The ruling on practicing weak hadith is an issue that is still debated to this day. The debate is caused by differences in the opinions of scholars in determining whether it is permissible to practice from weak hadith. Certain scholars wholly reject acting upon weak hadith, while some accept it and a few others have determined several conditions for it. Thus, this paper aims to study the views of hadith scholars on practicing weak hadith by comparing the opinions of
Keywords: Rulingpractisingweak hadithMutaqaddiminMuta’akhkhirinhadith scholars
The growth of hadith in this era of globalisation has seen the Prophet’s (p.b.u.h.) hadiths continue to spread among Muslims without restrictions nor boundaries. Though the Prophet (p.b.u.h.) had called for the hadiths to be spread, this does not mean that the circulation of hadiths should be allowed without being monitored and observed closely. In this context, the authenticity of hadiths attributed to the Prophet (p.b.u.h.) must be determined before they are spread (Shamsudin, 2010).
To be more specific, it is feared that the spread of the Prophet’s hadiths without separating the
In general, a weak hadith can be defined as a hadith that does not fulfil the requirements to be
The legal debate over the use of weak hadith has been a polemic ever since the active narration days up till the post narration age, in fact it continues to date. There are three contrasting views namely, total prohibition; permissible in matters relating to jurisprudence,
Without understanding the methods of the
This differing assessments on the validity of the use of weak hadith that which associated with the expression of some
3.1 To what extent do the hadith scholars differ on the laws of practicing weak hadith?
3.2 How have the expressions made by the
Purpose of the Study
4.1. To what extent do the hadith scholars differ on the laws of practicing weak hadith?
This qualitative study uses full library research that forms the major component of data collection method. This means data are collected from the primary books in the field of hadith, especially the works in the sciences of hadith authored by the hadith predecessors, among others al-Jurjani’s work in
Undeniably, this is a most important issue to be discussed and it can trigger heated debates. This is due to the conflicting opinions among the scholars consisting of
Essentially, there are different opinions in defining
The scholars of hadith, both
This opinion is also supported by a few other current scholars of hadith, including al-Khatib (1989) as can be discerned through his words as follows:
There is no doubt that the first
Their argument is that
It must be mentioned that regarding
This shows that this opinion which has been attributed as the opinion of prominent
The second opinion says it is completely acceptable to act upon weak hadith, be it in rulings of the lawful and unlawful as well as
According to Ibn al-Qayyim as quoted by Ibn Badran (1981), Ahmad bin Hanbal is widely known for this opinion, as he used weak hadith as the fourth source when issuing ruling (fatwa). He used
However, according to al-Sakhawi (2003) as he cites the view of al-Baghawi that most of jurisprudence matters are derived from the application of
The above opinion is in line with al-Khatib (1989) who saw that weak hadiths used by certain
With that, Imam Ahmad did not make practice with weak hadith unless in a situation whereby there was no other evidence in the matter, he prioritised weak hadith than
Concerning this, al-Sabbagh (1990) also said which means:
There are scholars who attributed to Imam Ahmad and Abu Dawud that they said it is permissible to practice from weak hadith wholly, and this opinion must be reviewed because understanding of weak hadith as determined by the later scholars consisting of
Thus, it can be surmised that the term weak hadith used by
Hence, according to Khudeir (2014), it must be understood that weak hadiths that Ahmad bin Hanbal used for justifications are not severely weak ones, and it was also required that there was no other justification to reject them. Similarly, Abu Hanifah also prioritised weak hadith compared to people’s opinion and
The third opinion says it is permissible to practice weak hadith in the matters of
Scholars consisting of
In this context, al-Khatib (1989) denied the opinion linking it with the earlier scholars such as Ibn Mahdi (d. 198 H) when the truth is different from what is thought. He mentioned this in his work, which means:
In our opinion (some people’s) understanding of what was written by Imam Ahmad, Ibn Mahdi, Ibn al-Mubarak is far from what was meant by these scholars, so their words (saying it is permissible to practice with weak hadith) in
Also related to this, another scholar, Ashraf Saʻid as quoted by Shamsudin (2010) from his book
The truth is that no practice in shariah is based on weak hadith, not on the rulings of the lawful and unlawful, not on
In addition, it must also be noted that there are weak hadiths whose status are not clear (Salim & Yaakob, 2011). Al-Albani when editing al-Mundhiri’s work titled
There are scholars who added a few requirements that must be fulfilled to practice weak hadith in
The hadith that will be practiced is not severely weak (Al-Laknawi, 1981). Regarding this, Khayr Abadi (2003) had explained the categories of hadith which are not considered as severely weak. According to him,
al-Mu‘allaq, al-Mursal, al-Munqati‘, al-Mudallasand al-Mursal al-khafihadiths are still acceptable. Reporting these hadiths may be acceptable in fada’ilbecause the weakness is not severe and their status could be lifted to hasan li ghayrihwhen reported from similar or better sanad. Meanwhile, hadith with deceiver, accused liar, people who practiced bida‘ahand narrators who made a lot of mistakes in narrating hadiths cannot be accepted even in fada‘il.
The hadith has a certain foundation and has been practiced in shariah (Al-Tahanawi, 2000). This means, the ruling for the practice is originally proven from the Quran or accepted hadiths, for example in being kind towards parents and silaturrahim (Khayr Abadi, 2003). In this context, what is really accepted is the Quran or
sahihand hasanhadiths, not weak hadith.
When practicing it, one must not wholly believe in it, instead they must be careful (Al-Laknawi, 1981). This means, acting upon weak hadith does not result in confidence, instead it merely gives a little hope.
The weak hadith does not cover detailed explanation, certain specifications and fixing of certain rates as addition to anything that is already proven in
sahihhadith (Al-Jurjani, 2000). This includes creating additions that are not proven in Islamic rulings (syarak), such as prayer with 100 rakaat on the eve of Nisfu Sya‘ban, salat al-ragha’ib(Khayr Abadi , 2003), the merits of fasting in Rejab (Al-Jurjani, 2000), and such.
The hadith is not made well-known among the people to avoid them from practicing and deciding on rulings which are not part of Islamic ruling, and which may influence ignorant people to consider it as a
sahihhadith (Al-Jurjani, 2000). Grand celebration of the day of ‘Ashura in India for instance (Khayr Abadi, 2003), has spread to Malaysia.
Based on the requirements decided by the third group consisting of
However, the requirements listed are still debated by several other contemporary scholars, including al-Khatib who said even if the requirements are fulfilled, the hadith still cannot be accepted as part of Islamic ruling and source of moral virtues because there is an element of
As such, al-Qudah (2013) is of the opinion that in truth there is no distinction between the view that says weak hadith is rejected on a justification that it does not relate to the Prophet (p.b.u.h) and the faction of hadith scholars that set a requirement that for the weak hadith to be applicable, one must recognize and believe that it is not from the Prophet (p.b.u.h). To him, there is no way that one who applies weak hadith believes that it originates from the Prophet (p.b.u.h) unless the former has no knowledge that the hadith is weak. The same can be expected of the content of the weak hadith that which it has to have basis from the al-Quran or other hadith that relate to the Prophet (p.b.u.h). According to al-Qudah, the foundation of acceptance of the said weak hadith lies solely on its contents that which mirror the substance found in the al-Quran and other hadiths which originate from the Prophet (p.b.u.h). To him, what becomes the core of the said weak hadith is the al-Quran and/or the authentic hadiths it selves and not merely relying on the weak hadith per se. Hence he concludes that the observations of both factions of hadith scholars are the same.
A few things can be outlined from the reviews by
Based from the above discussion, it is understood that the term weak hadith refers to hadith which does not fulfil the requirements of
In addition, in terms of hadith classification, it is clear that weak hadith is in the rejected hadith category and this can be seen almost throughout the book
The Prophet (p.b.u.h) himself had repeatedly warned Muslims to be careful when faced with hadiths attributed to him. Thus, Muslims should only hold onto
This work is part of USM Short Term Research Grant: 304/PHUMANITI/6313200 which has been allocated for the researcher for research between 2015-2017 under the title The Study of Women’s Rights and Roles according to the Perspective of Hadith: Focus on Women’s Development in Malaysia.
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18 December 2019
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Sociolinguistics, linguistics, literary theory, political science, political theory
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Shamsudin*, R., & W. J., W. K. N. (2019). Ruling On Practicing Weak Hadith According To Mutaqaddimin And Muta’akhkhirin Hadith Scholars. In N. S. Mat Akhir, J. Sulong, M. A. Wan Harun, S. Muhammad, A. L. Wei Lin, N. F. Low Abdullah, & M. Pourya Asl (Eds.), Role(s) and Relevance of Humanities for Sustainable Development, vol 68. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 133-142). Future Academy. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2019.09.13