Multinational Architecture As Factor Of Core Values Development Of Future Designers

Abstract

The study is aimed at implementing the methodology for development of core values of future designers studying multinational architecture. The article reflects the long-term experience of teachers and students of the Department of Design of the Institute of Construction, Architecture and Art. The authors emphasize importance of the process of nurturing values as the basis of the worldview of the younger generation. According to the authors, one of the effective ways is to familiarize students with the history and culture of all nations and small ethnic groups during study of traditional national architecture. Along with generally accepted teaching methods, it is proposed to rely on a value-oriented activity approach, based on the research work of students regarding preservation, revival, reconstruction and modernization of existing structures or lost pieces of architecture. Results of these activities can be reflected in architectural models. Such training leads to objectification of theoretical research results, to gradual development of core value through acquaintance with them. The most valuable models are those that reconstruct the appearance of once existing, and then destroyed religious buildings. Experience of carrying out such works shows that in the process, the authors of models, other students are promoted and developed, who are watching the process of creating the model as one of the stages of research work. The study conducted by the authors confirmed that the multinational architecture is a fertile research topic and an effective means of shaping the core values of students.

Keywords: Core valuetrainingdesignersmultinationalculture

Introduction

Modern civilization is developing in the conditions of world cultural integration. This process is conditioned, on the one hand, by a single political, economic, informational, technological space formed within the framework of universal globalization, and, on the other hand, by revealing the significance and foregrounding of small ethnic groups in the local cultures of the country. In this regard, there is an increasing interest in preserving and reviving the general cultural, architectural and town-planning traditions of small peoples of the regions, whose role is increasing every year and requires the identification of historical, cultural value regularities of their existence and development. This process takes place in many areas, including in the educational system.

Modernization of educational system in accordance with the needs of society in general and each individual has resulted in a change in the organization, structure and content of education in general, and higher education in particular. In 2013, Russia joined the Bologna process, which made it possible to make the transition to a several-tier education system based on a competence approach. Competences are the generalized actions that ensure the effectiveness of the performance of professional duties (Ekaterinushkina, 2018; Afdal &Spernes, 2018).

Competence-based approach in relation to the training of designers as a complete system consists of the following fundamental components: academic knowledge (knowledge and understanding of the theory of design and related fields, theoretical development); practical skills and knowledge (knowledge and understanding of the actions in the project and professional activities); values as components of life perception in various social contexts (knowledge and understanding of existence). A designer must be ready to solve professional problems in the research field, to participate in the scientific developments, to provide scientifically based results of his/her activities (Zhdanova, Gavrytskov, Ekaterynushkina, Mishukovskaya, & Antonenko, 2018). However, in addition to what have been listed above, the core values have to be developed. The following values of the future designer are defined in the Federal State Standard:

  • civil and ideological position;

  • intercultural interaction;

  • tolerance to social, ethnic, confessional and cultural differences;

  • aesthetic and social responsibility;

  • improvement of intellectual and cultural levels (Federal, 2016).

As a result of training, a person acquires a certain experience, moral standards and spiritual guidelines, as well as values that meet the requirements of modern society.

The study of the process of mastering core values by students in the course of research in the field of multinational architecture has been initiated more than ten years ago. The work showed that it is a long process, even if it is focused, consistent and systematically organized. Students who have different ideas about the history of our state, culture and architecture, and who share different ideological views, are difficult to make any influence on from the pedagogical point of view. This is connected with the requirements set for cognitive interest disposition and well-developed artistic and creative imagination. It is an intense and painstaking research that evokes emotional experiences - a gracious way to acquiring aesthetic values and mastering their components.

Problem Statement

Multinational architecture is the most significant component of material culture, responsive to the social and economic, political, ideological and cultural processes that take place society. In architecture, the unity of practical and –functional, as well as artistic and aesthetic sides is manifested; it keeps the exact imprint of the culture and worldview of civilization and the peoples who created historical monuments.

It is home to more than 120 ethnic groups, whose representatives speak 76 languages. Core values belong to one of the factors for a successful development of student’s personality, since they help determine the meaning of life, contribute to the implementation of human goals and creative abilities. The |multinational architecture in the process of training is one of the constituent parts of education that develops cultural, aesthetic, moral and spiritual values of students.

Research Questions

In XXI century, much attention has been given to the problem of multinationality in the context of personality development. The issues of modern multi-ethnic society are reflected in the ideas and practices of educational system. In Russia, cultures peacefully coexist with each other, and almost every third student is a representative of a small nation or nationality. For example, the Ural region has long been inhabited by a large number of nations and nationalities, both large and small. Among them are the indigenous peoples, such as: Komi (Komi Zyrians, Komi Permiak), Nenets, Bashkirs, Tatars, Nagaibaks, Khanty, Voguls-Mansi, Mari. Latter on, in the process of region development, Russians, Ukrainians, Mordovians and many others joined them.

At the heart of the pedagogical research there are distinguished philosophical, psychological and social studies of core values of individuals. Scientists consider the possibilities of developing and implementing various methods of forming core values of students in the process of innovative training and involvement of value-based approach in the educational process (Pashin, Dorokhova, & Nikitina, 2014; Kiryakova, 1996; Kolyakina, 2002; Belikov, 1995; Martynenko, & Korotina , 2016, and others.)

In the field of pedagogy, it is important to single out a system of higher values, among which are as follows: in the field of morality - goodness, civil identity, national self-cognition; in the field of knowledge - truth, information and knowledge; in the field of politics and law - justice, tolerance, guarantee of peace and security; in the field of aesthetics - culture, beauty, forms and ways of its creation and manifestation, art. A special group consists of the values of the “small Motherland”, among which is the fatherland, national culture and art and knowledge of national architecture (Zhdanova, 2017; Zhdanova et al., 2018).

The development of core values of students, who are the future designers, is carried out during their comprehensive study of multinational architecture, which traditionally serves as the highest value of art and ensures the development of a highly moral personality. Students recognize themselves as part of their culture and deeply understand and accept the culture and traditions of other nationalities, faiths and ethnic groups.

Purpose of the Study

As a priority, a modern high school determines the development of a competent person in creating elaborate and optimal conditions for comprehensive impact and assistance aimed at changing person’s motivation to work (study, work), to himself, other people around the world, as well as creation of an educational space with powerful socializing potential. (Marginson & Sawir, 2012).

The purpose of the study is gradual development of core values of students in the process of studying multinational architecture through modelling

Research Methods

The problems of multinational architecture as a component of design art education were first set and identified as a result of the activities of the Regional Center for the Development of Art Education, which for more than twenty years have operated on the basis of Magnitogorsk State University (Magnitogorsk, Chelyabinsk region). The unique material has been collected for the period of two decades. Today the study is being carried out on the basis of Magnitogorsk State Technical University named after G.I. Nosov, in its structural division - the Institute of Construction, Architecture and Art.

Students from various regions (Chelyabinsk and Orenburg regions; Kazakhstan, Bashkiria, etc.) study at the Department of Design of the Institute. Multinational architecture, as a repository of the principles, traditions, significance of its people, unites the richness of historical and cultural heritage of each region. In the process of education the regional architecture serves as a model based on the syncretic nature of the artistic folk culture or the integration of various types of classical art, world art and national culture (Veremey, 2004; AzzamIsmail, Keumala, & Dabdoob, 2017).

The scientists describe human activity as consciously purposeful and spiritually valuable. Activity is a specific type of human performance focused on creative transformation, improvement of ones own personality and the surrounding reality. The study of objects of multinational architecture is carried out by means of a value-oriented activity approach. The value-oriented component is the understanding the process of value formation, which incorporates the following stages: acquaintance, understanding and acceptance of the value. As part of this component, the emphasis is placed on the issues of respect for cultures, as well as positive assessment of cultural differences. The value-oriented component justifies the inadmissibility of a rigid cultural distinction based on the specific features.

The activity component involves application of various types of activities, among which is creative, cognitive, value-oriented, project-based, and research. All types of activities are interrelated and interdependent and determine the nature and the sequence of research activities.

The choice of the object of research and modelling is presented in the following manner:

  • preservation of the object as a monument of national and historical heritage;

  • revival of nationally significant, but lost architectural monuments;

  • reconstruction of partially destroyed architectural buildings and structures;

  • modernization of architectural buildings and structures.

The sequence of research work consists of several stages that are most closely related to the main stages of value formation of (Table 1 ).

Table 1 -
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Any value should be assigned to a person to become his or her personal property. This fact begins with emotions, and ends with a logical conclusion, i.e. the acceptance of a value. At this point, a person acquires core values. On the one hand, they act as a process in which the subordination, selection and assessment of values take place, and, on the other hand, as an ability to navigate in values, become a structural element of personality, which is reinforced by life experience and feelings.

When choosing a particular monument of architecture, a student may assign him or herself to the region or regions with other life, spiritual and national foundations. Freedom of choice makes the study more conscious, however, it requires a certain justification. It happens that a student chooses one or another architectural monument based on his emotional attitude, delight from what he or she saw or remembered. This is the shortest way to accuire values, however, this is not always the case. In our life there are many objects, the value of which is not so obvious; they are forgotten due to the routine. In these cases, it is necessary to make a person take a new look at the world in which he or she lives. “This becomes especially important when a person begins to transform reality and solves the question of what should be left and what can be sacrificed” (Zhdanov & Zhdanova, 2013). In the cities with a great history, there are always buildings or even areas of old buildings. Their condition is the main indicator of the attitude of the city government and its residents to the regional architecture. “The financial issue is not always the main one” (Zhdanov, 2014; Ivanov, 2009; Galiguzov, 2000). Such areas often need to be modernizied, which should be carried out from the standpoint of preserving the cultural heritage of the region.

One striking example is the complex research work on the architectural object - the Church of the Holy Trinity in the city of Beloretsk, the Republic of Bashkortostan, which used to be a dominant object of the entire urban environment. Its history is long and typical of many religious buildings of the South Ural region.

The initiators of this work were students who are the residents of Beloretsk. Their choice was the architecture monument restoration as an essential part of the national and historical heritage.

In the process of theoretical study, the following items were revealed:

1. The historical aspect: Preparation works were long and time-consuming. For almost 16 years they collected money was temple restoration, and only in 1883 the church was built on Old-Market Square. However, on 2 March 1929, the Beloretsk City Council made decision to close the Church of the Holy Trinity. The order was carried out carried right away. First, the bells were dropped down and the crosses were cut down. In the 30s, the church was completely destroyed and forgotten for many years. In the early 90s, there started to appear short notes in the newspapers about the Church. Later on, they were getting greater in size.

2. The architectural and design features: The temple was made in the traditional Pseudo-Russian style. A large dome rested on four pillars, forming an inner space for prayers. High windows located in the drum were filling the space with sunlight, creating the effect of floating of the stone dome. The high bell tower crowned the entrance. The temple was considered large and had a rich parish. The Beloretsk region had been visited many times by high clergymen.

The practical part of the study was to conduct a historical reconstruction of the Church of the Holy Trinity. To perform the model or the layout, the students first completed the drawing using the graphographic methods adopted in working with old photographs. With their help they managed to transfer the proportional relationship of the structure, compositional common factors, as well as individual elements of the exterior.

Figure 1: The Church of the Holy Trinity, Beloretsk, Bashkortostan, Russia (1183)
The Church of the Holy Trinity, Beloretsk, Bashkortostan, Russia (1183)
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Graphographic method for constructing a drawing from a photograph.

For a more accurate reconstruction and implementation of the model, students studied the history of Russian stone architecture. It helped to understand that the reconstructed church was erected in the traditional concepts of the Russian Orthodoxy. This is evidenced by the design, the selected building materials, patterns and colors. White walls, gray roofing and gilded domes - the history of this design dates back to the early stone architecture of Russia (temples of Novgorod, Vladimir, the Moscow Kremlin).

The reconstruction of the church and the implementation of the layout aroused the genuine interest among students who observed the work progress. Numerous questions and advice testified to the curiosity of some people, as well as deep knowledge and alert of others.

The demonstration model of the Church of the Holy Trinity was presented during the defense of the graduate qualifying work. Not once, it has been displayed at exhibitions of various levels and caused controversy about the spiritual and material heritage, as well as the forms of its preservation

Figure 2: A model of the Church of the Holy Trinity.
A model of the Church of the Holy Trinity.
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The final discussion of the research work and the implementation of the model showed that the students were unanimous in their understanding of the historical and cultural heritage of our country - Russia and the great significance of the “small Motherland”. Through the revival and reconstruction of a small suburban church, great events were reflected, i.e. the loss and acquisition of spiritual, national and artistic values of several generations of people. This is especially important for those who are young and whose values are beginning to shape

Findings

The result of the research is the development and implementation of a method aimed at formation of core values of students in the study of multinational architecture through the integrated work in the process of architectural object modeling.

For several years, the Department of Design has collected a lot of material on the historical, spiritual, cultural and socially significant heritage of various regions of the Southern Urals, Russia, Kazakhstan, Bashkiria, neighboring countries, Armenia, Georgia. This is a reflection of deep understanding and acceptance by students not only of their personal values, but also a manifestation of their civic position, tolerance towards other nations and openness to intercultural communication.

Conclusion

A long-term study has shown that a multinational architecture is one of the fundamental factors in the development of core values of students, who are future designers. The development of core values is a topical problem, which the pedagogical science encounters with. They contribute to the formation of a specialist ready for further self-education and creation of material and spiritual values for people of different nationalities and religious denominations.

To develop core values in the process of studying multifunctional architecture, a special teaching and methodological complex was created, which contains the author’s programs, manuals, methodical recommendations, printed workbooks, tasks of different levels; study tables, samples of creative works, photo albums, archival materials, encyclopedias and reference books, models of architectural objects.

The effectiveness of development of core values relates to the value-based approach, which was carried out continuously and gradually during various activities. Within the framework of this approach, special attention was paid to the issues of respect for cultures, a positive assessment of cultural differences. Moreover, the inadmissibility of strict cultural distinction based on any attribute was substantiated, since the existence of cultural differences is due only to the degree of manifestation of a cultural characteristic. The performance was encouraged in the cases of allocation of common features in the monuments of several peoples, cases of interpenetration of the best achievements of different peoples in architecture, convergence of construction and decoration technologies.

The main instrument for achieving the research results is the modeling of monuments of multinational architecture, as the most reliable way to consolidate knowledge and possessions, understanding and accepting the core values. This relates to the need to transfer from the contemplative activity to manipulative actions. In this case, it is not a mechanical construction of an architectural volumetric and spatial composition, but the painstaking research work.

The models (prototypes) are presented not only in the framework of the research project or qualification work defense, but also at exhibitions, as well as in museums. They are available to a large number of people with varying degrees of experience, knowledge, and views, and, therefore, become the subject of interests, discussions, and even disputes.

The study does not show the entire problem of the development of personal values. However, it allows students to accept the fact that the presence of value orientations indicates a certain stage in development of personality. The emergence of psychological structures that greatly contribute to the formation of his/her worldview is an active and time-consuming process, which, indeed, should be incorporated into their studies. This is the time of the ideological position development of, during which the values of the “small Motherland”, the preservation of regional architecture, the definition of civil and intercultural interaction should occupy a certain place.

It is impossible to develop deep understanding of modernity without having knowledge of national history and aesthetic values. Constant development and changes that occur in our country and the world require the continuation of this work, as well as further specification of values and the search for optimal ways of introducing new generations to them. Values which are formed during the students’ life serve as a reference point and manifest in different life situations. This is the main goal of the educational program of higher education, which meets the requirements of modern civilized society.

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Publication Date

29 March 2019

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978-1-80296-057-0

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Future Academy

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58

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Sociolinguistics, linguistics, semantics, discourse analysis, science, technology, society

Cite this article as:

Lymareva, J., Yachmeneva, V., Grigoriev, A., Antonenko, J., & Ekaterinushkina*, A. (2019). Multinational Architecture As Factor Of Core Values Development Of Future Designers. In & D. K. Bataev (Ed.), Social and Cultural Transformations in the Context of Modern Globalism, vol 58. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 445-453). Future Academy. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2019.03.02.51