized collective life activities, the intertwining of educational and extracurricular affairs, emotional communication and interaction, humanistic relations, creativity, moral growth of an individual, interest, emotional rise, creative self-realization, eventfulness, moral experiences, spirituality. All this leads to the expansion of the spectrum of motives of a person’s behaviour, which is the driving force behind the development of collective life activity.
Thus, the conceptual ideas of the pedagogics of cooperation are actively used in modern schools not only in Russia, but also abroad, in particular in England. They are modern, meaningful and relevant for all educational institutions of the present and future time.
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02 December 2019
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Kopylova*, N. (2019). Interaction In The Theory And Practice Of English Educational Establishments. In N. I. Almazova, A. V. Rubtsova, & D. S. Bylieva (Eds.), Professional Сulture of the Specialist of the Future, vol 73. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 560-567). Future Academy. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2019.12.60