Staff Policy Of Party And Soviet Bodies Of Chechen-Ingushetia In 1957-1960

Abstract

On February 23, 1944, all Chechen and Ingush people were deported to Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, and their national autonomy, the Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, was abolished. The entire national (albeit on formal grounds) party-state hierarchy was destroyed. The workers of the party, Soviet, Komsomol, and economic bodies turned out to be a spent force. They were not able to take similar positions in the forced settlements. When the Twentieth Congress of the CPSU rehabilitated the Chechens and Ingush and restored their autonomy (1957-1960), the shortage of national staff was crucial. The government set a task to train the new staff in the short term and use the available one. However, local leaders did not want to implement this decision. The article studies the above-described issue using archival documents, including those first introduced into scientific circulation. The analysis shows that in the first years of the repatriation of the Chechen-Ingush population, restoration of the national economic infrastructure, and the party-state hierarchy, the share of national workers, especially in the upper echelons, remained scanty. The article aims to analyze the nature of rehabilitation of the Chechen and Ingush peoples, the staff policy of the party and Soviet bodies of the Chechen-Ingush Republic. The research object is the Soviet political system of the Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic. The main research methods are systemic and problem-chronological analysis. These low indicators were due to a subjective, biased approach to staff selection rather than due to the lack of national qualified workers.

Keywords: Chechen-IngushASSRautonomySoviethierarchy

Introduction

To restore the statehood of the Chechen and Ingush peoples, the party and Soviet bodies had to implement a balanced staff policy aimed at providing the republican political system with competent national staff. The issue of large-scale rotation of managerial and auxiliary staff throughout the vertical and horizontal institutional hierarchy was on the agenda. It was necessary to subordinate this multifaceted activity to the goals and objectives of the current agenda and development of the national statehood of the Chechen and Ingush peoples.

Problem Statement

The nature of the staff policy of the party and Soviet bodies during the restoration period is of great scientific and practical importance. It contributes to a deeper understanding of the historical processes that took place in Chechnya-Ingushetia during the period under review.

Research Questions

The research object is the Soviet political system of the Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic. The research subject is the republican hierarchy of party and state administration, institutions that form a basis for the constitutional administrative structure of statehood, including the national one.

Purpose of the Study

The article aims to analyze the nature of rehabilitation of the Chechen and Ingush peoples, the staff policy of the party and Soviet bodies of the Chechen-Ingush Republic.

Research Methods

The main research methods are systemic and problem-chronological analysis.

Findings

The Soviet experience of self-determination of peoples shows that national-state construction was modeled without any innovations in the framework of projects designed (as far back as the 1920s) by Stalin. The supreme principle was democratic centralism which served as propaganda veil of the authoritarian nature of the Soviet political system. The background camouflage was the Soviet localization policy, although the average statistical indicators of the dynamics of nomination of representatives of the indigenous (titular) peoples to leading positions in party, Soviet and economic bodies were the result of bureaucratic manipulations.

After the XXth CPSU Congress, the task of overcoming grave consequences of the Stalin policies was one of the priorities. Responsibility for solving tasks arising from the planned program fell on the government bodies in Kalmykia, Chechnya, Ingushetia, etc. In this historical context, the policy of indigenization, in other words, purposeful nomination of staff from the rehabilitated peoples, was one of the key points of the multifaceted process of rehabilitation of these peoples.

On November 24, the Presidium of the Central Committee of the CPSU discussed the issue “Restoring National Autonomy of the Kalmyk, Karachay, Balkarian, Chechen and Ingush Peoples” and adopted a resolution specifying the measures needed to implement the objectives (Restoration of the Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in 1953–1962, 2013). The preamble of the document said that “the Central Committee of the Party and the Soviet government has implemented a number of measures to rehabilitate the evicted peoples, involve them in active production and social life. These categories of the population are removed from the regime of special settlement. Local party and Soviet bodies began to show more concern for improving their economic structure and labor use, they began to nominate advanced people of these nationalities for administrative positions” (Restoration of the Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in 1953–1962, 2013).

Creation of leading party and state structures of the republican level (Restoration of the Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in 1953–1962, 2013) became a priority. It was proposed to impose a duty of restoration on the "Organizing Bureau and the Organizing Committee of the Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic" (Restoration of the Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in 1953–1962, 2013). However, given that the Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic is being restored "mainly in the territory of Grozny region", where there was a corresponding party infrastructure, it was decided to abandon the idea of ​​creation of the Organizing Bureau (a temporary party body). Therefore, “until the election of leading party bodies,” the functions of party leadership in the Chechen-Ingush Republic was entrusted to the Grozny regional party committee (Restoration of the Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in 1953–1962, 2013).

Given that the restoration of the Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic required a large volume of work, it was proposed to increase the number of regional committee secretaries by two" (Restoration of the Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in 1953–1962, 2013).

On January 3, 1957, the Bureau of the Central Committee of the CPSU for the RSFSR approved the draft Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Council of the RSFSR "On Approval of the Organizational Committee of the Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic" and its staff number of 21 people (RSANI).

On January 5-6, 1957, the Presidium of the Central Committee of the CPSU which met under the chairmanship of N.S. Khrushchev discussed the issue “About the territory of the Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (RGANI).

The solutions consisted of the following two points:

1. To accept the proposal of the Commission of the Presidium of the Central Committee on the territory of the Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic; to approve the draft decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR "On the restoration of the Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic and abolition of Grozny region" and the draft decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR "On the transfer of Dushet and Kazbegi districts from the Georgian SSR to the RSFSR".

2. To transform Grozny regional committee of the CPSU into the Chechen-Ingush regional committee, appointing representatives of the Chechen-Ingush population to the positions in its structure; to impose the leadership of the republic’s party organization on the Chechen-Ingush Regional Committee of the CPSU until the election of the regional party committee (RSANI).

The CPSU Central Committee agreed to increase the number of secretaries of the regional committee from four to six" and recommended the leadership of the Grozny regional committee of the CPSU to elect the secretary of the regional party committee and introduce Sh. S. Sagaev into its bureau (Restoration of the Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in 1953–1962, 2013), (until the end of the Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic).

M.G. Gayrbekov and M.M. Khashagulgov were recommended as candidates for the post in the the bureau of Grozny Regional Party Committee. M.G. Gayrbekov was the main candidate for the post of the Chairman of the Organizational Committee of the Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic

On January 9, 1957, the Presidium of the Supreme Council of the USSR issued the Decree “On the Restoration of the Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic within the RSFSR” (Restoration of the Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in 1953–1962, 2013). On the same day, the Presidium of the Supreme Council of the RSFSR issued the Decrees: “On the Restoration of the Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic and Abolition of Grozny Region” (Restoration of the Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in 1953–1962, 2013) and “On Approval of the Organizing Committee on the Chechen-Ingush ASSR” (Restoration of the Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in 1953–1962, 2013).

The organizing committee was headed by Muslim Gayrbekovich Gayrbekov, a professional manager. In the 1940s, being a high-ranking official, he learned the methods of Soviet and party work. He was respected by the Chechen-Ingush population and old residents of Grozny region. A. Slusarev was appointed his first deputy; A.F. Zonov, Z.S. Tongiev, I.A. Shustov were appointed his deputies; Komarov was appointed a secretary of the Presidium of the Supreme Council of the Chechen-Ingush ASSR (RSASPI).

The CIASSR Organizing Committee included: Baranova F.D., Bryksin E.V., Gashev A.D., Dementyev G.M., Dukuzov Kh.N., Malsagov D.G., Petrov N.G., Rusin V.F., Strulev S.S., Suleymanov K., Tepsaev A.V.T., Khoziev V.F., Tsutiev U.D., Yakovlev A.I., Yandiev M.A. (Restoration of the Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in 1953–1962, 2013).

On January 16, 1957, the bureau of Grozny Regional Committee of the CPSU decided to increase the number of bureau staff to 11 people. M.G. Gairbekova, Sh.S. Sagaev and G.Ya. Cherkevich became members of the bureau (Restoration of the Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in 1953–1962, 2013).

On January 17, the meeting of the regional party activists of Grozny region was held. The need “to involve Chechens and Ingush in public life, study national staff of party, Soviet and economic bodies, their business and political qualities, nominate Chechens and Ingush for leadership” was discussed (Restoration of the Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in 1953–1962, 2013).

Thus, the state-building process subordinate to the main goal – successful restoration of the national autonomy of the Chechen and Ingush peoples – began with the creation of the governing institutions of the party and state hierarchy of the Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic. All three levels (upper, middle, and lower) were reconstructed simultaneously due to obvious factors: repatriation of the Chechen-Ingush population, significant and inevitable changes in the republican administrative-territorial structure (including the head-on transfer of entire regions, individual settlements), staff displacement new appointments.

On January 21, 1957, the Bureau of Grozny Regional Party Committee of the CPSU discussed the issue of administrative-territorial division of the Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic. The republic consisted of 19 units: two cities (Grozny and Malgobek) and 17 districts (RGASPI).

On the same day, it was decided to ask the Bureau of the CPSU Central Committee to authorize the internal organizational and structural reorganization of Grozny Regional Committee of the CPSU (RGASPI) due to the creation of the Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic ...” (RGASPI). As a result of implementation of these reforms, the staff of the regional committee of the CPSU increased by 19 people. The CPSU Regional Committee Bureau decided to apply to a higher authority "... to create a department for female work in these areas and in Malgobek CPSU City Committee ..." (RSASPI).

As of March 1, 1957, there were 88 leaders of the republican nomenclature, including 9 people of Chechen and Ingush nationality (RSASPI).

On March 18, 1957, the bureau of the Chechen-Ingush Regional Committee of the CPSU decided to publish the newspaper "Leninsky Put" in the Chechen language (5,000 copies) and the newspaper "Serdalo" - (Svet) in the Ingush language (1,000 circulation copies.), as well as the republican youth newspaper “Komsomol tribe” (circulation of 15 thousand copies) (RGASPI). At the same time, it was decided to restore the Research Institute for History, Economics, Language and Literature of the Chechen-Ingush ASSR (RGASPI).

At the city and district levels, the executive bodies were city and district executive committees of workers. Beginning from the end of April 1957 (protocol of the Bureau of the CPSU Committee of April 27, 1957), the chairmen of Staropromyslov and Molotov district (Grozny) executive committees were dismissed from their posts “in connection with their transfer to another job”. But there were no representatives of the Chechen and Ingush peoples among new managers.

The traditional system of a staff reserve was a network of joint schools of various levels, from regional to republican and higher (all-union) ones. In Chechen-Ingushetia, the issue of admission of students to party schools was considered at a meeting of the CPSU Regional Committee Bureau on May 7, 1957. The selection of candidates was entrusted to the city and district CPSU committees (RGASPI). On May 15, the lists of candidates for the educational institutions were reviewed by the Bureau of the CPSU Regional Committee. Out of twelve candidates, two ones were representatives of the Chechen and Ingush nationalities (Kh. B. Daudov and Khashagulgov M. M (RGASPI).

On May 24, the Bureau of the CPSU Regional Committee appointed Kostoev S.A. and Chagaev A.A. to the positions of department instructors (RGASPI). On June 8, Kh.G. Vakhaev and S.M. Nalaev were appointed to the same positions (RGASPI). D. Malsagov was appointed to the post of director of the Chechen-Ingush Research Institute for History, Language and Literature was (RGASPI).

A serious milestone in the restoration of the Chechen-Ingush ASSR was the YI-th Plenum of the Chechen-Ingush Regional Committee of the CPSU which was held on August 12, 1956 in Grozny. A candidate member of the Presidium of the CPSU Central Committee, secretary of the CPSU Central Committee P. N. Pospelov took part in its work.

The main report was made by the first secretary of the Chechen-Ingush Regional Party Committee A. I. Yakovlev. According to his data, “33,227 families, 133 thousand people, including 60 thousand employable, came back to the republic (Restoration of the Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in 1953–1962, 2013). The number of employed people was 40 thousand. Leading positions were occupied by 595 Chechens and Ingush, including 161 people were appointed to the posts in party, Soviet, Komsomol bodies; 345 people worked in the economic (Restoration of the Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in 1953–1962, 2013).

A.I. Yakovlev said that staff selection and education are crucial issues. “434 communists of Chechen and Ingush nationalities arrived in the republic”. According to the results of the elections to the local Soviets of Working Deputies, 70 Chechens and Ingush became deputies. 166 people worked in public education bodies, 252 people were engaged in teacher retraining courses, and 250 people were planned to be admitted to the pedagogical school and the pedagogical institute. In 1957, 30 Chechen-Ingush young people were enrolled into various universities of the country” (Restoration of the Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in 1953–1962, 2013). “34 Chechens and Ingush who completed a 6-month training course conducted by the Central Committee of the CPSU will be appointed to the leading positions” (Restoration of the Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in 1953–1962, 2013).

The Plenum developed practical measures aimed at the restoration of the Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic. Chakhkiev Osman was elected to the vacant post of the second secretary of the Chechen-Ingush Regional Committee of the CPSU.

As of December 1, 1957, there were 1,200 Chechens and Ingush in the republic who had higher or secondary special education, including 500 people with higher education (Country of Soviets for 50 years, 1967). As of December 1, 1961, 3,776 Chechens and Ingush studied at higher and secondary educational institutions.

In December 1957, the Regional Committee of the CPSU and the Organizational Committee for the Chechen-Ingush ASSR offered the government to hold elections to the Supreme Council of the USSR. On December 24, the Bureau of the CPSU Central Committee for the RSFSR approved this initiative (RGANI). Thus, the process of forming the legitimate system of state administration of the republic was launched.

The Central Election Commission registered deputies elected to the Supreme Soviet of the Republic in all 116 districts. According to the national composition, the deputies' mandates were distributed as follows: Russians - 52 (44.8%), Chechens and Ingush - 51 (about 44%), others - 13 (about 11%) (The first session of the Supreme Council of the Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, 1938). 31 women were elected to the Supreme Council of the Chechen-Ingush ASSR, 15 of them were women mountaineers (Chechen-Ingush nationality) (Sessions of the Supreme Council of the CIASSR of the second convocation (first session), 15–16 April, 1958).

On April 15, 1958, the first session of the Supreme Council of the Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (second convocation) was held. A. Murdiev was elected Chairman of the Supreme Council of the ChIASSR (Sessions of the Supreme Council of the CIASSR of the second convocation (first session), 15–16 April, 1958).

Eleven people were elected to the Presidium of the Supreme Council of the Chechen-Ingush ASSR: Russians - 5, Chechens - 5, Ingush - 1. I.A. Almazov was elected Chairman of the Presidium, E. Izvarina and T. Tepsayev were elected his deputies. M.I. Komarov was elected Secretary.

The Government of the Chechen-Ingush ASSR was headed by M.G. Gayrbekov.

The difficulties of the initial stage of restoration of national autonomy have been overcome. As a result of all these multifaceted activities, the Chechen-Ingush ASSR has been restored. All Chechens and Ingush who wished to return to their republic were able to exercise their legal right. From 1957 to 1961, 468 thousand Chechens and Ingush returned from Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, including: 432 thousand people – to the Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, 28 thousand people – to the Dagestan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, 8 thousand people – to the North Ossetian ASSR (RGASPI). About 57 thousand Chechen-Ingush people remained on the territory of the Kazakh and Kyrgyz SSR. Of the 118 thousand employable people who arrived in the republic, 112 thousand were employed (RGASPI).

The leaders of the Chechen-Ingush ASSR concluded that restoration of the republic was successfully completed (RGASPI).

Conclusion

The rich documentary material shows that the staff policy of the party and Soviet bodies of the Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic as an integral part of the state program aimed at the rehabilitation of the Chechen and Ingush peoples, had a progressive vector, although the process of these obvious transformations was challenging due to subjective factors.

References

  1. Country of Soviets for 50 years (1967). Collection of statistical materials. Moscow.
  2. Restoration of the Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in 1953–1962 (2013). Nalchik: LLC "Printing House".
  3. RGASPI. F. 17, op. 116, 466.
  4. Russian State Archive of New History (RGANI). F. 13, op. 1, d. 19, 40 RGANI. F. 89, op. 61, 7.
  5. Russian State Archive of Socio-Political History (RGASPI). F. 17, op. 21, c. 2624, 2625, 2628, 2629, 2630, 5755.
  6. Sessions of the Supreme Council of the CIASSR of the second convocation (first session), 15–16 April (1958). Grozny.
  7. The first session of the Supreme Council of the Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic. (1938). Publication of the Supreme Council of the Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic.

Copyright information

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

About this article

Publication Date

21 January 2020

eBook ISBN

978-1-80296-075-4

Publisher

Future Academy

Volume

76

Print ISBN (optional)

-

Edition Number

1st Edition

Pages

1-3763

Subjects

Sociolinguistics, linguistics, semantics, discourse analysis, science, technology, society

Cite this article as:

Bugaev*, A., Gapurov, S., & Magamadov, S. (2020). Staff Policy Of Party And Soviet Bodies Of Chechen-Ingushetia In 1957-1960. In D. Karim-Sultanovich Bataev, S. Aidievich Gapurov, A. Dogievich Osmaev, V. Khumaidovich Akaev, L. Musaevna Idigova, M. Rukmanovich Ovhadov, A. Ruslanovich Salgiriev, & M. Muslamovna Betilmerzaeva (Eds.), Social and Cultural Transformations in the Context of Modern Globalism, vol 76. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 502-508). Future Academy. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2019.12.04.68