Development Of Students Valeological Culture
Until now the issues of valeologization of education have been widely studied. The purpose of the study is to reveal the dynamics of values-based orientation and motivation of valeological activity of students and to provide further assessment of valeological culture. The authors performed an experiment to assess the state of health of students, revealed the levels of valeological culture and held the Health Track School. We introduced forms and methods of valeological education into the educational process. The purpose was achieved through specification of tasks solved under the conditions of subject-subject relations. This included the purpose of valeological education of future teachers; approbation of program and introduction of changes into theoretical and practical sections, home assignments, independent activities (according to topics of program modules); collection of data on valeological culture. The study revealed changes of all valeological culture indicators. During the experiment we observed students, change of their attitude to valeological activity, values-based orientations, motivation for health, development of healthy lifestyle. The reflexive environment within the study was ensured through the creation of reflexive situations in activity, thinking, communication. It was efficient due to high level of problematicity within the personal space of each participant and a group activity. It was necessary to ensure the procedure of group reflection and self-reflection of students, which made it possible to register individual and group discoveries, achievements in the field of self-knowledge, and group interaction.
Keywords: Healthhealthy lifestylevaleological culturerisk factorsvaleological education
The analysis of the state of health, development of psychophysical qualities of the modern youth (Plakhov, 2012) indicates the disturbing situation thus digging into ontogenesis. At present, educational institutions are aimed at advanced level of education, which causes additional psychophysical stress. Randomness and inconsistency of students daily routine result in poor understanding of the importance and need to care for health. In turn, this leads to negative consequences related to students’ health. The modern society interested in the needs of students to preserve and promote their health does not find proper scientifically based software to develop methodical recommendations thus ensuring positive education of students (Boyarkina, 2007).
It is urgent these days to keep a healthy lifestyle and to ensure the ability of students to adapt to promptly changing living conditions. The physical condition, level of fitness, deterioration of health of students (Bendíková, Marko, & Šmída, 2018) predetermines the impossibility of its opposition to adverse conditions of the habitat and to difficulties caused by socio-political and economic changes.
With regard to the above problem it is promising to develop the valeological culture (culture of healthy lifestyle) since health shall be considered as the most important component of a personality (Kazin, Blinova, & Litvinova, 2000).
The risk factors (Bobrovnitsky, Lebedeva, & Yakovlev, 2011) of diseases and deaths were assessed and studied by medicine. However, at present the study showed that the medicine is not able to preserve and promote health of a person alone. Therefore (Weiner, 2001) the problem of healthy lifestyle caused the need to address the pedagogics since the main risk factors are based on motivational and behavioral aspect developed throughout education. It is known that the factors of valeologization of the system of education include the development of the culture of healthy lifestyle, creation of health promotion conditions in educational institutions (Ivanova & Neustroeva, 2017).
At present, the existing system of education does not ensure due promotion of healthy lifestyle, therefore the knowledge of adults on healthy lifestyle failed to become their belief. The analysis of students’ activity showed that most of them are not concerned with their health due to strong-willed efforts; in general, they focus on the prevention of health problems and rehabilitation. Thus, this indicates low activity of a personality, behavioral passivity and valeological illiteracy.
Currently the system of higher pedagogical education does not fully ensure the development of valeological culture of future teachers and thus reduces the quality of education of university graduates. The problem of the study is caused by a contradiction between unilaterally focused approach to professional education of students, where healthy lifestyle plays a secondary role, and the need for theoretical justification of health saving learning technologies, their introduction into university education (Mityaeva, 2013; Semikin, Mysina, & Mironov, 2013).
The study was focused on two problems. First, it was interesting whether we can define the purpose of healthy lifestyle of students, and second, we wanted to learn their values-based orientations and motivations of valeological activity.
Purpose of the Study
The study is mainly focused on the results obtained during the program aimed to develop the valeological culture of students. The purpose of the given study was to reveal the dynamics of values-based orientation and motivation of valeological activity of students and to provide further assessment of valeological culture.
The pilot study was held within 2017-2018 academic year to fulfill the purpose of the study. Kalmyk State University named after B.B. Gorodovikov served the experimental base. The study covered first- and second-year students of pedagogics. In total, 69 students took part in the experiment. The experiment included confirming and forming stages, analysis of obtained results. According to the logic of the experiment, each stage was divided into experimental and analytical phases. The experimental phase covered the preparation of research materials, organization and performance of the experiment. During the experiment we applied various research methods (survey, questioning, testing, performance analysis) thus tracking the dynamics of valeological culture. The analytical phase of each stage included study, comparison, generalization and analysis of confirming and forming stages, as well as recommendations to correct the development of valeological culture. The study recorded changes of all indicators of valeological culture. During the experiment we observed students, change of their attitude to valeological activity, values-based orientations, motivation for health, development of healthy lifestyle.
We defined the students’ state of health. The polling data containing questions regarding health and healthy lifestyle were analyzed and statistically processed (Gavrilova & Semchuk, 2006). In total, 75.9% of respondents had some chronic disease. The respondents indicated such diseases as scoliotic postural disorder (65.8%), angioneurosis (59.7%), gastrointestinal diseases (86.6%), allergy (pollinosis) (57%). It was noted that 57% of students had from two to five diseases at once. We defined the number of students with some addictions (alcohol, tobacco smoking, drug abuse, game addiction). 31% of respondents suffer from alcohol drinking and tobacco smoking only.
Randomization (method of random numbers) allowed selecting (32 respondents) a group of students – future teachers. Let us call this group experimental. According to experimental conditions the control group of students was also defined, which in terms of quality (level of valeological culture) was equal, and in terms of quantity made 37 students. Testing of knowledge on health and healthy lifestyle was based on the Health and Lifestyle Test (Kazin, Krasnoshlykova, & Ptakhina, 2017). Besides, the questionnaire developed by teachers of the Russian State Academy of Physical Culture was used to study the level of health self-assessment, purpose of healthy lifestyle, knowledge of physical state and physical fitness (Lubysheva, 2001). The level of valeological culture was defined by criteria (Lavricheva, 2007) thus revealing health features (specific (immune) and nonspecific resistance to disturbing factors, indicators of growth and development, functional state and health reserve, presence and level of any disease or development defect, level of moral strong-willed and value-based motivational attitudes).
The experiment considered the following initial indicators:
a. Knowledge on health and individual features of an organism.
b. Levels of health self-assessment, purpose and motivation for healthy lifestyle.
c. Values-based orientation and motivation for healthy lifestyle and its impact on life.
d. Level of valeological culture.
At the initial stage, the indicators of valeological culture in the experimental group were defined as follows (Table
The main objective of the experiment was to introduce forms and methods of valeological education (Kurguzov, 2009), education and formation of valeological orientation of a personality into the educational process. The objective was achieved through specification of tasks solved under the conditions of subject-subject relations. This included the purpose of valeological education of future teachers (Nagovitsyn, Chigovskaya-Nazarova, Miroshnichenko, & Senator, 2018); approbation of the Health Track School program and introduction of changes into theoretical and practical sections, home assignments, independent activities (according to topics of program modules); collection of data on valeological culture during the forming stage of the experiment.
The addressed tasks made it possible for students to achieve higher level of valeological culture (Table
The motivation of activity determining step-by-step solution of tasks served a fundamental principle in the development strategy of valeological culture of future teachers.
• Upon completion of the first year of study – knowledge on health and healthy lifestyle, motivational and values-based attitude to health promotion and maintenance; correction of habits hurtful to health.
• Upon completion of the second year of study – focus on further valeological activity, acquisition of skills necessary for health diagnostics, correction of healthy lifestyle.
• Upon completion of the third year of study – acquisition of valeological knowledge affecting valeological literacy and thinking, skills to create, strengthen and maintain health, valeological orientation of future teachers in their professional activity.
At the control stage, we carried out repeated diagnostics to identify the levels of students’ valeological culture (Table
The above data confirm the development dynamics of students’ valeological culture. We believe that the high level of valeological culture is typical for students due to the Health Track School focused on motivational and value-based indicator of this culture and serving an organizational indicator of the educational process in pedagogics. We also noted the difference in the control and experimental groups participating in the Health Track School. Hence, the main contribution is the efficiency of the Health Track School program. The results of the forming experiment demonstrate the increase in the level of valeological culture mainly in the experimental group. However, there are also some positive changes in the control group regarding certain indicators.
The obtained data confirm the purpose of the study. The obtained histograms illustrate the efficiency of students’ valeological culture development (Figure
The theoretically based and implemented Health Track School fostered the efficiency of valeological culture development for future teachers. The Health Track School was held in the conditions of reflexive environment. The difference was that the students of the experimental group were focused on the creation of pedagogical conditions, namely accounting of personal factors, specification of purpose and tasks of valeological education, which was demonstrated by the obtained results. The optimum choice of forms and methods of classes within the Health Track School improved some indicators thus increasing the level of valeological culture of the experimental group.
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