Teaching Journalism And Digital Media Challenges


Journalism is an increasingly dynamic field, and the ways of teaching have to be rethought. As technology evolves very quickly, we need to find new teaching methods. The digital news media in Arges continue with their unstoppable growth, like in all country. This research presents an updated view of digital news media but, many questions are still waiting for the answer. How many digital media are active now, how are they distributed, what is their business profile, how will be the evolution of digital journalism, can we talk already about cyber-journalism, this are the objectives of this study. How will be the future for the pre-existing journalistic brands in press, television, radio and press agencies? It is the new media that shows us both the society in which we live, the people we live with, and the political, economic, social and cultural environment in which we live; it is also that that pulls strong alarm signals when things do not go on the normal course, reminding us that we all need to get involved in a modern society and in accordance with our aspirations. Research on digital media effects can track people who have the effect. Effects can be tracked individually, at group level or across society. In the digital era, where words like blog, social networking, video-cast, content generation, messenger, citizen journalism dominate, we talk about two possibilities: either it neglects all this or it bears the consequences.

Keywords: Digital mediabrandsonlineconsumerspublic communication


The term of public relations online involves PR activities in the Internet environment. With the evolution of web technology, the possibilities of online public relations have increased. New media applications make it possible to have a strong and efficient online presence through the use of various PR tactics.

"No matter how wonderful the service we offer, we must always be visible and maintain contact with people on the social network, to always be present in their minds. In the digital age, where they dominate words like blog, social network, video-cast, content generation, messenger, citizen journalism, etc., a company has two possibilities: either neglecting all of them or bear the consequences. Although technological change is not a phenomenon that occurs independently of the purposes in which agents use technology, culture is partially uncontrollable, because symbolic representations are open to various interpretations and because the modes of Life are permanently rebuilt and redefined.

Problem Statement

Through online PR campaigns, an organization has increased responsiveness in its relations with customers and partners, a high degree of interactivity and expansion in space, as well as an audience that exceeds that of traditional environments (Green, 2009). In addition, the online environment provides specific tools for measuring audiences and the impact of messages, so that evaluating the results of Internet campaigns is much more accurate and more detailed. "PR helps us to make ourselves visible, so communication must be direct, accessible, with a well-specified message. This is done, through multimedia techniques, very efficient"(Popescu, 2011).

If we make a comparison between traditional and online PR programs, we will notice that traditional ones are based on media, media relations and event organizing, and online ones apply traditional methods in an environment Virtual.

Research Questions

To be able to publish the site to a WEB server, it must be tested locally on different browsers, watching the appearance and content of pages, links between them, compatibility of between browsers, regulating the conditions for formatting elements Pages, check the links on pages and between pages, check the download time of the site. Promotion is the stage that makes known users address the site through search machines through written means or audio-video. In order for the site to be found on the Web through keywords and search engines, it must be uploaded to their database. Maintenance of the site involves maintaining information in an updated and correct form (Bădău, 2011). As a conclusion, we can say that online PR requires the use of digital media to achieve the communication objectives, all activities being directed to publicities that spend a great deal of time browsing the Internet.

Purpose of the Study

Depending on the objectives proposed and their complexity, the target audience will be chosen, for which will be thought of how the site will be navigated, its content and its presentation mode. At the design stage, it is important to create the navigation map, which will indicate which routes the user can browse to when the site is opened. Depending on this map, multimedia content will be uploaded. The site development period is marked by increased attractiveness and efficiency by introducing elements of interactivity and dynamism, aimed at capturing the user's interest. "A well-accomplished and qualitative site must always answer the criteria: informative, attractive and effective."

Research Methods

The tools and methods used in the online PR activity are: Site analysis, promotion guide, Announcement Guide (guide for spider), guide to an external PR plan. For a successful online communication, it takes a well-thought, planned and structured site that has all the strengths of a PR site. "The development of a website requires the following phases: planning, design, Development, testing, publication and maintenance" (Popescu, 2011, p.54). At the planning stage, the most important aspects to be established are the choice of the type of site (informational, commercial) and setting the objectives of this site.


In all online environments can be presented appropriately the site(s), products, company image. Then it is important the relationship that is established with the users, the relationship to be maintained to capture the interest of consumers. Mere presence on the web does not ensure the attention of Internet users and a simple newsletter does not guarantee that those who received it will periodically enter the site. Online communication assumes, at the same time, the transmission of a message, as well as a bilateral exchange of replicas: a response from users should be expected, be it good or bad. Not only does the company transmit something, but also users will respond in various forms: in writing, through visits, through comments about the site on other communication channels, etc. A constant presence among users must be maintained in order to remain in the public's attention. Several prerequisites to success in the online environment can be set up: - Be present in online environments where you entered and make a place there; - Do not stop to announce something at a single message and that sent rarely; -People remember you if you "come to the ramp" more often; -Talking often and much does not mean to convey unnecessary things; -Balances the abundance of information with its effectiveness, what you intended to transmit more often must be interesting, not just... much. Elements leading to effective communication and impact in the Web environment

Strategic planning the means used in communication adapt to the online channels to which they are called (Drăgan, 2018). You must find the tone and frequency suitable for each communication channel that will guarantee optimum results. For example: A blog is more suitable for large and detailed articles; A mini group (Facebook, LinkedIn) is more suitable for short, consistent and well formulated ads that lead to other web addresses.

Transparent communication with users In this case, transparent channels of communication between the user and the respective site (blog, forum) are required, which are active and quick. It is recommended that the site communicate with the user, when he asks, receive any type of response: Feedback, download quickly, download correctly on the mail. • Social media monitoring Search engines and other web-professional tools are tailored to investigate the online environment, in particular, to monitor the web-media market (online communication environments). In order to launch a new product, it is necessary to close data on market trends before launching, about the trends of buyers, about competition. After the product has been released, hot data must be constantly searched, about the reactions of buyers, the actual effects of the product.

  • Without a permanent link to the customer, the product will not be purchased. It is recommended:

  • The monitoring of the brand, at least once a week, can be made on blogs, wikis, forums, social networks, on search engines.

  • Balancing the relationship with the customer according to the alarm signals received in relation to the product.

  • Research of the online market in order to analyse the course of applications. • Relevance and efficiency of communication.

  • The public is increasingly informed, which is why the product must draw its attention by relevance. At the same time, it must draw emotional attention to it, to retain what it has received (Agabrian, 2008).Although the public is informed, it does not know how to use it optimally. So the information communicated must be structured in such a way that the user is guided to what he receives.

Perpetuation of communication

A user gained is a potential customer: He who subscribed to the newsletter or RSS, the one who registered on the site, the one who entered the group. Once the group formed, in a social network, a list of subscribers, a trend with the site, should not be abandoned communication with these users. Fidelity to them will react to their fidelity to the site, which means traffic on the site. Pro social media arguments:

  • Accessibility. It takes less than a minute to create a blog, Twitter or Facebook account.

  • Networking. People in the field with whom relationships are created, with whom they talk with whom a permanent link is kept.

  • The community. Identification of groups interested in the promoted product.

  • Information. Quick information and selection by established criteria.

  • Reputation. Create and maintain an online reputation in a public space where many types are validated by Google search. "Generally, individuals seek recognition for their contributions".

  • Efficacy. The information will be translated into effective actions "you will have the feeling that they have had some effect on the environment".

  • Creativity. Detection of creative people.

  • Interaction with customers and maintaining direct contact. Support can be provided by answering questions, suggestions and ideas from customers or simple visitors based on which the strategy or services can be updated.

Social Media has modernised the way it reaches consumers and has become very appealing to big companies. In recent years, social media has grown enormously, which has meant increasing the number of consumers that producers can address (Pavel, 2018). Social media have not only grown in popularity as a result of increasing the number of consumers, but have expanded and globally. Important and credible brands use social media to reach the old consumers, to gain new consumers, to build and maintain credibility and reputation among them. Advertising has lost efficiency; The public is no longer looking at advertisements, no longer acting according to them, now counts online opinions about brands. Social media is not only a way to deal with consumers, but also a source of relationships and communication between people inside the company. 9. Low marketing costs. One of the reasons why social media has become the new tool for actual sales and marketing is that it provides free access to services, information and the community. Traffic. The relevant information provided will bring traffic.

Arguments against social media

  • Too much noise. Social media accessibility also has a negative reverse: Everyone publishes information, but many of them are not of quality and not worth paying attention to.

  • Anonymity. Identity theft is an internet practice.

  • Time activity. Social media consumes too much time.

  • Unwanted reactions. Possible reactions of users who have experienced bad experiences with the promoted brand. Comparative approach to communication strategies: narrative strategy, implicative strategy, decision-making strategy, objectives.

There is no question of an organization selling its products, services or ideas; It must be position in relation to other social and economic partners, which provoke it to publicly submit its views, justify, defend or combat. From this point of view, the development of a communication strategy becomes a way of defence (Iqtradmedia, 2013).

  • The transmission of information, in the strict sense of presenting a situation

  • Main: Inducing the status of acceptance of the idea and moving to the execution of actions;

  • Sending important information that helps the receiver achieve the importance of the message. -Transmitting information and presenting an act that has immediate or distant effects on the receiver


  • The emergence of general/specific ideas imbalance

  • The transmitter is placed at the centre of the message, ignoring the receiver;

  • Trying to use sophisticated language can lead to the blocking of communication.

  • The occurrence of a tense state between the transmitter and the receiver if this type of communication is not properly managed.


  • Clarity of the message;

  • Accuracy of the message;

  • Transmission of all information;

  • The credibility of the source;

  • Message logic;

  • Finding how a person can be motivated. -use of appropriate tuna;

  • Positioning of ideas;

  • The way of exploitation of human relations. It is recommended; Publication of a brief history in journals/articles about the domain; Speeches anniversary; Reports; Offers. Last-minute information addressed to customers; -Notifying customers of specific features The application of the communication strategy through a website represents the process by which all efforts are directed to make it known and to made the "customers" to visit and act. This includes the methods and techniques by which "consumers" are encouraged to return.

Having a product/service for sale through the Internet, you must take the next step towards promoting the site to be easy to find, to determine the convenient ratio between target audiences and occasional visitors, to attract those Interested in product/service. To find something on the Web, users use certain search modes and expect to find the thing you want. Thus, these search methods must be anticipated for users to reach the site as easily as possible. They want to obtain cutting-edge information about the desired product/service and how they can use it, so it is necessary to constantly update the information of certain sections of maximum interest.


The organization of the Web page must be done in support of users and, therefore, logical methods of realizing the site are used, because their thinking may differ most often from those of the web-designer. As general criteria, the following rules are used: Navigating the site is done in a more obvious way by providing the supporting elements: Buttons, signs.

  • It is possible to reach the original page on any page of the site.

  • Only one type of layout (page format) is used.

The grouping of information is done by means of titles. This way, searching is easier. To reduce loading time, large amounts of information are distributed on different pages. It is important to comply with the criteria for building a site from the display mode until the links are loaded. It is also good to take into account the resolution of most computers and the performance of the most used browsers (Bîrsanu, 2013). It should not be neglected how organizations agree their values, mission and behaviour with the expectations and needs of those interested-customers, shareholders, employees, suppliers, local communities, authorities and society as a whole. Balancing the interests of all these categories of audiences depends on the organisation's ability to meet all expectations and to bring solutions to the problems identified. This process is complex and must be done in an organized manner, through the full integration of the concept of communication in the organisation's management systems and all its activities, in organizational culture, in the essence of the business (Mucchielli, 2002). The whole process of integration is carried out over time and according to models, principles and agreements with stakeholders involved. Over time, it was concluded that a number of international norms and standards are needed to ensure the measurement and comparability of the performance achieved by companies in communication matters. There are two factors that must be well structured in the construction of the brand:

  • Consumers have become more informed, more able to express their opinions and more concerned about health, environmental or social issues;

  • The market has become increasingly crowded, and brands have been forced to find new and relevant methods to build emotional links with the public. Because they respond to such emotional needs, communication programs become a good opportunity to communicate brand values in a memorable way. The success of the organisation depends directly on the trust that the community is enabling, the authorities, the media or the partners. Without this trust, the organization is subject to more risks.

For example, it becomes vulnerable to protest gestures by groups or organizations of activists. It jeopardises its relationship with authorities or partners, who will not want to jeopardize their public image associating with an organisation whose practices are questionable. Last but not least, journalists and opinion leaders will tend to be more active and sensitive to the attacks (sometimes intentional and false) at the institution's address. For any organisation that works in a powerful competitive environment, the attachment to the brand of employees must be essential (Popescu, 2011). And the attachment is not only obtained by wages, but, especially by the accent on the balance of the brand. Through the online PR campaigns, the organisation shall enjoy a high - level reaction speed in its relations with customers and partners, high degree of interactivity and enlargement in space and an audience which is beyond the traditional medium. Furthermore, the online environment provides specific instruments for measuring the audience and the impact of messages so that the evaluation of the results of the campaigns deployed on the Internet is much more specific and more detailed. On-line PR claims a large degree of transparency from the organisation. The online communication also exposes the company of the risk of confrontation with a more educated, more prompt audience, more dynamic, more critical. On-line PR shows the same opportunities and risks that any activity of PR presents. The differences between the traditional PR and online only bring advantages to the first, most important of them being the immediate reaction of the public to the message sent and, implicit, the company's ability to react promptly, for the purpose of amending the desired image or reinforcements. It is very important that the online PR is not an alternative to PR activities, but only a complete addition.


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18 December 2019

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Drăghici*, G. (2019). Teaching Journalism And Digital Media Challenges. In E. Soare, & C. Langa (Eds.), Education Facing Contemporary World Issues, vol 67. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 1044-1050). Future Academy. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2019.08.03.127