Recent investigations on the efficiency of the learning process take into account the fact that the relationship between the use of resources and the satisfaction of needs is essential in their final determination and assessment. Starting from the analysis of the manager status of the teacher in the class of students, it should take into account, in each stage of the educational process, the relationship between resources and needs, undertaking approaches for mutual accommodation and balancing. Without abandoning the strictly psycho-pedagogical perspective, the teacher must also address management strategies in the student class, making the most of the available resources by designing solutions for their management and use. Class teacher failures are due to the lack of knowledge, management and exploitation of educational resources (social, psychological, pedagogical, managerial) in the class of students. The level of classroom performance of the teaching staff can be expressed as a ratio between the results obtained and the resources available. The data of this study highlight the need to bring adequate utilization within the educational process of the educational resources, which consist of didactic materials and means, to create an educational environment favorable to instructional and educational activity that focuses on the student with all his feelings, attitudes and knowledge.
Keywords: Educational resourcesprimary educationteacherstudentmanagement
The operational dimension of the educational process aims at concrete action involving the adaptation of the teaching/educational tasks, set across the educational curricula, the specificity of class within the framework of the design and realization of optimal pedagogical relations between the teacher and students. (Cristea, 2002). Starting from the idea that teachers are the architects for the learning environment, we believe that all lessons can be designed to regularly bring students to a status of "natural flow" (Senge et al, 2016, p. 176). In this consists the value of materials and teaching resources that allow for the development of abilities of reflection, investigation and understanding of the systems.
Marzano (2015) formulates three features for an effective teaching:
1. use of some effective instructional strategies
2. use of some effective class management strategies
3. use of an effective curriculum project
To be successful in training, one should have a procedural path prefigured, well contextualized and articulated. Didactic strategies are flexible operational approaches, coordinated and connected to the objectives and circumstances establishing the conditions of teaching and generating learning, of changes in attitudes and behaviours in various, particular teaching contexts. The strategy includes specifications and actional boundaries, in order to make the process of transmitting information and that of training intentional capabilities. The strategy constitutes a procedural scheme in such a way sized so as to feature educational reality within conditions that are subject to change (Cucoș, 2006, p. 282).
Didactic strategies are implemented effectively if we appeal for adequate educational materials that represent the range of objects, products, tools and documents - natural or of substitution- used in the act of teaching-learning for fulfilment of some teaching – training - educational objectives.
Means of education represent an assembly of devices, technical, iconic, audio/visual, conceptual, data- processing, virtual systems which intercede communication of contents for instructional and educational purposes. Reference is made in this regard: devices that take advantage of some audio data, such as recordings or sound broadcasts through radio or cassette recorder, as well as of appliances that take advantage of video data (teaching projectable materials) such as: video projector, T.V., simulators, computers (Bontaș, 2008, p. 151).
In practice, use of teaching materials is done by combining intuitive means with logical-mathematical tool and action. In the context of this approach, they have the quality of highlighting varied and specific data and information, regarding the physical and conceptual aspects, structure, functionality, utility of objects, phenomena and processes previously studied, while at the same easing the time for understanding, application, assimilation of knowledge.
In traditional teaching activity it has been operated for a long time with the concept of didactic material. The concept relates in particular to the intuitive teaching materials that make up, in the main, what is referred to as the didactic material and technical basis, object-oriented. The concept of means of education is relatively new, having a larger sphere of meanings. In addition to intuitive teaching materials, it also includes conceptual elements-applied and experimental, and logical-mathematical instruments, and media and data - processing, as well. Thus, the concept of means of education has to be replaced to a large extent by the concept of intuitive teaching materials. Of course, between material and didactic means there are interrelationships and interactions. (Bontaș, 2008, p. 152).
Possible educational designs that can be developed in preuniversity education could include a variety of teaching resources and materials (open resources and formative resources versions), provided they are adapted to efficiently trening: school skills development, reporting to scientific and essential content transmitted to pupils, respecting students individual and age particularities etc. (Tudor, 2017).
In order to implement a coherent strategy in in classroom, the teachers should be led by the learner-centred paradigm (Tăușan, 2017) and have developed a series of competences-based curriculum (Soare, 2017), educational autonomy competences (Iordăchescu, 2013) along with professional and transversal competencies.
The research hypotheses of this study are:
There is a significant difference regarding the use of modern means and materials in the didactic process as regards the teacher’s didactic experience.
If we use didactic means and materials suitable for the particular didactic sequences, then the students’ interest and activation within the framework of the lessons increases.
We assume that the optimum use of didactic material within the framework of the lessons will lead to the streamlining of the didactic activities.
Purpose of the Study
The study aims to investigate the ways to streamline the process of instruction through the use of some didactic means and materials in accordance with the age, individual particularities and curriculum.
Identification of the means and appropriate teaching materials for the training process
Knowledge by the teachers with the operating mode of the modern didactic means of teaching
Description of the didactic sequences in which there has been made use of the didactic means and materials
Effective sharing of the amount of the didactic material for the educational process
Measurement of the progress of the students by using didactic means and materials
The method used in this investigative approach was the questionnaire-based investigation. The questionnaires were applied using google forms. The online questionnaires for primary school teachers, were structured based on the following dimensions:
obtainment of information as to identification of the means and appropriate teaching materials for the training process;
the aspects regarding the effective sharing of the amount of the didactic material for the educational process
knowledge by the teachers with the operating mode of the modern didactic means of teaching
the factual data – didactic experience, school residence environment.
The study was carried out on a group of 102 primary school teachers from rural and urban area, from two counties located in the south part of Romania.
The hypothesis “There is a significant difference regarding the use of modern means and materials in the didactic process as regards the didactic experience” was tested through
The majority of the teaching staff included in the study (91.2%) believed that the use of teaching materials and means are useful in all stages of the lesson, as table
Study results presented in table
Teaching materials and means can be used at any time during the lesson, but their presentation and exposure must have a logical thread, to be accessible and appropriate to the students ' age and to their level of understanding. The optimal combination of modern and classic teaching means depends to a great extent on the pedagogical mastery of the teacher, but also on his opening towards the new, and last, but not least, the ownership of ICT skills necessary to operate with modern didactic means. Educational materials are very useful, but excessive use is harmful, it unsettles the student and does not give him the possibility to consolidate the information received. Although the didactic material should not be the sole way of transmitting knowledge, there is always need for it to be accompanied by teacher’s verbalization in order to effectively lead the child in the activity of learning. However, the absence of its use is prejudicial: the lessons become dull, monotonous, the child loses interest in learning, finds it difficult to understand the information sent to him.
There must always be found a balance in the use of the teaching material. For example, presentation of individual working sheets can be made through video projector, to ensure capturing students’ attention, being accompanied by explanations from the teacher.
In many of the classes in primary school, there can be observed excessive paving, thematic interest centres with visual materials conspicuously coloured, exposed without a logical thread, which does not tally with the area of interest. This excessive loading of classes with teaching material leads to impairment of the well-being of the student through permanent distraction of attention. Class must be paved with a quantity of teaching materials that allow the creation of an airy and bright classroom, in which the student feels comfortable. A rational combination of the teaching materials and means, both modern and classic, involving them into a complex and lucrative activity, leads to building a supportive educational environment for understanding cognitive didactic message, accepting it emotionally and motivationally, challenging the student's behavioural reaction to the actional and attitudinal level.
The authors of the publication have equally contributed to the elaboration of the study.
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15 August 2019
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Educational strategies,teacher education, educational policy, organization of education, management of education, teacher training
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Langa, C., & Langa*, C. (2019). Effective Management Of Educational Resources In Primary Education. In E. Soare, & C. Langa (Eds.), Education Facing Contemporary World Issues, vol 67. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 10-16). Future Academy. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2019.08.03.2