The purpose of this research was to examine if job satisfaction predicts job performance among police officers in Malaysia. Data was collected from 262 police officers who are currently working in the Royal Malaysia Police (RMP) located in Georgrtwon, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia. Participation in the research was voluntary. The results indicate that job satisfaction is positively correlated with performance. Supervision, co-workers, and work have a significantly positive impact on job performance, while the effect on pay and promotion is not significant. The findings of this study provide some insight to extend research in organizational behavior among police officers in North Earth Police Department, Pulau Pinang. In addition, studying the relationship between job satisfaction and job performance has synergistic and complementary effects on each of employee attitudes that exceed the individual effects. Intervention to improve the police officers’ job satisfaction should be kept developed in the future, especially to enhance the better performance in RMP. Implications, limitation, and suggestion for further research and practitioners are discussed in this study.
Keywords: Job satisfactionjob performancepolice officersMalaysia
Normally, the public sector organizations known as the largest employer in many countries (Knies, Boselie, Gould-Williams, & Vandenabeele, 2017). The public sector employment can be characterized as being labor intensive, as the performance of public sector workers is critical to the delivery of services (Knies et al., 2017). In the globalization changing widely, the public sector always try to provide quality service and high performance organizations based on the expectations and needs of their stakeholders including the communities, civilian and customer (Wisniewski, 2001).
According to De Waal (2010) noted that an employee is able to anticipate, respond and adapt to change is crucial element will achieving high-performance in the public sector .It strongly support by Danish and Usman (2010) defined the employee as important assets and as the key for development for success in the organization. The studies have done by scholars show that job performance and job satisfaction are strongly correlation positive (Agyare, Yuhui, Mensah, Aidoo, & Ansah, 2016; Koedel, Springer, & Tan, 2017; Shaju & Subhashini, 2017).
The Malaysian Public Service (MPS) has considered a crucial component in the economic and social development in Malaysia (Woo, 2015). MPS has responsive to make changing and transforming in the public sector to stay relevant, efficiently and optimize value creation. The government always want to provide high-performance through focus public administration and management research and reform for many years (De Waal, 2010). In the years 2004, programs ‘New Public Management’ introduced as a benchmark and key indicator embarked high-performance of all public sector (Siddiquee, 2006). One agency chosen are Royal Malaysia Police as the sample of the study of job satisfaction.
The Royal Malaysia Police (RMP) took its formation of Malaysia in 1807. RMP responsible largely law enforcement, order maintenance and services in the country. In particular, crime reduces is one priority of the RMP (Royal Malaysia Police, 2018). In the Government Transformation Programme (GTP), the RMP give full responsibility to decreasing crime index 5% every year until 2020 (Pelan Strategik PDRM, 2015). Recently, the public is dissatisfaction with service delivery, performance and weakness RMP. In the years 2017, there are total 1,111 cases complaints from citizen included 10 agencies (Ministry): RMP is highest received complaints 274 cases (24.67%), State Health Department are 222 cases (19.99%), State Education Department are 200 cases (18.00%), Public Works Department are 117 cases (10.53%), Road Transport Department are 89 cases (8.01%), Immigration Department are 84 cases (7.56%), Kuala Lumpur City Hall is 79 cases (7.11%), Department of Irrigation and Drainage are 46 cases (4.14%) (Public Complaints Bureau, 2017).
As a result, poor operational management declined confidence among the public on RMP as the agency which responsible for upholding the law in the country (Kadir & Jusoff, 2009). In add, another issue has reported similar likely unethical misconduct (Klockars, Ivkovich, Harver, & Haberfeld, 2000), integrity (Bakri, Said, & Karim, 2015) and assets misappropriation (Karim, Said, & Bakri, 2015).
2.1. Job Satisfaction
Job satisfaction (JS) has numerous definitions and concept due is widely research in various complex phenomenon by the researcher (Smith, Kendall, & Huhn, 1969; Yang & Hwang, 2014). Job satisfaction is a feeling of an emotional effective response to a job (Smith et al., 1969). JS is recognized in industrial and organizational as a condition for successful job performance (Shmailan, 2016) and constructs in the industrial or organizational via the relationship between individual and organizational outcomes (Dormann & Zapf, 2001). Many studies have reviewed job satisfaction at different stages of development similar like educational (Smith et al., 1969), healthcare (Maqbali, 2015), and police (Bennett, 1997; Kuo, 2015).The job satisfaction such as pay, promotion, co-workers, supervision, and work has been considered as the base strategies to increase organizational performance (Smith et al., 1969).
Pay is crucial factor influenced on the job satisfaction (Lee, Esen, & DiNicola, 2017). Pay is the one of the part to help the employee for achieved their basic expectation and satisfaction the higher levels of need (Ogbonnaya, Daniels, & Nielsen, 2017). This led to the first set hypotheses:
H1: Pay has significant direct impact job satisfaction employee
Promotions employee includes provided the better increment, upward rank of the organization, and enhancement responsibility (Lazear, 2000). The success of the organizations depends on the employee satisfaction and dissatisfaction with the promotion policies (Noor, Khanl, & Naseem, 2015). Many researchers give their opinion that promotion is strongly correlated and direct connect to job satisfaction (Busari, Mughal, Khan, Rasool, & Kiyani, 2017; Mughal & Busari, 2015; Noor et al., 2015). Thus, the following hypotheses:
H2: Promotion has significant direct impact job satisfaction employee.
Supervision can define as the relationship with employee satisfaction because supervisor support of emotional and technology will increase job satisfaction (Johnson, 2015). Research has found out that have significant impact supervisor support on job satisfaction (Johnson, 2015; Lambert, Qureshi, Klahm, Smith, & Frank, 2017). The supervisor also known as the front-line manager responsible for supervising the employee and responsible regulated activates of the lower-level employee (Nel et al., 2004), the following hypotheses:
H3: Supervision has significant direct impact job satisfaction employee.
Co-workers are the interactions with each other co-workers including the extent relied on need, help and receptive to work-related problems in the organization (Menguc & Boichuk, 2012). In the survey of two universities in Texas, 174 personnels have taken to show that co-workers support is positive on job satisfaction (Charoensukmongkol, Moqbel, & Gutierrez-Wirsching, 2016). Thus, the following hypotheses:
H4: Co-workers has significant direct impact job satisfaction employee.
Robbins and Judge (2014) refer to the job as an actual task given to an individual for learning, personal growth and responsible it. Satisfaction with work also reflects the employees feeling their actual job including interest, challenging, respected their own task rather being boring and felt uncomfortable it. Evans, Pucik, and Björkman (2011) noted that positive relationship job satisfaction of employees appears when perceives work conditions are good and same with their expectation, the following hypotheses:
H5: Work has significant direct impact job satisfaction employee.
2.2. Job Performance
Job performance refers to the ability employee able to achieve, attains, and accomplish the organizational goals (Ismail, Suh-Suh, Ajis, & Dollah, 2009). The job performance is a very essential part which plays an important role in achieving organizational goals (Kappagoda, Othman, Zainul, & Alwis, 2014; Wang, Yen, & Liu, 2015). In public administration, the study tested hypotheses on job satisfaction or job performance (Kim, Egan, & Moon, 2014), but no investigated the relationship between job satisfaction and job performance. Goldstein (1979) has highlighted that traditionally police agencies over-focus on internal management, rules, and regulations. Police agencies have measured their performance based on law enforcement similar crime rate, arrests and times response rather than community service (problem-solving, counseling or providing help) (Davis, 2012). As modern law enforcement agencies engage in diversity task such as crime prevention, traffic safety, preventing drug and prosecutes culprit (Royal Malaysia Police, 2018).
The present study aims to examine the relationship between job satisfaction and job performance among police officers is located in Northern Malaysia. With reference to the research objectives stated in this study, the research questions to be answered are as follows:
What is the relationship between job satisfaction and job performance in the
North East Police Department?
Does job satisfaction (such as pay, promotion, supervision, co-workers, and work) influence the job performance in the North East Police Department?
Determine the correlation between job satisfaction (such as pay, promotion, supervision, co-workers, and work) and job performance in the North East Police Department.
Purpose of the Study
The objectives of this study were to measure the impact of job satisfaction on the job performance and assesses in police officers who currently working in NEPD, Pulau Pinang. In order to materialize these objectives, the following specific objectives were considered.
to examine the relationship between job satisfaction (such as pay, promotion, supervision, co-workers, and work) and job performance in the North East Police Department.
to understand if the job satisfaction (such as such as pay, promotion, supervision, co-workers, and work) increasing the job performance in the RMP in the North East Police Department.
The population comprises sample was a police officer from the department in District Police North East Penang. Penang has the highest Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita in the 2014 and 2015 (World Economic Forum, 2017). The potential significance George Town, Penang as World Heritage listing attractive tourists as destinations tourism, which is deemed a more profitable and sustainable market (Hall & Piggin, 2002). Usually, the tourism is potential variables that can influence the crime in the urban (Lisowska, 2017). Over the past several years, the world urban population have been changing rapidly of urbanization and rural population became more decreasing steeply (UN-HABITAT, 2015). In the years 2015, the world population are 7.3 billion and 53% are living in urban areas. The percentage will increase to 9.8 billion in 2050 which 69% will be urban (World Population, 2015). The rapidly in growth in urbanization, creates some social problems, and is one major contributor the high level urban crime in the countries (Ghani, 2017; Amin, Rahim, & Geshina, 2014).
Total 300 set questionnaires were disturbed and 262 were returned and complete to analyse. The impact effectively seriously at sampling less than 50 cases but if samples more 200 cases making the effectively diminishes (Hair, Black, Babin, & Anderson, 2014). The score scale including with 1 for “no”, 2 for “neutral”, and 3 for “yes”. The survey contained the five facets job descriptive index: pay, promotion, supervision, co-workers and work (Smith et al., 1969). We also delete all the respondents who missing more than 5 missing points across the JDI. The data collected was analysed by using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 2.0. The statistical analyses include the mean, standard deviation, and reliability value.
The statistical analyses were computed using SPSS version 12.0 for Window to extract the data and results. There are several results which are displayed below from study. Table
In this study, there were five hypotheses were tested. The objective of the study is to examine the effects of job satisfaction on job performance in the Royal Malaysia Police. Statistical analysis on a sample 262 police officers who currently working in the district North East Police Department, Pulau Pinang. Based on the findings, job satisfaction such as supervision, work, and co-workers have a significant relationship between the job performances of police officers. Pay and promotion are no significant relationship between job performances among police officers in the district North East Police Department, Pulau Pinang.
This study is investigated effective job satisfaction that may lead to job performance using the questionnaire survey method. By considering and understanding job satisfaction (such as i.e. pay, promotion, supervision, co-workers, and work) that influences the job performance of police officers today, it is one of the best strategies to measure the level police officer’s performance. The between of five dimensions of job satisfaction in police officers in police district North East Polis Department, Pulau Pinang, only supervision, work, co-workers, and work have significant relationship between job performance among the polices. This study also found certain that police officers should pay more attention to another variable (such as job stress, organizational commitment, and HRM practices) to enhance and improve job performance in the police officers.
It is hoped that contributed proposed by the researcher were able to contribute towards improving the job satisfaction among the police officers in North East Polis Department, Pulau Pinang.
This research has some limitations. First, the respondent’s commitment and opinion to answer the questionnaires. The respondents answer the questionnaire with just thick any answer which suitable for they think without honesty and makes the information not accurate.
Second, the limited population police officer is no represent all the police officer who currently in each of the state in Malaysia. Therefore, the total respondents are 262 police officers (18.04%) for this study, only a small percentage out of 1458 police officers who currently working in the North East Police Department, Pulau Pinang. The results might be affected and skewed.
Third, this study just only focused on five dimensions of job satisfaction (i.e. pay, promotion, supervision, co-workers, and work). The results have shown that most police officers are dissatisfied with the pay, promotion and work; insignificantly correlated with job performance.
7.2. Recommendations for Future Research
This study aimed to discover other important elements that will enhance and improve the job performance in the RMP. Perhaps the most significant limitation is that we did not measure is the Human Resources Management (HRM) practices that used wide to explain the linkage between HRM practices and performance (García & Tomas, 2016). Further research can be conducted more dimensions that influencing factor of job performance like fringe, benefits, rewards, compensations and stress.
Second, insert the mediating such as job embeddedness to link the job satisfaction and performance in the RMP. Job embeddedness theory (JET) explained the employees will becoming more embedded in their works and their desire to keep performing in the organizations and considered a linking HRM and employee performance as the intervening mechanism.
Third, it would more meaningful to gather more responses from each state in Malaysia. The bigger sample must be taken from the Royal Malaysia Police (RMP) to measure the effective job satisfaction among police officers. The questionnaire must be adapting, concise, compact, easy to understand, and mean fully. For future research it may be useful to include more journals and to look into papers that were not published to collect more data which can improve the results.
I am grateful to Associate Professor for their guidance and comments helped in completion of this reseach. My sincere appreciation also goes to Royal Malaysia Police (RMP) that provide the data to me. Last but no least, I would like to thank the participants of this research who spend valuable time in filling out the questionnaires.
- Agyare, R., Yuhui, G., Mensah, L., Aidoo, Z., & Ansah, I. O. (2016). The Impacts of Performance Appraisal on Employees’ Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment: A Case of Microfinance Institutions in Ghana. International Journal of Business and Management, 11(9), 281.
- Amin, M. B., Rahim, M. K., & Geshina, A. M. S. (2014). A trend analysis of violent crimes in Malaysia. Health and Environment Journal, 5(2), 41–56.
- Bakri, H. H. M., Said, J., & Karim, A, Z. (2015). Case study on integrity among Royal Malaysia Police: An ethical perspective. Procedia Economics and Finance, 28, 121-125.
- Bennett, R. R. (1997). Job satisfaction among police constables: A comparative study in three developing nations. Justice Quarterly, 14(2), 295–323.
- Busari, A. H., Mughal, Y. H., Khan, S. N., Rasool, S., & Kiyani, A. A. (2017). Analytical cognitive style moderation on promotion and turnover intention. Journal of Management Development, 36(3), 438–464.
- Charoensukmongkol, P., Moqbel, M., & Gutierrez-Wirsching, S. (2016). The role of co-worker and supervisor support on job burnout and job satisfaction. Journal of Advances in Management Research, 13(1), 4–22.
- Cortina, J. M. (1993). What is coefficient alpha? An examination of theory and applications. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78(1), 98-104.
- Danish, R. Q., & Usman, A. (2010). The impact of reward and recognition on job satisfaction and practices on productivity: A study on steel finishing line. The American Economics Review, 87(3), 291-31.
- Davis, R. C. (2012). Selected international best practices in police performance measurement. Rand Corporation.
- De Waal, A. A. (2010). Achieving high performance in the public sector: What needs to be done? Public Performance & Management Review, 34(1), 81–103.
- Dormann, C., & Zapf, D. (2001). Job satisfaction: A meta‐analysis of stabilities. Journal of Organizational Behavior: The International Journal of Industrial, Occupational and Organizational Psychology and Behavior, 22(5), 483–504.
- Evans, P., Pucik, V., & Björkman, I. (2011). Global performance management. The Global Challenge: International Human Resource Management, 2, 346–390.
- García, J. A. M., & Tomas, J. M. (2016). Deconstructing AMO framework: A systematic review. In Intangible Capital, 12, 1040–1087.
- Ghani, Z. A. (2017). A comparative study of urban crime between Malaysia and Nigeria. Journal of Urban Management, 6(1), 19–29.
- Goldstein, H. (1979). Improving policing: A problem-oriented approach. Crime & Delinquency, 25(2), 236–258.
- Hall, C. M., & Piggin, R. (2002). Tourism business knowledge of World Heritage sites: A New Zealand case study. International Journal of Tourism Research, 4(5), 401–411.
- Ismail, A., Suh-Suh, Y., Ajis, M. N., & Dollah, N. F. (2009). Relationship between occupational stress, emotional intelligence and job performance: An empirical study in Malaysia. Theoretical and Applied Economics, 10(539), 3-16.
- Johnson, R. R. (2015). Police organizational commitment: The influence of supervisor feedback and support. Crime & Delinquency, 61(9), 1155–1180.
- Kadir, N. A., & Jusoff, K. (2009). The Royal Commission Report for Strategic Management and Improvement of the Royal Malaysian Police. Management Science and Engineering, 3(3), 28–37.
- Kappagoda, D., Othman, P., Zainul, H., & Alwis, G. (2014). Psychological capital and job performance: The mediating role of work attitudes. Journal of Human Resource and Sustainability Studies, 2, 102-116.
- Karim, Z. A., Said, J., & Bakri, H. H. M. (2015). An exploratory study on the possibility of assets misappropriation among Royal Malaysian Police officials. Procedia Economics and Finance, 31, 625–631.
- Kim, S., Egan, T. M., & Moon, M. J. (2014). Managerial coaching efficacy, work-related attitudes, and performance in public organizations: A comparative international study. Review of Public Personnel Administration, 34(3), 237–262.
- Klockars, C., Ivkovich, S., Harver, W., & Haberfeld, M. (2000). The measurement of police integrity (NCJ 181465). National Institute of Justice Research in Brief. Washington, DC: National Institute of Justice. Retrieved form https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/181465.pdf
- Knies, E., Boselie, P., Gould-Williams, J., & Vandenabeele, W. (2017). Strategic human resource management and public sector performance: context matters. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 5192, 1–13. DOI:
- Koedel, C., Springer, M. G., & Tan, L. (2017). The impact of performance ratings on job satisfaction for public school teachers, 54(2), 241–278. DOI:
- Kuo, S. Y. (2015). Occupational stress, job satisfaction, and affective commitment to policing among Taiwanese police officers. Police Quarterly, 18(1), 27–54.
- Lambert, E. G., Qureshi, H., Klahm, C., Smith, B., & Frank, J. (2017). The effects of perceptions of organizational structure on job involvement, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment among Indian police officers. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 61(16), 1892–1911.
- Lazear, E. P. (2000). Performance pay and productivity. American Economic Review, 90(5), 1346–1361.
- Lee, C., Esen, E., & DiNicola, S. (2017). Employee Job Satisfaction and Engagement: The doors of opportunity are open. Retrieved form https://www.shrm.org/hr-today/trends-and-forecasting/ research-and-surveys/Documents/2017-Employee-Job-Satisfaction-and-Engagement-Executive-Summary.pdf
- Lisowska, A. (2017). Crime in tourism destinations: Research review. Turyzm, 27(1), 31–39.
- Maqbali, M. A. (2015). Factors that influence nurses’ job satisfaction: A literature review. Nursing Management (2014), 22(2), 30.
- Menguc, B., & Boichuk, J. P. (2012). Customer orientation dissimilarity, sales unit identification, and customer-directed extra-role behaviors: Understanding the contingency role of coworker support. Journal of Business Research, 65(9), 1357–1363.
- Mughal, Y. H., & Busari, A. H. (2015). Moderating intuition effect on cognitive style relationship concerning promotion and turnover intentions among academicians. Science. International, 27(6), 6375–6380.
- Nel, P. S., Gerber, P. D., Van Dyk, P. S., Haasbroek, G. D., Schultz, H. B., Sono, T., & Werner, A. (2004). Human Resources Management. Cape Town: Oxford University Press.
- Noor, Z., Khanl, A. U., & Naseem, I. (2015). Impact of job promotion and job advancement on job satisfaction in Universities of KPK province of Pakistan. Science International Journal, 27(2), 1499–1505.
- Ogbonnaya, C., Daniels, K., & Nielsen, K. (2017). Does contingent pay encourage positive employee attitudes and intensify work? Human Resource Management Journal, 27(1), 94–112.
- Pelan Strategik PDRM. (2015). Polis DiRaja Malaysia. Bahagian Latihan, Ibu Pejabat Polis Bukit Aman, Kuala Lumpur.
- Public Complaints Bureau. (2017). Laporan Tahunan 2017. Retrieved from http://www.pcb.gov.my/ en/complaint/statistics-by-year
- Robbins, S. P., & Judge, T. (2014). Essentials of organizational behavior. Pearson.
- Royal Malaysia Police. (2018). Retrieved from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Royal_Malaysia_Police
- Shaju, M., & Subhashini, D. (2017). A study on the impact of job satisfaction on job performance of employees working in automobile industry. Journal of Management Research, 17(2), 117-130.
- Shmailan, A. S. (2016). The relationship between job satisfaction, job performance and employee engagement: An explorative study. Issues in Business Management and Economics, 4(1), 1–8.
- Siddiquee, N. A. (2006). Innovations in governance and service delivery: E-government experiments in Malaysia. Asian Development Bank. Retrieved from https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/ef0a/ d221ac6d9ab7e4f32b06c005f2e49b1de750.pdf
- Smith, P. C., Kendall, L. M., & Hullin, C. L. (1969). The measurement of satisfaction in work and retirement. Chicago: Rand McNally.
- UN-HABITAT. (2015). The state of African cities 2014: Re-imagining sustainable urban transitions. United Nations Human Settlements Programme. Retrieved from https://www.gwp.org/globalassets/ global/toolbox/references/the-state-of-african-cities-2014_re-imagining-sustainable-urban-transitions-un-habitat-2014.pdf
- Wang, C. H., Yen, C. D., & Liu, G. H. W. (2015). How intellectual capital influences individual performance: A multi-level perspective. Computers in Human Behavior, 51, 930–937.
- Wisniewski, M. (2001). Using SERVQUAL to assess customer satisfaction with public sector services. Managing Service Quality: An International Journal, 11(6), 380–388.
- World Population. (2015). Retrieved from https://www.prb.org/world-population-2015
- World Economic Forum. (2017). The Inclusive Growth and Development Report 2017
- Insight Report. Retrieved from http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_Forum_IncGrwth_2017.pdf
- Woo, K. H. (2015). Recruitment Practices in the Malaysian public sector: innovations or political responses? Journal of Public Affairs Education, 21(2), 229–246.
- Yang, C. L., & Hwang, M. (2014). Personality traits and simultaneous reciprocal influences between job performance and job satisfaction. Chinese Management Studies, 8(1), 6–26.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
About this article
02 August 2019
Print ISBN (optional)
Business, innovation, sustainability, environment, green business, environmental issues
Cite this article as:
Kee, D. M. H., & Chong*, K. Y. (2019). Job Satisfaction and Performance of Police Officers in Penang. In C. Tze Haw, C. Richardson, & F. Johara (Eds.), Business Sustainability and Innovation, vol 65. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 155-165). Future Academy. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2019.08.16