The article considers historical education as an important component of social and socio-cultural history when the evolution of education is revealed not only in the context of educational policy, structural institutions, program documents of different eras, but also from the point of view of interrelations between subjects of the educational process and their role in economic and cultural structures. One of the main approaches in the article was a sociocultural approach that is applicable to our research topic. Such approach makes it possible to define the concept of history through a cultural and educational environment, all components of which are filled with human meaning and serve man in his unity with historical facts. At present, in Russian society there is an urgent need for a historical analysis of the problem of education since a comparative analysis of education reform will help determine the strategic directions for the development of this important institution of society in the period of rapid development of social and economic transformations. The future of Russian education depends on how much scientific research in this area will correspond to a rapidly changing situation at not only the country level, but also taking into account the objective and subjective capabilities of individual constituent entities of the Russian Federation.
The role of historical education and science is extremely important in ensuring the sustainable development of civilization at the beginning of the XXI century. On the other hand, the possibilities of state financing in many countries are falling, the gap between developing and developed countries in the field of education is growing. With particular seriousness, these crisis phenomena and processes are manifested in Russia.
Socio-economic changes in Russian society in the early 1990s had a significant impact on the state and development of education, since the state of the external sphere dictates the need for adequate changes in the field of historical education. Therefore, this topic is extremely important for the history of the Fatherland, primarily because public education has entered a period of qualitative renewal on the basis of radical transformations of the entire social system. It is the educational system that is most sensitive to changes taking place in society. In order for our country not to remain aloof from those who are able to build up their scientific, cultural and moral potential, the educational system, by its very nature, must and can act as an intellectual means of managing the development of an integral social organism. Therefore, bringing the education system in line with new social needs is an important state task (Ashmarov, 2014).
The relevance of the topic being studied is further enhanced by the fact that the scientific justification requires a change in approaches to managing the education reform system in Russia, taking into account the strengthening of the regulatory functions of its subjects (Brainin, 1979).
The task of the study is to explore not only the scope of theoretical positions and conclusions, but it is also quite natural to focus on developing such pedagogical technologies that would meet their humanistic essence and focus, most fully reveal the spiritual potential of the individual. The trend of educational technologies with a humanistic focus reflected the complex and controversial process of their formation and development (Chesnokov, 1996). This was largely due to the fact that the emerging personality-oriented humanistic concepts and theories did not meet the strict requirements and standards of educational activities, which were dictated by the bureaucratic apparatus of education management.
The theoretical basis of the study was the basic principles of the theory and methodology of teaching; modern studies of educational technologies in education; pedagogical theories about the formation of cognitive activity, methodological provisions on the use of documents in the teaching of history. Of particular value in this work is the extensive archival material, first introduced into scientific use, which was used in conjunction with a huge repository of personal sources - memoirs, diaries, memoirs of women who graduated from Russia (Ershov, 2010).
Anniversary dates were a definite stimulus for studying the history of the development of higher historical education. So, in particular, in the works of Don scientist and еру former rector of the Rostov State University, is given the full history of the Warsaw Imperial University - the first institution of higher education. She covers the activities of leading professors and historians, the formation of scientific schools and the system of teaching historical sciences, the training of scientific personnel. Since the late 1990s, the next period in the development of historical education begins. This stage is characterized by general works in which fundamental questions of the study of historical science are studied, where the appearance of higher historical education is considered (Ershov, 2011). There are alternative views on the history of the formation of higher historical education. Especially it is necessary to highlight the monograph “Historical and scientific foundations of the humanization of education”, as well as “Spiritual heritage in the educational process” (Glebov & Vinogradov, 1993).
The works of various researchers form the "social" direction in the study of the history of higher education. Universities are considered as an integral part of Russian society, possessing unique features (Golovnin, 1997). The main attention in the works of historians is paid to the relationship between the socio-economic and political development of the country and the development of the university corporation. Between these processes there is a clear relationship: the development of the university system is initiated by objective needs, social development. Universities act as progressive centers of science and culture (Kareyev, 1994).
At present, modern historiography is experiencing a period of paradigm shift; the usual stereotypes of understanding and reassessing the processes of development of Russian historical science are crumbling, new approaches and new research perspectives of well-studied problems are forming. The main focus of these processes is to shift the focus on the process of scientific creativity, which includes the reconstruction of conditions for the formation of a scientist.
Purpose of the Study
In the historical university education, under the influence of the general policy of the Russian government in the field of science and education and the development processes of world and Russian historical science, active transformation processes took place. The changes covered all aspects of the educational sphere: the organizational bases changed, the structure and content of historical education was reorganized, and methodological traditions were developed.
The evolution of the organizational foundations of historical university education was mainly influenced by the state educational policy, which was associated with a change in the administrative and legal status of Russian universities, which followed the adoption of the Charter of universities in 1884. The adopted charter in 1884 approved the system of relations between the state and universities, which corresponded to the realities of the sociopolitical practice of Russia of the late 19th - early 20th centuries, turning universities into administrative units and authorities in practice (Kravchenko, 2002).
In modern conditions, a characteristic feature of most specific historical studies was the desire to provide synthesis, a combination of various methodological approaches. At the same time, statements about the need to link the historical knowledge of the formational approach with the civilizational approach began to be widely disseminated (Pogodin, 2004).
The author of this work shares this point of view. The basis of the study consists of the principles of scientific objectivity in the complex study of specific historical factors of social development, the principle of historicism, the identification of cause-effect relationships. The comparative historical method is widely used.
This law reflected the tendencies towards the centralization and unification of the education system, which are integral features of the education system, which at all levels is under the control of state power and is inherent in the majority of world educational systems of the 20th century. At the beginning of the 20th century, the practice of public administration of universities was characteristic not only for Russia, but also for many European countries, primarily for France, where the practice of state regulation turned out to be a way for universities to survive.
The educational value of historical education in the constructions of historians and professors acquires above all the value of the universal and civic. Knowledge of history allows you to combine the cultural experience of humankind, introduces him to the system of universal human values and forms in him a citizen who respects his country and its history.
Differences in the placement of accents in defining the goals of historical university education by government representatives leave their mark on the content of historical education, which is reflected primarily at the level of historical programs and courses. Ministerial programs on Russian and universal history are focused primarily on the study of factual material.
Expansion of the subject area of historical courses, changing the organizational foundations of historical education, leads the scientific and pedagogical community to realization of the need to find new forms and methods of teaching. Practical exercises aimed at independent work of students with sources and literature and aimed at developing research skills and stimulating the development of their own style of scientific work become a new form of education. The meaning of the traditional form of organization of the educational process - lectures - is being rethought (Lebedev, 1921).
The scientific and pedagogical community forms the image of an ideal university lecture, which includes the basic requirements for this form of education. An “ideal” lecture should meet the requirements of high science, acquaint students with the historiographic situation on the problem, reflect the scientific interests of the professor and be the result of a long and thoughtful work on the material. In addition, a number of methodological requirements are presented for the lecture: it must meet the age of the students, be read at a good literary level, “liven up” historical images.
The formation of a new form of education and the formation of the image of an ideal university lecture are closely connected with the beginning of the development of a new independent academic discipline and field of knowledge - the methodology of teaching history. The first works in the field of history teaching methods, created by university professors and historians, were devoted to school education, but the ideas expressed in these works were also reflected in the teaching practice of higher education (Mirolyubov, 2002).
All of the above processes have an impact on changing the image of a university teacher - a historian, a person who is flesh from the flesh of his era, both socially and psychologically. In its practice one connects and reflects the tendencies of government influence on the university, and is the bearer and exponent of the needs of the faculty. One is a person who combines the scientific and teaching fields of activity, and finally, a person whose personality, activities and views have a reverse impact on the socio-cultural situation in the country, and on teaching (Osnos, 1943).
In general, it should be noted that the evolution of the system of historical education in Russian universities took place within the framework of a compromise between state policy and the aspirations of universities, reflecting the complexity and inconsistency of the transformation processes in Russian society. The period of the beginning of the 20th century becomes a turning point for historical education. Changing organizational principles, defining goals, expanding the content of education, creating new forms of education and forming a system of methodological requirements make it possible to create a very effective system for training both professional historians and schoolteachers (Ruzavin, 1997).
The effectiveness of the system of historical education in the field of restoring the academic environment became the institutional basis for the flourishing of historical science in Russia at the turn of the XIX - XX centuries, which made it possible to prepare high-class historians and the development of historical science in Russia (Znamensky, 1982).
We must also note the value of the experience and traditions in historical university education. Modern historical education today solves problems that are very similar to problems existing more than a century ago.
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28 December 2019
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Sociolinguistics, linguistics, semantics, discourse analysis, science, technology, society
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Shkarubo, S., Yurchenko, N., Solovieva, S., & Ershov*, B. (2019). Prospects For Development Of Historical Education And Competencies Of Students In Russia. In D. Karim-Sultanovich Bataev, S. Aidievich Gapurov, A. Dogievich Osmaev, V. Khumaidovich Akaev, L. Musaevna Idigova, M. Rukmanovich Ovhadov, A. Ruslanovich Salgiriev, & M. Muslamovna Betilmerzaeva (Eds.), Social and Cultural Transformations in the Context of Modern Globalism, vol 76. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 3654-3659). Future Academy. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2019.12.04.491