Sustainability in the Concept of IBHCD According to Hidayah al-Salikin (HS)
The discussion of sustainability principle in
exposed the concept of sustainability that fits the requirements of the Islamic religion. The contents of
are presented to elaborate on how a person can be developed to achieve the absolute sustainability in life. The
exposed six concepts of human capital development for achieving sustainability and human well-being. The six concepts are (a) Development of Knowledge, (b) Development of
(belief); (c)Development of
(worship), (d) Development of The Seven Body Parts, (e) Development of Spirituality and Morality, and (f) Development of Social Conduct.
Development of Knowledge
In its introduction, the book stresses on the development of knowledge as a basis and precondition that leads to piety. Knowledge in
is classified into three categories,
. The categories of knowledge in
need to be mastered at two stages, and should surpass the level of
to reach, at best, the level of
. By understanding the divisions and stages of knowledge humans are guided and led to live in this world and in the hereafter.
The development of knowledge in Islam focuses on
. This knowledge is termed as “knowledge of denial”; knowledge that benefits mankind. It purifies the soul and protect mankind from practising things that are futile. Its role is to perfect a Muslim’s practice in religion. Therefore, Islam requires mankind to practise at least the minimum level of
) and learning it consistently till death Al-Falimbani, 1935). Hence,
becomes the basis of moral education because knowledge should be assessed based on its benefits to life in this world as well as in the hereafter. Beneficial knowledge is knowledge that calls towards a prosperous and peaceful life; and towards creating a relationship with Allah SWT while strengthening the humanitarian and harmonious feelings among fellow humans.
The text in
emphasised on giving priority to the in depth learning of
over knowledge of
. The development of
knowledge is the basic subject and the anchor to scholarship, and it has to precede knowledge of
This approach creates human capital that relates all knowledge to its real source, Allah SWT.
and explains how people should manage their relationship with Allah SWT, while
explains how people should manage their living in this world whether individually or collectively. It should be given priority because it contains the principles of belief, guidance and regulations (
and morals) of human life and acts as a guiding light to the development of other knowledge of
(Wan Suhaimi, 2016).
To be prosperous and successful in this world and in the hereafter, we must be clear about which knowledge and practice should be given priority. Basic knowledge must be learnt before other forms of knowledge. Students, teachers and decision makers in education need to understand this concept to ensure the objective of an integrated education is achieved. The two forms of knowledge should be well integrated to realise the importance of sustaining the relationship between human beings and Allah SWT, and the relationship and responsibility between fellow humans and nature as a whole (Al-Jayyousi, 2017);
also listed the importance of knowledge and its advantages to people with knowledge. Al-Falimbani (1935) mentioned the position of knowledge and scholars through his Qur’anic citations, the authentic hadiths of the prophet, and words of authoritative scholars on the importance to increase this knowledge in everyone. The author, visualised that a person with knowledge is dignified as a person of highest piety and as a person close to the prophet (Qur’an, 58:11, 35:28). The prophet was quoted as saying in a hadith which means, “That which places people closer in rank to
The development of knowledge is then elaborated by stressing on education with two basic aspects, the aspect of teaching and the aspect of learning.
promotes a code of ethics and morals encompassing the personality of the teacher, student and a two-way communication in the process of teaching and learning. The teacher plays an important role in bringing success to whatever form of “capital” possessed by the student. Specifically, a teacher needs to be patient, pious, caring, guiding, sincere and be a good example. On the other hand, the student should be humble, respectful, and decent and has no ill perception towards the teacher.
These qualities fit well with the demands of modern education. These priorities are stressed to enable the process of education to succeed based on the characteristics of the knowledge itself that cannot be taught in an ad hoc manner into the soul of a student, not until all the preconditional codes of conduct have been fulfilled. Educational curriculum involves the educator to develop piety, belief and sincerity that are integrated with
. (Yousef, 2016).
The formation of values or
(Manners) in education is important to live successfully in this world and in the hereafter (
). This system of education will create people with increased knowledge, intellect, and personal qualities, and able to sustain student-teacher relationship. Sustainability of relationship here covers good relationship among students, among teachers, among teachers and parents, and among students and the community that flows into the wider social relationship. Meanwhile, the form of eternal sustainability is achieving the pleasures of Allah SWT (
Development of Aqidah
The first stage in the development of belief is to understand the basic
Articles of Faith
such as divine attributes, prophet hood and “the unseen.” The responsibility to believe in Allah SWT is presented through responsibility to learn in-depth the divine attributes of Allah SWT; the complusory (
) attributes, the impossible (
) attributes, and the “possible” (
) attributes. Understanding the divine attributes is the gist of belief, the anchor to all aspects of human life. Understanding the attributes of Allah SWT is also a sequence from the demand for prioritising the spiritual attributes in every form of self-development. Then, God’s morals is manifested in the body and spirit of a person at a level achievable by mankind. (Othman, 2014).
By using this
paradigm as the basis of development, mankind gains the confidence to believe in the power of Allah SWT as the Creator of everything, and to believe that the power of humans is limited and all of us have to submit to His rules. This will encourage mankind to appreciate everything based on the guidance that has been outlined in the al-Qur’an and al-
. (Ushama, 2015)
discusses the belief in the unseen such as angels, revelations (
), life (punishment) in the grave and the hereafter (
, mediation by the prophet) to relate
as a main source of true
. In fact, belief in Allah SWT automatically fulfils the demand towards belief in the prophets, angels, afterlife, and predestination
), that is, the components of the six
Articles of Faith
. Therefore, the real responsibility of Muslims is to study the
to safeguard their
from being deviated from the straight path. The development of Islamic-based human capital will not achieve its objectives if the
knowledge is not strong because the challenges of thinking in the current decade are very complex with the emergence of various “isms” such as Islamic liberalism, and pluralism in religion. Meanwhile, the human rights movements are also confusing the Muslims. Therefore, strong knowledge in
will confirm the Unity of God. The implication is that
rejects any forms of slavery and worship, towards anything other than Allah SWT. Clearly, the human development proposed in the HS is a
development, which places belief (
) in Allah SWT as the starting point and the basis of all other aspects of human development.
Freeing the soul is the core of the Islamic manifesto to the world. In the context of the Malay community, the
dynamics has terminated the traditional serving soul in the Malay-Hindu system of feudalism and has transformed the concept of “government” towards the concept of the “sultanate” which means trustee (stakeholder) and the upholder of Allah’s justice (Azmul, Aidil, & Roziah, 2016). Therefore, the
thinking that has been proposed by
to the Malay community at that period was a contribution to the effort of removing the enslaved soul which was very strongly embedded in the worldview and the value system of the Malay community.
In fact, in reviewing this mind change, a truth has to be accepted, that development of
has successfully developed the archaeological Malay mind to view far ahead, to think critically, rationally, and scientifically. The elements of mind strength and improvement in
(Manners) could be seen clearly in the study of
, which has spread widely in the Malay world through
books. The advance of this basic thinking has encouraged by Al-Falimbani to instil the spirit of dissidence or jihad towards Western colonisation in Muslim regions, especially the Dutch colonialism in Indonesia, through his writing entitled
Nasihah al-Muslimin wa tadhkirah al-Mu’minin fi fada’il jihad wa karamah al-mujtahidin fi sabil Allah
(Drewes, 1992). The use of logic in the effort to understand God and civil restoration expressed through the appreciation of the attributes and names of Allah SWT became the elements of strength in the development of Malay-Islam civilisation. This is in line with the level of success in the principles of
as a landmark of success in the principle of Islamic-based development (Badawi, 2017).
From the perspective of human development, belief in
(unseen)highlighted in this
, played an important role in developing concepts, viewpoints, attitudes, ways of thinking, and actions of the individual. It will prevent a person from doing evil deeds and freely committing crimes against Allah SWT. On the other hand, allegiance and piety will make a person follow the Islamic
and guide for human life towards increased safety and well-being. People will be continuously encouraged to do good (
) and avoid evil, to get better rewards in the hereafter. This makes the manifestation of
towards Allah SWT to be loaded with spiritual values, which can develop humans, capable of achieving success and sustainability in life. In this context, the concept of happiness is not limited to worldly temporary happiness. Happiness also includes eternal happiness in the hereafter. This is in line with the level of success that makes the concept of
as the peak of success in the Islamic-based principles of development (IBPD);
Development of Ibadah (worship)
The concept of
in HS is not limited to the meaning of tawhid (the unity of God) alone; in fact,
needs to be implemented with a programme of religious worships and rituals, which serves to develop positive attitudes to personal life and community life. In the al-Quran, more than 50 versus were mentioned about the relationship between
(belief) and virtuous practices aimed at individuals and society collectively. The
(worship) is a form of religious manifestation of the strength of
(belief) and piety towards Allah SWT. In fact,
suggested that religious worship develops human spiritual values and to enhances the spiritual sustainability of human beings.
divided the discussion on
(worship) is into two parts, the obligatory worship and the recommended additional (or encouraged) worships. The development of rituals discussed in
covers 13 forms of rituals comprising various
of answering nature’s calls to
in performing the
(remembrance of Allah SWT).
will be able to build the spiritual sustainability of the soul in a person. The text in
suggests that those in the process of redeveloping their good morals after having been entangled in sins and vice be taught to read the Qur’an, perform
(methods in self-cleansing),
(praying) and performing other extra worships to change, purify their souls and instil morality in their selves. This fits well into the programmes in institutions responsible for moral and drugs rehabilitation.
The procedures for the development of rituals commence with the basic beginning of rituals such as
(self-cleansing), followed by
(praying), fasting, and going up to its peak,
(remembering Allah). It is clear that the kinds of rituals suggested in
are main practices that can affect
tazkiyah al-nafs or
the purification and the growth
of the self
directly; It is a methodology in the context of knowledge in Islamic development in Malaysia.
here refers to the practice of rituals that could provide a positive direct effect on the
or the self at the stage where it can cure the self from diseases of the
and capable of realising virtuous moral values in them (Che Zarrina, 2014). The paradigm of development of
suggested is in line with those proposed by famous sufis before this, who said that virtuous morality is a result of efforts (
) achieved through serious education and training through performing
. Piety creates the ability to protect the self not only while performing an individual ritual towards Allah (
habl min Allah
), but also to stay consistent in piety in social life (
habl min al-nas
). Thus, performing a personal
is not merely to produce a righteous individual, but also to produce an individual capable of relating his or her righteousness with the society called
rahmatan li al-`alamin
The Development of the Seven Physical Parts of the Body
According to the Islamic view, Godly obligations (
) on every human being, in general, can be divided into two dimensions, namely
in the form of a command and
in the form of prohibition.
in the form of a command is stated in terms of demand on compulsory special
in the form of
and righteous practices. Meanwhile, the second obligation is related to prohibition and avoidance in the use of the seven physical parts of the human body. Two verses in
(36:65) and (24:24) mentioned that the human body parts will be questioned during the Day of Judgement for all the sins and vices performed in this world because sins performed by the body parts importantly affect the sustainability, the peace and the success of development from a different perspective. The physical body parts are Godly bounties that should be appreciated with
(being thankful to Allah) and they will be questioned in the hereafter. Therefore, they are not to be used for committing vice, for doing so is equivalent to booking the road to the seven gates of hell. This view is in line with the view of Imam al-Ghazali (Quasem, 1975) A method of prevention is necessary to ensure the success of Islamic-based spiritual development. The prohibitions specified in the
for the seven body parts, will not only prevent an individual from sins, but also will avoid inflicting bodily and spiritual harms that can endanger the person. These preventive measures can protect a person’s self-dignity through avoiding religious crimes that threaten sustainability of life, initiated by the physical body parts and allowing the person to gain respect from friends and the community.
proposed that the prevention of the crimes originating from the seven bodily parts should be entered as the core of development in IBHCD. This is because the preventive
for the seven bodily parts not only complements the physical obedience to Allah SWT, but also reflects the protection of sustainability principles of relationship among fellow humans. Analysis on the development of the seven bodily parts in the context of prevention thus far has shown that the concept of human capital development (HCD) fulfils the requirements of the teachings of Islam. In short, it is combined into a phrase
al-amr bi al-ma’ruf wa al-nahy `an al-munkar.
Zakaria (2016) commented that nowadays, Muslims have neglected, the aspects of practising the commands and avoiding the prohibitions of Allah SWT. This can be seen in the increase of misconducts involving transgression of
rulings among Muslims. Therefore, the emphasis on the development of the seven bodily parts in the text of
may be used as a guideline to uphold the principles
al-nahy `an al-munkar
al-amr bi alma’ruf
Development of Spirituality and Morality
The discussion on the spiritual development of human beings in this text was classified into two forms of development, the development of morality among fellow humans and the development of morality towards Allah SWT. The development of human spirituality and morality was discussed in the context of internal (spiritual) vice under 10 deplorable characteristics, which are the obstructions to the attainment of sustainability. The 10 characteristics were the love of eating, the love of talking, anger, malignancy, stingy, the love of richness, love of glory, love of the world, boasting or self-pride,
. Praiseworthy characteristics, which help excel sustainability are repentance (
), patience, thankfulness
), sincere and truthful,(submission to the will of Allah (
, loving Allah
), contentment (
) and thinking of death (Al-Falimbani, 1935). The focus on the human capital development based on the principles of sustainability was based on the thinking that human spirit and soul are the sources and causes of either virtuous or deplorable morality. Therefore, to develop sustainability through virtuous morality should start with cleansing the inner self from abysmal characteristics. Internal vice is more dangerous than external vice because it cannot be seen and normally less realised and harder to remove; it is also the generator of external vice. Both these vices only contaminate the human soul and create a
that restricts the self from Allah.
According to Al-Falimbani (1935), the sustainability of human spirit and soul can be restored and upgraded depending on the extent of the purification (
) and the rejuvenating (
efforts taken on the characteristics of the soul and actions. Achieving the spiritual development through
is performed through two-stage purification (
). The first stage is termed
vacating the self from all deplorable, blemishes and vicious characteristics. External purification is related to
, and vice, while internal purification involves purifying the heart from deplorable characteristics such as anger, malevolence (
), miserly (
), love of glamour, love of worldly pleasures (
), boastful (
(show-offs). The second stage is the
, loading the self with righteous qualities and remaining consistent with them. The
focuses on the development of laudable qualities, suggested through ascending stations of repentance,
(thankful), sincerity (
), caring (
, contentment (
), and thinking of death.
was suggested with two stages of purification and fertilization. The spiritual method has gained its status as the best mechanism to ensure the success of sustainability in the Islamic-based development of human capital (Che Zarrina, 2014).
The Development of Social Adab (Manners)
is the reflection of the human soul and the result from internal cleansing. Hence, the purity of personality will be manifested in the person’s etiquette and actual behaviour. The last concept discussed in
is the development of social
. The discussion of social
clearly emphasised the sustainability principle in the context of retaining
habl min Allah
habl min al-nas
. The first is the vertical relationship between humans (the servants and the Creator, Allah SWT). The second is the horizontal relationship among fellow human beings. Both these relationships were expounded directly through interactions, through social relationship,
in relationship with Allah SWT,
in family interactions,
with friends, and
towards general Islamic community.
Adab towards Allah outlined in the text of
covers internal (spiritual) obediences, which was specifically mentioned as piously devoted (
, humbleness (
, meditative (
, fearsome (
, bashful, and submission to the will of Allah (
. Muslims must prioritise Allah SWT in everything, and should not expect from other than Allah to fulfil their needs. The development of
with friends, who could be siblings, family, colleagues, friends and neighbours, is important for creating social relations among them. According to Islam, the group identified as friends has certain rights in the social context.
towards this group is based on the value of love,
(brotherhood), trustworthiness and mutual respect. Human capital as a social creature which interacts with society collectively also became the focus of
. Even though this group does not have a close relationship with any special individuals, adab in socialising with them is emphasised because this group has a function in the process of creating situations and environment. The procedure of
with this group becomes the general principles for virtuousness in socialisation such as mutual respect, mutual help, thankfulness, open mindedness and accommodative. These principles are translated through good socialization manners (
) such as caring, not insulting others, or not scolding and reproaching their mistakes in a nice way.
It is clear that the development of social
further strengthens the basis of Islamic-based human development which places
of morality as its main basis for its development. The reintroduction of the arrangement and priorities of human
as well as the loading of holistic and systematic values become a precious contributing idea. The
created through these universal principles are naturally relevant to all cultures, races, religions and societies.