The article presents the main approaches to the construction of the concept of developmental pedagogical expertise of education process in an educational organization, substantiates the need for research and development of this concept. The authors point out the following issues requiring characterization in the concept: the aim of expertise, its conceptual apparatus, core, pedagogical conditions of effective functioning and education development during the realization of the obtained expertise data, verification of the concept. Also, the authors reveal the principles underlying the concept of pedagogical expertise of education process in an educational organization. Special attention in the article is paid to the system of functions included in the concept. The principle position of the authors is to ensure that pedagogical expertise of education has a developmental character. The most significant conditions for realizing the developmental character of pedagogical expertise of education process are the following: availability of a request for expertise from the teaching staff and administration of an institution; readiness of the staff to give information to the expert group frankly; acceptance of the expertise results by the teaching staff; formulation, first of all, of pedagogical problems based on the expertise data which are to be solved by the staff; the choice of means and ways to solve the discovered problems. The authors also emphasize a special role of the expert association in the realization of the concept of pedagogical expertise of education process and reveal the required competences of an expert which ensure objectivity of the expertise.
The increase of modern requirements for the results of education process and the necessity to modify it scientifically in order to heighten its effectiveness in response to challenges of society nowadays have made it topical to represent adequately not only the results of education, but also its process (Abakumova, 2014; Osipova, Аnzorova, & Тimofeeva, 2016).
Any expertise, including pedagogical one, must be based on integral vision, i. e. the concept of expertise of education process must be worked out as a complex of key provisions that fully and thoroughly reveal the essence, content and peculiarities of the phenomenon under investigation (expertise in our case), its existence in reality or in man’s practical activity (Valovoy, 1999).
The concept of developmental pedagogical expertise of education process in an educational organization must make it possible in the end to substantiate the technology of expertise in order to develop and improve education, to manage its process.
The construction of the concept of pedagogical expertise will require:
- to ascertain the aim of expertise for the construction of education process, principles underlying it;
- to build conceptual apparatus consisting of working definitions, reference to which is expected within the concept;
- to form the core of the concept including the main procedures of its realization;
- to reveal pedagogical conditions of realizing the developmental character of pedagogical expertise of education process;
- to carry out verification of the concept that reflects the main provisions of practical effectiveness of the suggested concept.
Purpose of the Study
Consists in developing the concept of pedagogical expertise of education process in an educational organization.
Analysis of philosophical, sociological, psychological and pedagogical literature, state and normative documents on the problem under investigation; study of the available experience concerning pedagogical expertise of education process (study of domestic and foreign experience, poll by questionnaire of teachers, heads of educational institutions, representatives of regional quality evaluation centers); observation of real process of expertise of basic and additional education; pedagogical modelling; experimental work consisting in approbation of invariant and variable models of pedagogical expertise of education process in an educational organization.
In general, analysis and evaluation of any pedagogical concept are usually viewed from three main points. Firstly, in terms of alignment of content with the historiography of the problem under study, in conformity with the logical formation of pedagogy, on the whole, and of the direction under study, in particular. Secondly, in terms of scientific novelty and theoretical significance the concept contains. And, thirdly, in terms of practical significance for mass use, i. e. adaptability of the concept to conditions in modern education, the possibility to get the required results with its help.
To begin with, let us dwell upon the main notions that will be used in the concept. Among them are: education, pedagogical expertise, functions of expertise, developmental function, developmental pedagogical activity, expert.
Pedagogical expertise of education process is a multidimensional and diverse study performed by specialists in the sphere of education including problem-evaluation, resources and prognostication analysis in order to get an expert judgement about the object of expertise with the purpose of improving it to the benefit of a person (Konarzhevskiy, 1980).
Education is management of the process of development and formation of a student’s personality through creating beneficent conditions for it (Novikova, 2010).
The expertise function is a role the element plays within the whole, both uniting the elements into a system, and ensuring its effective work.
The expertise developmental function is a key function of pedagogical expertise of education process, consisting in stimulating the development of education process on the basis of the obtained expertise data.
The developmental pedagogical activity is an activity of a teacher as a necessary condition ensuring development of a student’s personality, development of the teacher who is constantly taking into account changes in social requirements for a student.
Expert in pedagogics is a qualified specialist who studies some pedagogical object and comes to a conclusion about its state.
The concept of developmental pedagogical expertise of education process in an educational organization is based on the following theoretical and methodological foundations: a systematic approach represented in the works of Averyanov (1985), Afanasyev (1981), Blauberg (1997), Sadovskiy (1974), Yudin (1997) and others; pedagogical interpretation represented in the works of Bespal’ko & Tatur (1989), Konarzhevskiy (1980), Kuz’mina (1980), Novikova (1991), Selivanova (2010), Slastenin (2000) and others. Realization of the activity approach is mostly connected with the notion of “developmental pedagogical activity”.
The concept of pedagogical expertise is based on the following principles:
integrity of study, its continuity and systematic method;
taking into account the general age and sex peculiarities of pupils the child belongs to;
humane attitude to the child, class, other children and youth associations in the process of evaluation;
considering evaluation not as an aim in itself but as a development factor in the educational organization, class, children and youth association, child’s personality;
combination of external and internal evaluation of education;
restriction on the use of quantitative assessment.
Openness of pedagogical expertise manifests itself in readiness of an educational organization to undergo the expertise and openness of the expertise results to all the participants of the process. Pedagogical expertise, being built into the pedagogical process, has a direct impact on education process.
Systematic method of pedagogical expertise is characterized by the possibility to analyze structural components (objects) of the expertise in their interconnection, succession and consistency of the technological stages of the expertise. It is the systematic method that ensures positive transformation of pedagogical reality and obtaining new results characterizing the state of emergency in the process of education.
Dynamics of pedagogical expertise is ensured by promptly changing tasks in the pedagogical process in general and presupposes improvement in procedure. This characteristic implies the conformity of pedagogical expertise with internal and external changes.
The core of the concept of developmental pedagogical expertise of education process in an educational organization includes target, content, procedural and reflexive constituents that ensure a unity forming system of pedagogical expertise. These components have their own characteristics.
The target constituent contains requirements for modern level of education process whose priority goal, as we understand it, is to create conditions for developing personality, for individual dynamic progress of every child.
The content constituent of pedagogical expertise of education process covers level characteristics of the objects under study ensuring problem-evaluation and resources analysis, assessing their potential in education process. The main objects of analysis are: а) educational relations; b) educational activities; c) educational environment; d) personal progress of a child, personality development.
The procedural constituent is based on the use of high-quality tools for obtaining objective information. Here an important role is assigned to the employed criteria and resort to modern scientific achievements and tendencies concerning the criteria base that is used in the sphere of education (Vdovichenko & Vlasova, 2018; Harms, Clifford, & Cryer, 2014; Sylva, Siraj-Blatchford, & Taggart, 2010; Zachopoulou et al., 2013).
The reflexive constituent ensures introduction of the required changes into education process after interpreting the obtained information and includes prognostic conclusions that determine the perspectives of development.
In all these constituents the role of the expert association is of particular importance (Evstratikova & Bolotova, 2016; Selivanova, 2015). First of all, let us point out that an expert should take a clear personal and professional position which is determined by the principles and approaches to education that they share. This position can be explained to the teachers he works with during the expertise.
At the same time an expert must be able to understand the position of the teaching staff whose activities undergo expertise and assessment proceeding from their principles and approaches to education. It is necessary to assess them pointing out their advantages and disadvantages. Besides, experts must have authority as professionals with the collectives whose activities are to undergo expertise. The impact of the level of professionalism on the full realization of the developmental potential of expertise is also underlined by western experts (Preskill, Parkhurst, Juster, & Splansky, 2014).
It stands to reason that an expert must have previous experience of practical work in the field of education. They must have a broad outlook, logical mind, analytical mindset, the ability to realistically assess the situation, to be reserved, to understand what is happening in terms of the further development of the process, to know the rules of business etiquette and constantly improve their qualifications.
An expert must be able to clearly express their thoughts orally and in writing, substantiate their judgements and conclusions. They will require leadership skills to carry out their activities. An expert must be objective and unbiased, keep confidential the information obtained in the course of their activities (Valovoy, 1999; Novikova, 1991).
Characterizing the activities of experts, western researchers underline a clear communicative interaction algorithm and the developmental influence of feedback in the course of expertise (Taylor-Powell, Steele, & Douglah, 2014; Webb, Diana, Luft, Brooks, & Brennan, 1997).
For pedagogical expertise of education it is very important to ensure its developmental character. In order to increase objectivity of expertise, western science studying expert activity suggests using both summative and formative evaluation where the latter reflects the developmental character (Black & Wiliam, 1998; Wheeler, Wong, & Blunden, 2015).
As is known, practically every concept contains a system of functions. The integrity of pedagogical process puts forward a fundamental requirement for establishing interdependence and interpenetration of functions in their characteristics and practical implementation. Moreover, the built functions system, in the opinion of experts, must have the following properties:
- fullness of content – to provide a solution to the whole range of pedagogical problems through the investigated phenomenon;
- target match – to reflect the basic purpose of the phenomenon in pedagogical reality;
- certainty – to ensure potential realization of the functions system in modern education;
- integrated closed set – to form a complete cycle of obtaining the necessary result;
- compensatory flexibility (interchangeability) – to determine the possibility of neutralizing the shortcomings of a function by using another one.
The construction of a system of functions presupposes that the so-called basic function is singled out and all the others keep around it according to the logic of their implementation. The basic function plays the role of a system-forming factor providing emergent properties of the system altogether. Thus the basic function turns out to be connected with all the others whereas connections between subsidiary functions may not always be present. The basic function is determined proceeding from the importance of the phenomenon under study and the existing viewpoints on its peculiar features. The other functions can be of equal importance or they can be in organized hierarchically. In any case the connection between them must be definitely established (Yakovlev, 2006).
The developmental potential of pedagogical expertise of education process is realized by every constituent of this process through a system of functions including: problem-evaluation, developmental (being the basic) and prognostic functions.
It should be noted that the basic developmental function in the target component will be realized by determining a real (neither globalized, nor overly particularized) target in education process, here and now determining conditions for personality development.
In the content component the developmental function is realized by means of problem-evaluation and resources analysis making it possible to detect “problem zones” that impede efficiency in education process, and show developmental resources of the key objects of expertise: educating relations, educating activities, educating environment, children’s personality development.
In the procedural component the developmental function is realized by choosing high-quality tools to monitor education process and obtain objective information.
In the reflexive component the developmental function will ensure objective interpretation of the obtained information and prognostic conclusions for future development.
The realization degree of this function in all the components also depends on the characteristics of expert association.
The conditions for realizing the developmental character of pedagogical expertise in modern system and practice of education are the environment and situation where the process takes place and evolves. Pedagogical conditions are often understood as a set of measures in the pedagogical process increasing its efficiency. Also important are the normative basics for managing expertise in the sphere of education (Umnyashova & Egorov, 2016; Umnyashova, 2017). Conditions are always external factors with regard to the object, but researchers are hardly ever able to reveal the full range of circumstances that influence the efficiency of the process, more often they distinguish only part of them.
The most important conditions for realization of the developmental character of pedagogical expertise of education process are the following: availability of a request for expertise from the teaching staff and administration of an institution; Readiness of the staff to openly give information to the expert group; acceptance of the expertise results by the teaching staff; formulation, first of all, of pedagogical problems on the basis of expertise data, that the staff is to solve; the choice of means and ways for solving the revealed problems.
As a result of implementation of these conditions pedagogical expertise of education process in an educational organization will finally become, in fact, a developmental and forming expertise, substantially increasing the efficiency of education process.
The article was prepared within the framework of the state assignment for the Institute for Strategy of Education Development of the Russian Academy of Education, project № 073-00086-19-00 in 2019, on the theme: “Devising scientific and methodological principles of developing the educational component of the FSES OO and the mechanisms of its implementation”.
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Kiseleva*, E. V., Kiselev, N. N., & Selivanova, N. L. (2019). Construction Of The Concept Of Developmental Pedagogical Expertise Of Education Process. In & S. K. Lo (Ed.), Education Environment for the Information Age, vol 69. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 416-423). Future Academy. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2019.09.02.48