The existence of Allah SWT is among the most important topics to be considered in Islam. Islamic scholars through their works have elaborated the concept of the existence of Allah SWT so that it can be understood in the Muslim community. Among them is al-Ghazali (505H) which has been promoted by the Muslim world scientists as the
Keywords: Thoughtal-GhazaliExistenceAllahIhya’ ‘Ulum al-Din
Al-Ghazali refers to Abu Hamid Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Tusi al-Shafi`i was born on the 450H in Tus. Al-Ghazali who was one of the students of Imam al-Haramayn al-Juwayni (d. 478H) mastered the knowledge in various fields, thus being called as an Islamic argumentist (
Ihya’ ‘Ulum al-Din
Al-Ghazali has a strong influence on the aspect of knowledge in the Islamic world. His work,
The influence of al-Ghazali's faith can be seen for example through his students named Muhamad ibn Abdullah ibn Tumart (d. 524H) who had studied with him for 3 years. When
Ihya’ ‘Ulum al-Din Among Malay Scholars
The explanation about the existence of Allah SWT has been debated deeply by scholars as it is among the main topics discussed either by Muslims themselves or with non-Muslims. According to Hasan Muhammad Ayyub (d. 1429H), Mukmin who knows the existence Allah SWT without proof then he is considered sinful if he has the ability to do research and understand about the proposition (
Al-Ash'ari does not elaborate on the existence of Allah SWT in the nature of debate as he distinguishes between His nature and existence (Rosder, 1989). However, al-Ash'ari (1955) explains it elsewhere. ‘Amran (2009) in his advance of edits to al-Ghazali's al-
أَفَرَأَيْتُمْ مَا تُمْنُونَ. أَأَنْتُمْ تَخْلُقُونَهُ أَمْ نَحْنُ الْخَالِقُونَ
Translation : Have you seen that which you emit? Is it you who creates it, or We are the Creator?
Surah al-Waqi’ah, (56): 58-59.
Al-Ash'ari (1955) describes that humans incapable to argue that they are the ones who make the semen. In fact, sometimes they want a child, but they do not get it and sometimes they do not want a child, but they get it. Al-Ash'ari also elaborates the next argument that the verse indicates that humans have their weaknesses and they need creators and administrators. Allah SWT said:
وَفِي أَنْفُسِكُمْ ۚ أَفَلَا تُبْصِرُونَ
Translation : As also in your ownselves : Will you not then see?
Surah al-Dhariyat, (51 : 21).
In the view of al-Maturidi (d. 333H), the existence of Allah SWT can be proved through three arguments (al-Maturidi, n.d.; Rosder, 1989):
a) The concept of nature: everything in this world that can be united and separated valid by itself. This shows there is creator who makes it.
b) Evidence of change: if this nature happens by itself then there is no more time or character than time or property. If it happens at different times then it proves that it does not happen by itself.
According to al-Baqillani (d. 403H), the existence of Allah SWT can be proved through the explanation about
This new nature (
Al-Razi (n.d.) divulged in four ways to prove the existence of Allah SWT described in the subtopics of the Second Problem in Revealing the Knowledge of the Creator
According to al-Baydawi (d. 685H), the existence of Allah SWT can be evidenced from two aspects (al-Baydawi, 1998):
1. There is no doubt that the
2. There is no doubt that for the existence of a
According to al-Attas (1994), he explained that
Sabiq (n.d.) explains that the essence of Allah SWT is unlikely to be known by human intellect but it does not deny the existence of Allah SWT. The existence of Allah SWT is something that no doubt is there and no space to be denied (Muhammad, 2014). It is clear to refer to the natural things like the sun and the examples of other natural events that prove
The conclusion based on this brief highlight, the scholars have long debated the evidence of the existence of Allah SWT They face those who deny the existence of the creator as well as trying to help Muslims to be more confident with the existence- Him. It can be seen in general that the arguments used by the scholars are based on the prophecy of prophecy and prosperity that are not contrary to the law. In addition, it is a proof of nature that can be felt by all human beings about the feeling of absolute ultimate power. The reason for the use of scholars in addition to the proposition to help Muslims on how to prove the existence of Allah SWT Among the approaches undertaken are based on observations of the universe.
How does al-Ghazali explains about the concept of the existence of Allah SWT in
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the study is to highlight al-Ghazali’s explanation about the concept of the existence of Allah SWT in
We conducted the qualitative by menas of contetnt analysis to the book of
According to al-Ghazali (1999) in
أَلَمْ نَجْعَلِ الْأَرْضَ مِهَادًا. وَالْجِبَالَ أَوْتَادًا. وَخَلَقْنَاكُمْ أَزْوَاجًا. وَجَعَلْنَا نَوْمَكُمْ سُبَاتًا. وَجَعَلْنَا اللَّيْلَ لِبَاسًا. وَجَعَلْنَا النَّهَارَ مَعَاشًا. وَبَنَيْنَا فَوْقَكُمْ سَبْعًا شِدَادًا. وَجَعَلْنَا سِرَاجًا وَهَّاجًا. وَأَنْزَلْنَا مِنَ الْمُعْصِرَاتِ مَاءً ثَجَّاجًا. لِنُخْرِجَ بِهِ حَبًّا وَنَبَاتًا. وَجَنَّاتٍ أَلْفَافًا.
Translation : Have We not made the earth as a wide expanse. And the mountain as pegs. And (have We not) created you in pairs. And made your sleep for rest. And made the night as a covering. And made the day as a means of subsistence. And (have We not) built over you the seven firnaments. And placed a Light of Splendour. And do We not send down from the clouds water in abundance. That We may produce therewith corn and vegetables. And gardens of luxurious growth.
Surah al-Naba’, (78): 6-16.
Allah SWT said:
إِنَّ فِي خَلْقِ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ وَاخْتِلَافِ اللَّيْلِ وَالنَّهَارِ وَالْفُلْكِ الَّتِي تَجْرِي فِي الْبَحْرِ بِمَا يَنْفَعُ النَّاسَ وَمَا أَنْزَلَ اللَّهُ مِنَ السَّمَاءِ مِنْ مَاءٍ فَأَحْيَا بِهِ الْأَرْضَ بَعْدَ مَوْتِهَا وَبَثَّ فِيهَا مِنْ كُلِّ دَابَّةٍ وَتَصْرِيفِ الرِّيَاحِ وَالسَّحَابِ الْمُسَخَّرِ بَيْنَ السَّمَاءِ وَالْأَرْضِ لَآيَاتٍ لِقَوْمٍ يَعْقِلُونَ
Translation : Behold! In the creation of the heavens and the earth; in the alternation of the night ang the day; in the sailing of the ships through the ocean for the profit of mankind; in the rain whoch God sends down form the skies, and the life which He gives therewith to be an earth that is dead; in the beasts of all kinds that He scatters through the earth; in the change of the winds, and the clouds which they trail like their slaves between the sky and the earth; (here) indeed are Signs for a people that are wise.
Surah al-Baqarah, (2): 164.
Allah SWT said:
أَلَمْ تَرَوْا كَيْفَ خَلَقَ اللَّهُ سَبْعَ سَمَاوَاتٍ طِبَاقًا. وَجَعَلَ الْقَمَرَ فِيهِنَّ نُورًا وَجَعَلَ الشَّمْسَ سِرَاجًا.
Translation : “See you not how God has created the seven heavens one above another”. “And made the moon a light in their midst and made the sun as a (glorious) lamp?
Surah Nuh, (71): 15-16.
Allah SWT said:
أَفَرَأَيْتُم مَّا تُمْنُونَ. أَأَنتُمْ تَخْلُقُونَهُ أَمْ نَحْنُ الْخَالِقُونَ. نَحْنُ قَدَّرْنَا بَيْنَكُمُ الْمَوْتَ وَمَا نَحْنُ بِمَسْبُوقِينَ. عَلَىٰ أَن نُّبَدِّلَ أَمْثَالَكُمْ وَنُنشِئَكُمْ فِي مَا لَا تَعْلَمُونَ. وَلَقَدْ عَلِمْتُمُ النَّشْأَةَ الْأُولَىٰ فَلَوْلَا تَذَكَّرُونَ. أَفَرَأَيْتُم مَّا تَحْرُثُونَ. أَأَنتُمْ تَزْرَعُونَهُ أَمْ نَحْنُ الزَّارِعُونَ. لَوْ نَشَاءُ لَجَعَلْنَاهُ حُطَامًا فَظَلْتُمْ تَفَكَّهُونَ. إِنَّا لَمُغْرَمُونَ. بَلْ نَحْنُ مَحْرُومُونَ. أَفَرَأَيْتُمُ الْمَاءَ الَّذِي تَشْرَبُونَ. أَأَنتُمْ أَنزَلْتُمُوهُ مِنَ الْمُزْنِ أَمْ نَحْنُ الْمُنزِلُونَ. لَوْ نَشَاءُ جَعَلْنَاهُ أُجَاجًا فَلَوْلَا تَشْكُرُونَ. أَفَرَأَيْتُمُ النَّارَ الَّتِي تُورُونَ. أَأَنتُمْ أَنشَأْتُمْ شَجَرَتَهَا أَمْ نَحْنُ الْمُنشِئُونَ. نَحْنُ جَعَلْنَاهَا تَذْكِرَةً وَمَتَاعًا لِّلْمُقْوِينَ.
Translation : Do you then see? The (humad Seed) that you throw out. Is it you who create it or are We the Creators? We have decreed death to be your common lot, and We are not frustrated. From changing your forms and creating you (again) in forms that you do not know. And you certainly know already the first form of creation, why then do you not celebrate His praises? See you the seed that you sow in the ground? Is it you that cause it to grow or are We The Cause? Were it Our Will, We could crumble it to dry powder and you would be left in wonderment. (Saying), “We are indeed left with debts (for nothing)”. “Indeed are we shut out (of the fruits of our labour)”. See you the water which you drink? Do you bring it down (in rain) from the cloud or do We? Were it Our Will, We could make it salt (and unpalatable), then why do you not give thanks? See you the fire which you kindle? Is it you who grow the tree which feeds the fire or do We Grow it? We have made it a memorial (of Our handiwork), and an article of comfort and convenience for the denizens of deserts.
Surah al-Waqi`ah, (56): 58-73.
Al-Ghazali (1999) states that these arguments are clear to those who want to think in minimal even though they can understand the wonders, the beauty, the order of creation of Allah SWT in heaven and earth. All these arguments show the existence of Allah SWT that creates, determines and regulates everything. Human nature is also capable of understanding that all creation is related to the power and provision of Almighty God Almighty. Allah SWT said:
۞ قَالَتْ رُسُلُهُمْ أَفِي اللَّهِ شَكٌّ فَاطِرِ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ ۖ
Translation : Their apostles said : “Is there a doubt about God, the Creator of the heavens and the erath?
Surah Ibrahim, (14): 10.
The apostles were commanded to guide their people to believe in the true God by uttering God's ilahilla. The apostles explain that man and nature have God. This is because the nature of the existence of God is already present in man since they were little. Allah SWT said (al-Ghazali, 1999):
وَلَئِنْ سَأَلْتَهُمْ مَنْ خَلَقَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ لَيَقُولُنَّ اللَّهُ ۚ
Translation : If indeed you ask them who it is that created the heavens and the earth, they would be sure to say, “God”.
Surah al-Zumar, (39): 38.
Allah SWT said:
فَأَقِمْ وَجْهَكَ لِلدِّينِ حَنِيفًا ۚ فِطْرَتَ اللَّهِ الَّتِي فَطَرَ النَّاسَ عَلَيْهَا ۚ لَا تَبْدِيلَ لِخَلْقِ اللَّهِ ۚ ذَٰلِكَ الدِّينُ الْقَيِّمُ وَلَٰكِنَّ أَكْثَرَ النَّاسِ لا يَعْلَمُونَ
Translation : So set your face steadily and truly to the faith : (establish) God’s handiwork according to the pattern on which he has made mankind : no change (let there be) in the work (wrought) by God : that is the standard Religion : but most among mankind not understand.
Surah al-Rum, (30): 30.
‘Amran (2009) states the arguments used by al-Ghazali as the verses of
a) All masses cannot be separated from movement and silence. The intellect can understand this explanation and it is impossible to say that the mass does not move and does not remain silent because it has gone far beyond the reasonable sense of reason.
b) Movement and silence is something new as it always changes. It is understandable that the silent mass will move and the mass of motion will stop moving. The exchange of positions between movement and silence shows it is something new. After moving, the mass will remain silent, so the nature of the previous movement is considered new as it has been lost due to the emergence of silence afterward. Similarly, new emerging silence is also considered new as it has just emerged. If the mass has qidam properties, it certainly will not disappear.
c) Something irrespective of new elements, then something is considered new. If the orbital rotation of a planet in the universe is not new eg no end, it will be denied with the possibility of the number of rounds whether first; even or odd, second; even and odd or third; not complete or unobtrusive. Firstly, if the duration of its lasting rotation is even, it will still be odd if added with one round again, and vice versa. So, how can something ever change if it's added to one more round? Secondly, if the steady rotation is concurrently even and oddly in the same time then it is impossible because even and odd is a contradictory nature. So, if even, then the rotation is not odd. Thirdly, if the sum of the spin is not even odd, then the rotation does not exist anymore, so it is impossible.
According to al-Ghazali (1999), based on these three reasoning arguments, the universe can not be separated from being associated with new elements. So, the universe is something new and it requires
This paper concludes that al-Ghazali explains the existence of Allah SWT by using the passages of nature,
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23 September 2019
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Basri, M. N. H., Shuhari*, M. H., & Hamat, M. F. (2019). Al-Ghazali’s Thought On The Existence Of Allah Swt In Ihya’ ‘Ulum Al-Din. In N. S. Mat Akhir, J. Sulong, M. A. Wan Harun, S. Muhammad, A. L. Wei Lin, N. F. Low Abdullah, & M. Pourya Asl (Eds.), Role(s) and Relevance of Humanities for Sustainable Development, vol 68. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 532-542). Future Academy. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2019.09.59