Special aspects of the temporal deixis expression through the adverbial system are discusses in this article on the example of fiction “Financier” by T. Dreiser. Adverbs of time, observed in the article, are divided into relative time adverbs and irrelevant time adverbs. The adverbs of relative time group is presented in three semantic groups: the semantic group in the microfield “simultaneity”, the semantic group in the microfield “precedence in time”, the semantic group in the microfield “time sequencing”. The central opposition in terms of the deictic component of
Deixis as a linguistic phenomenon attracted the linguists’ attention at the beginning of the 20th century. The word “deixis” itself is of Greek origin (from the Greek “Indicate”) and means the function of indication. Even in deep antiquity, deixis as a linguistic category was already widely implemented in the use of pronouns in speech, especially demonstrative.
Most often in linguistics, “deixis” means “the indication function, which some pronouns and adverbs have, less often – grammatical time, and also - some grammatical characters and lexical units correlated with the place and time of the act of indication” (Plungyan, 2003, p. 139).
It should be noted that deixis is a multifunctional phenomenon, since from the point of view of any language functioning, deixis can be found in any of its elements (Makarova & Netunaeva, 2018).
Since deixis indicates the participants in a speech situation, time and place, therefore, the main deixis types are considered to be deixis of a person, time and place. The deixis of time is associated with “temporary points coding relative to the time of expression” (Sveshnikova, 2014). Scientists emphasize the deixis versatility, determining by the universality of the concepts that stand in the indication scope center – the person, time and place within a certain situation (Sveshnikova, 2014);
The deixis issue is investigated by many modern sciences - psychology, logic, philosophy, psycholinguistics, linguistics, literary criticism. In linguistics, deixis as an indication of an action is studied in several directions. The systemic-structural direction is considered to be the most popular direction, which analyze the nature and types of deictics, reflected in the given ethnos language system, and define their manifestations systemic and regularity in a given language. Each language as a mental and ethno-cultural phenomenon of a given society is characterized by specific mechanisms for the transmission of temporal connections and relationships, namely: lexical, morphological, syntactic, contextual, etc. In this paper we are interested in lexical temporal relations and ways of expressing them in English fiction through adverbs;
Adverbs complex, expressing temporal deixis in the Dreiser’s (2017) novel “Financier” is the subject of this research.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the study is to present the full range of English adverbs expressing the semantics of indicating time in the analyzed work. This goal predetermined the formulation and solution of the following tasks: 1) to consider the history of the “deixis” concept formation; 2) determine the essence and boundaries of the temporal deixis concept; 3) to describe and systematize the temporal adverbs presented in the work of Dreiser (2017) “Financier”, to analyze the frequency of their use;
The main research methods, used in the work, are the linguistic description method, the functional semantic and structural semantic methods, as well as the method of quantitative calculation.
Today, the question of what the deixis concept involves is one of the most pressing issues in the deixis theory. Traditionally, demonstrative pronouns occupy the central place among deictic words. Apart from pronouns, these include adverbs of place and time – two types of deixis – spatial and temporal (Mallayeva & Avakov, 2012).
Temporal deixis is a time indicator and the connection of this deixis type with the time category is obvious. Time is always requires a starting point. Deixis is a subjective expression of time, therefore, we can talk about the egocentricity of the deixis category (Dibirov & Mallaeva, 2013). However, it should be noted that some linguists doubts the deixis egocentricity, but this is typical for such deixis types where orientation is possible not only towards the speaker, but also towards the hearer (Yegizaryan, 2018).
As a rule, language methods for expressing deixis are called deictics. Temporary lexical markers are, first of all, lexemes that have a temporary meaning – adverbs of time, nouns and adjectives containing an indication of the temporary location. This also includes conjunctions and time particles, as well as verbs with a tense meaning (Murashova, 2015). In this paper, temporal adverbs and features of their use in the T. Drayzer’s novel “Financier” are considered.
The whole set of temporal adverbs (TN) can be divided into three groups, considering the attribute of the action correlation with a certain point in time (fixed moment or present moment) or with the time of another action. In accordance with this feature, the following semantic groups (SG) of adverbs are distinguished:
SG of adverbs in the microfield (MF) “simultaneity”
SG of adverbs in the microfield (MF) “precedence in time”
SG of adverbs in the microfield (MF) “time sequencing”.
Let us consider each of these groups in more detail.
SG of adverbs in the MF “simultaneity”
Simultaneity implies a coincidence in time of two or more actions in a broad sense. The boundaries of this semantic group are very mobile: both moments and durations (that is, processes and phenomena that develop in time) can be simultaneous; separate phases in the development of actions (beginning, middle, end) may also have synchronicity. All these characteristics, which are determined by the interweaving of simultaneity with the categories of duration, phase, limit, are reflected in the semantics of the analyzed SG adverbs.
Semems such as
"Have you told your mother?" "No. I'm going to do it
If Mollenhauer and the others have your interests at heart, why aren't they helping me on change
SG of adverbs in the MF “precedence in time”
The essence of the events correlation in a linear chain is expressed by the “precedence – following” relationship, which components are dialectically interconnected. Any event in time may precede any other event that is a starting point (Magomedova, 2014). Adverbs expressing the precedence of a given action or state to another action or a to the specific point in time — first of all adverbs
"He wanted me to give him back a check for sixty thousand that he paid me for some city loan I bought
The presence in the analyzed group composition of the adverbs indicating a significant distance and the initial limit in time, as well as the existence duration up to the present moment, can serve as a sample of a fine temporal meaning demarcation. For example:
A special subgroup consists of adverbs
The Governor, who had had instructions
The semantic shades abundance is a consequence of interaction and peculiar interweaving of temporal and phase characteristics in the number of adverbs meaning. These are adverbs that cause the action course sequence in time, they indicate the precedence (with a hint of priority) of this action in relation to others, and also characterize the initial phase in the development of action in time:
SG of adverbs in the MF “time sequencing”.
The core of this semantic series form lexemes:
It was only two weeks
Events can be characterized by varying degrees of distance, not only in the past, but also in the future, as shown by the opposition: ‘
The Fifth and Sixth Street line, which had been but
Buying and selling stocks, as he
The envisaging SG are also contains the adverbs indicating that the action or condition will occur after another action or a specific point in time:
Jaspers will be around here
He had hoped sincerely, when they built their houses together, that the days of worry for his father had gone
Hers was not a soul that ever loved passionately,
All these means serve primarily to express the temporal course of an event in relation to the discussed situation. Directly time periods, expressed by adverbs
A continuous sampling of time adverbs expressing relative time from the Dreiser’s (2017) novel “Financier” revealed a group of 24 words noted in 223 examples. These are adverbs such as: now (61), then (37), ever (5), in time (4), at the moment (2), yesterday (3), today (7), tomorrow (3), beforehand (3), later (9), afterwards (1), at present (2), the day before (6), hitherto (4), previously (8), at first (11), according to (3), before ( 1), hence (5), presently (2), thereafter (1), soon (21), recently (2), ago (7).
The highest rates of frequency are adverbs
The group of adverbs expressing an irrelevant time characterizes the time of action without reference to any time reference. Adverbs of this group can be represented in the following groups:
SG of adverbs in the MF «proximity».
SG of adverbs in the MF «repeatability in time».
SG of adverbs characterizing the tempo.
Let us consider each of these semantic groups in more detail.
SG of adverbs in the MF «proximity».
Duration is the quantity in its temporal aspect. The concept of duration is associated with the concepts of a time interval, proximate and far events, longer or smaller periods of time. The main opposition within the analyzed semantic group is for a
In fact he often soothed himself with the thought that in all these years he had
SG of adverbs in the MF «repeatability in time».
In fact, time is an infinite, uninterrupted duration. Events can be carried out in time at some intervals or directly follow each other, i.e. their ratio can be characterized by discreteness and non-resolution. (Lisitsyna, 1976). This real-time feature is refracted in a language where signs of “discreteness” / “non-discreteness” underlie the opposition of the following adverb groups:
а) Adverbs, characterizing the discreteness of action in time, its irregularity:
He rode on it
б) Adverbs that characterize the regularity, the frequency of action:
"Why do you come to see me so
The law says one to five years at the outside; but the sentences
The intervals between the events can be equal and unequal, which is expressed in such characteristics as regularity and irregularity. And if something starts to repeat regularly, i.e. at regular intervals, and in its totality constitutes a certain periodicity, there appears something like rhythm, therefore, to clarify the semantic features of analyzed SG adverbs, it is necessary to refer to the category of rhythm. The simple rhythm basis is the repeatability at regular intervals, and this is regularity, periodicity (Lisitsyna, 1976).
It is easy to get an implicit connection with the category of adverb rhythms
Instead of a clearing-house service, messengers ran
The necessity of a final conference between Butler, Mollenhauer, and Simpson was speedily reached, for this situation was
The concept of rhythm is connected with the established measure. Violation of it leads to arrhythmia, which is characterized by the lack of regularity. The lexical units
She went there
Events can repeat in time not only regularly or irregularly, but often or rarely, i.e. with different “density”. In pairs
SG of adverbs characterizing the tempo
Every action is characterized not only by duration, but also by the speed of change over time. The category associated with the internal motion characteristic and determining the rapidity degree of development, change over time, is tempo. It can be high and low (compare:
Time adverbs sampling, expressing irrelevant time from the Dreiser’s (2017) novel “Financier” revealed a group containing 14 adverbs noted in 73 sentences. These are adverbs such as: always (14), sometimes (9), daily (2), hourly (1), rarely (7), occasionally (1), frequently (3), permanently (1), never (5), often (10), usually (11), chronically (1), regularly (2), for ever (6).
The highest rates of frequency are adverbs
Thus, we can conclude that the central opposition, according to the deictic component “proximity / range”, is adverbs
Semantic adverb groups construct systems of relative and irrelevant time. The relative time system consists of three semantic adverbial groups with the identifying semes “precedence”, “simultaneity”, “following”. A sampling from the dictionary identified thirty-five adverbs with a temporal meaning, which were distributed among these semantic groups. A sampling of time adverbs xpressing relative time from T. Dreiser’s novel “Financier” revealed a group of 24 words marked in 223 sentences.
The system of irrelevant linguistic time includes semantic adverb groups with identifying semes “duration”, “tempo”, “repeatability in time”. The system of irrelevant time includes 34 time adverbs, selected from the dictionary. A selection of time adverbs expressing non-relative time from T. Dreiser’s novel “Financier” revealed a group comprising 14 words marked in 73 sentences. The data of the analysis allow talking about the features of the temporal deixis expression, charactering to T. Dreiser, the author of the novel “Financier”.
The study shows that adverbs most fully express temporary relationships. And although, according to many researchers, the main means of expressing temporal deixis in a language are the grammatical forms of time; without adverbs the full realization of the expressing time functions, adequate to the needs of verbal communication, would be impossible. In the lexical time system the connection of linguistic time with the concepts of measure, norm, and rhythm is reflected. Unlike grammatical time, lexical time is an open, evolving system. This once again confirms the idea of a high degree of deicticity of this content word.
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21 January 2020
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Sociolinguistics, linguistics, semantics, discourse analysis, science, technology, society
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Magomedova*, S., Bakhmudova, A., Tetakaeva, L., Shakhemirova, S., & Agalarova, R. (2020). The Use Of Adverbial Temporal Deixis In Fiction. In D. Karim-Sultanovich Bataev, S. Aidievich Gapurov, A. Dogievich Osmaev, V. Khumaidovich Akaev, L. Musaevna Idigova, M. Rukmanovich Ovhadov, A. Ruslanovich Salgiriev, & M. Muslamovna Betilmerzaeva (Eds.), Social and Cultural Transformations in the Context of Modern Globalism, vol 76. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 2053-2060). Future Academy. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2019.12.04.275