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Innovation System Failures In Russian Resource-Abundant Regions

Table 1:

Failure group The causes of failures
Infrastructural failures (Smith, 2000; Edquist, 1997) Physical infrastructures needed for innovative activities and technology transfer are missing. They include: (i) communications and energy (high-speed ICT infrastructure,broadband, telephone, energy supply, etc.); (ii) science-technology infrastructure (availability of scientific and applied knowledge and skills, testing facilities,possibilities for knowledge transfer, patents, training, education, etc.)
Institutional failures (Smith, 2000; Johnson & Gregersen, 1995) Imperfect institutions. They include: (i) hard institutional failures related to formal institutions (problems in the framework of regulation and legal system); (ii) soft institutional failures related to informal institutions (problems with political and business culture and social norms)
Networks failures (Carlsson & Jacobsson, 1997) Imperfect interactions between the components of the "Triple helix". Includes: (i) strong network failures (actors` groups too closed to each other may miss outside development); (ii) weak network failures (lack of cooperation between actors resulting in insufficient use of interactive learning and synergies, low social capital and lack of generalized trust)
Capabilities failures (Smith, 2000; Edquist, 1997) Lack of competences, intentions, capabilities, resources that allow firms to be able to make the leap from an old to a new technology or paradigm. They include: (i) transition failures (firms are unable to adapt to new technologies); (ii) lock-in / path dependency failures (the complete system is unable to adopt new technological paradigms); (iii) capabilities failures per se (inability for small firms to acquire rapidly and effectively new technologies)
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