The paper makes an attempt to consider the phenomenon of globalization and thus caused problems of the modern world. The authors established attributive features and properties of globalization. It is suggested to analyze the cultural and historical phenomenon of globalization in light of the main types of social human activity. Globalization is considered as a controllable phenomenon aimed in its meaning at total unification of human activity in all spheres of public life following the western pattern. The paper draws attention to the need of setting the correlation between such concepts as globalization and westernization in a modern scientific discourse. The authors provide consistent and substantiated reasons for the idea of by no means a peaceful way of global integration of the mankind at the present stage of sociocultural transformation. It is claimed that globalization is a new form to struggle for global leadership using various armory. The authors make conclusions concerning the need for the international community to develop mechanisms to counteract the negative consequences and trends of globalization at the present stage. The authors also emphasize the historical importance of the position of the Russian Federation for all mankind in the context of modern processes leading to the new world order. The geopolitical role of Russia, which developed historically, is to counteract the world expansion of the West and to contribute to the formation of the multipolar world.
Being one of the most debatable, the problem of globalization takes one of the central places in the life of the modern society. There were many attempts in history to unite the mankind under a single power, however there was always not enough power for this. Perhaps, the campaigns of Alexander the Macedonian were one of the first attempts of this kind in the history. It is unlikely that Alexander thought of the global leadership, however its military success led to the accession of territories and the population unprecedented for that times, which attracted the tsar of Macedonians to new conquests. Even his faithful soldiers did not really understand why do they need such faraway lands and wished to return home. Success is able to drive people mad and make them feel closer to Gods. Perhaps, such feeling of chosenness attracted Napoleon Bonaparte and Hitler through some higher forces. The attempts to conquer the world were made due to certain opportunities. Such opportunities usually gave more strength. For example, the combination of armed people and the talented military genius that used the national rise of the country as in case with Napoléon I, the combination of Prussian discipline and technical opportunities of industrial civilization, which created such harmony between a person and technology thus turning the army into a machine in case with Hitler’s army. In fact, the history faced a long fight of people and the states among themselves. The success stories of the states led to powerful empires, which could be called superpowers. The fight between the Russian and British empires, with France and Germany interfering all the time, was the most intense. As one famous Soviet and Russian philosopher A.A. Zinovyev fairly noted, the World War I was not only the struggle for redivision of spheres of influence and operation, but also for geopolitical domination in Europe. The World War II was not only the struggle for domination in Europe, but also the fight against the Soviet communism. The World War II bared contradictions between three projects of globalization: fascist, liberal and communist. The results of the World War II led to defeat of fascism and a victory of two world powers – USA and USSR with various projects of global unification. Britain appeared in one camp with the USA, but really lost all its former domination. “After the victory of the West in the Cold War against the Soviet coalition, the situation in the world changed radically. The Western world led by the USA took the historical initiative and leadership in the evolutionary process on the planet. The West seeks for unification of the mankind into a uniform global “humans’ nest” not for the sake of some abstract ideals but as a necessary means of formation and survival of the western supercivilization”, – concludes A.A. Zinovyev (Zinovyev, 2009). The western system tries to absorb other parts of the world, “to americanize” and “europeanize” the whole world. To neglect this means to be a humanistic color-blind person, as Ernst Jünger calls it. Only a blind person can call full-fledged invasions into other countries a police operation.
The modern world dynamics illustrates the strive of the mankind towards unity and increased differences in various areas of society. Today the problem of globalization and its reverse side, i.e. regionalization, is extremely relevant and debatable issue in scientific literature. As many thinkers predicted, the information age generated conditions for a cherished dream of globalists. I. Kant predicted that “after devastations, revolutions, and even complete exhaustion, she brings them to that which reason could have told them at the beginning and with far less sad experience, to wit, to step from the lawless condition of savages into a league of nations. In a league of nations, even the smallest state could expect security and justice, not from its own power and by its own decrees, but only from this great league of nations (foedus Amphictyonum)… from a united power acting according to decisions reached under the laws of their united will” (Kant, 1966). The advantages of the united world are obvious. The united world is the world without war, a prospering world, in which everyone feels relatively safe. Multinational corporations will create goods where their production is cheap thus making the goods more available, the fruits of science will get to those countries where the science is poorly developed. The states will function together and will cease to conduct infinite conflicts. They will be more dependent on each other since the problems of one state will affect the progress of the other. The nations will be united in the cultural aspect, which will erase religious and national boundaries. However, the negative features of globalization are worth noting. A reverse side of this process is the imposition of unitary standards, destruction of national output, deletion of original national culture, propagation of certain living patterns, unification of the worldview contradicting the established traditions. Economically developed countries get the additional stimulus for development, while less developed countries on the contrary fund themselves even more sunk in poverty and debts. “So, globalists that advocate globalization and antiglobalists (or they are also called alterglobalists) that are against it proving that globalization is bound to the expansion of the world capital power over the planet and the abreasting worker exploitation “met” on the main platform of the world’s dynamic development” (Dulina, 2014). Thus, the processes of globalization does not only bring benefits, but also damage.
There are various approaches to the understanding of globalization. Its analysis is based on economic, political, cultural and technological aspects. Traditionally globalization is understood as the integration of the people and the states in various areas of social activity. Most often, the reasons of globalization include spontaneous processes within universal structures and institutes. Some scientists believe that the reasons of globalization are connected with the transition from industrial to information society. If the industrial society contributed to education of the national states with uniform centralized economy, education, culture, policy, then the post-industrial society generated conditions for interstate communication, collaborative linkage through global information network thus fostering the convergence of nations. Economic relations are not anymore bound to national centers, they became decentralized. The national economy started to give way to the world and global economy. The activities of multinational corporations, International Monetary Fund, World Bank, World Trade Organization, international judicial authorities are also connected with globalization.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study is to disclose the meaning of globalization, to understand its direction, the mechanism of action and opportunities and prospects to counteract this process. In order to achieve the main purpose the authors suggest solving a number of problems: 1) to reveal the regularity of social interaction of individuals, groups, social communities; 2) to establish the structure of globalization and to define its mechanism of action; 3) to describe the framework of globalization process; 4) to demonstrate the real worldview, cultural, economic, political, and legal fundamentals of globalization; 5) to reveal the importance of globalization; 6) to specify ways of counteraction with global westernization.
The methodological framework of the study includes works of classical philosophers and modern researchers of social philosophy. The authors relied on the results obtained by leading domestic and foreign philosophers related to the disclosure of intrinsic characteristics of globalization. To ensure the comprehensive analysis the authors used the fundamentals of the system approach, the principle of complementarity, structural and functional analysis, the principles of hermeneutics and phenomenology. Special attention is paid to the principle of global integrity, the systematic nature of economic and sociocultural relations between countries and nations, interconditionality of local, regional and global processes of social development.
The given study made it possible to draw the following conclusions:
1. The existence in life represents the fight of forces caused by instincts, and the life of people represents the “creative” fight complemented by intelligent opportunities, but not a peaceful social activity.
2. Globalization is not spontaneously organized and manageable process since it has its center, forces and means of implementation.
3. The Western civilization acts the center of globalization.
4. Globalization represents “westernization” as such.
5. Globalization is not a peaceful process, but represents a new form of struggle for global leadership with a powerful armory.
6. The historical mission of Russia is to counter the challenge of the global world expansion, to foster the creation of multipolar, polycentric world with the balance of interests of all countries and cultures as its basis.
6.1. What in fact is globalization? To understand this and many other phenomena it is necessary to be armed with realistic paradigm. Karl Marx created a magnificent concept explaining all processes in the society by the change of socioeconomic structures, therefore, according to Marxists, globalization is the next round of colonizers’ policy of the western capitalists. This was the advantage of people with integral worldview. Karl Marx created an outstanding doctrine on a class struggle where he sees the historical process as an infinite struggle of classes: slaves and slave owners, dependent peasants and feudal lords, workers and capitalists. Karl Marx wanted to stop eternal struggle, the victory over the class of exploiters and the beginning of everlasting peace and prosperity. However, Karl Marx did not understand or did not want to understand that exploiters are the same people as the exploited ones, that they did not arrive from another planet and hence, if exiled or destroyed, the life will not change. The victory over exploiters will not stop that struggle, which began since the ancient times and is still carried on by people. This means that the victory over exploiters will generate new exploiters who will first struggle with internal enemies: counterrevolution, and then will fight among themselves for the power and at last will fight against exploiters from neighboring states to take some of their power in their own favor and to secure their own power. Thus, life in nature represents the struggle of forces, and life of people represents sophisticated fight supported with reason. A person is born with this strive for struggle for existence. A person feels safer when he has wealth, armed servants and many children. Only strong, capable, and intellectually developed people are able to achieve this. No doubt that over time their power declines, abilities decrease and the stronger, vigorous and capable people may decide to withdraw this power using various means, however they slightly differ from their predecessors.
The wars of the mankind throughout the entire history only confirm the above. Some scientists refer to about 15 thousand wars of the mankind. For the past 5.5 thousand years, only 300 years were relatively peaceful. This does not mean that people are mere enemies to each other, that we live in a dog-eat-dog world. People are able to obey, to reconcile with what they have, to live by faith in the right or any other non-material ideals, but even then they do not forget about rivalry, at least in its minimum amount.
6.2. Traditionally globalization is treated as some objective process that takes place spontaneously as a certain side effect of scientific and technical progress. The improvements of the means of communication, transport, distribution of high technologies unite the nations inviting them to joint activity. It would seem that on the one hand, that this process is driven by the developing technology and, on the other hand, by the desire of the people to cooperate and receive mutual benefit. In fact, it is quite difficult to imagine nations that achieved technical success and spontaneously strive towards unification into one single society for this reason. Technology always gave opportunities to fulfil the people’s aspirations. Despite time, the aspirations of people do not differ much. Any person is always attracted by the thirst for power, supremacy, will to order and rule. At all times the technology served the master of these wishes. The German writer and philosopher Ernst Jünger (Jünger, 2000) fairly noted: “Each of two great pillars of the state of the 19th century, namely, the nation and the society, are already internally focused on this highest forum. In relation to the nation it is expressed by the aspiration to remove the state beyond national borders and to award it with imperial rank, in relation to the society it is expressed by social contracts of planetary importance”. The technology in itself does not seek neither war, nor peace, nor integration, or differentiation. People manage the technology and its introduction for their own benefit. It is obvious that the modern technology has its producing country but not all states were able to achieve the high level of technological progress. As noted above, people are in the state of fight and some of them take the lead, while the others are left behind, and hence, some of them gain advantage. Thus, it may be concluded that these countries can be potential control centers of global processes.
6.3. If to consider the economic component of globalization, then it is possible to trace obvious domination of western companies. According to 2016 Forbes ranking covering 63 states, the absolute leaders among the global multinational corporations are 587 US companies, 5 of which are among the top ten in terms of revenue, profit and assets. Japan holds the second place and is presented by 219 companies and China with its 200 companies takes the third place. Energy companies, oil and gas companies, telecommunication companies and automobile manufacturers dominate among the leading top-10 and top-20 companies. There are also Russian companies, one of which is Gazprom holding the 53rd position in rating, Rosneft – 73rd, Lukoil – 122nd. Thus, the companies from the USA, Europe and Japan ensure the globalization in economy. If to mention a dollar as a world reserve currency operating since 1944, which fostered financial transactions worldwide, then we can talk about total hegemony of the USA in this aspect of globalization.
Within the technological perspective of globalization the domineering role of western companies from the USA, Germany, Japan, France, Great Britain is also obvious. At the same time, the underperforming countries have almost nothing to oppose to this trend. Powerful western producers create quality products thus interfering with any national competition. It is extremely difficult to compete with such companies as Apple or Samsung in the field of electronic engineering, Microsoft in the field of software, Toyota Motor Corporation in the field of automotive industry. The corporations entered the intensive production of goods in countries with low salaries and thus they sell high quality, hi-tech and cheap products in terms of labor costs, which is impossible for those small companies which only try to enter the market.
Within the political perspective of globalization, the domination of the western states is also clear. Undoubtedly, such organization as the UN is not western though its headquarters is located in New York, however the USA and Western European countries-members of the NATO alliance often act in circumvention of the UN exclusively following their own interests and potential benefits. “With regard to national security the destructive trends gain specific nature in conditions when the unevenness of modernization processes and formation and strengthening of the national states overlap the processes of global integration or global geopolitical repartition of the spheres of influence thus diminishing the functions of local national state regulation” (Strizoe, 2015).
Western “pseudo-universalism” also got across the legal sphere. “In modern democratic states, first of all, the processes of legal modernization on the basis of universal recognition and universal constitutional values form the basis for global juridification of public relations” (Alekseev, 2015).
The cultural perspective of globalization also demonstrates the complete dominance of the Western civilization starting from the recognition of the English language as means of international communication and ending with lobbying of uniform educational standards within the so-called Bologna Process. Non-recognition of the Soviet and Russian education (for example, academic degrees) as the equivalent to Western European or American standards, leading positions of Hollywood in film industry, domination in the Internet space and in printing industry fully reflect cultural globalization. This position could be briefly stated in such terms as “New social technologies introduced alongside with the market economy are not culturally neutral, they imply certain forms of individual and collective relations, freedom and responsibility, equality and submission” and “In the conditions of globalization the difference in moral values may lead to catastrophic conflicts” (Nazarova, 2013).
In view of the foregoing it is possible to conclude that the globalization is not general for all people taking into account specifics and interests of various states, but is ensured through alignment of the global world with the western worldview thus making all other people adapt. The Western civilization surpassing the competitors on technological progress serves the center of globalization.
6.4. Almost at all times the Western civilization sought to extend its influence on the rest of the world. “The western civilization, as well as the Russian one, dates back to the Ancient Greece and the Ancient Rome, but, despite the common origin, the Russians more embraced the supremacy of spirituality and the faith in God, while the West placed emphasis on human knowledge on the surrounding world for the sake of its further change and improvement, which made this civilization more materialistic and rationalistic” Gulevsky, Gulevskaya, & Glushchenko, 2014b; Gulevsky & Gulevskaya, 2016). The active attitude to the world led to several attempts to change and influence the world around following individual ideas and interests. “At present, talking about the originality of western and eastern civilizations, there is a need to highlight the tendency of the East towards westernization on the basis of modernization” (Vinogradova & Artyukhovich, 2012). Globalization leads to domination of western values expressed as the idea of democracy in their political sense, as the principles of market economy in economic sense, as liberalism preaching in spiritual and cultural aspect. As fairly noted by E.V. Penzina, “In practice the concepts of “globalization” and “westernization” are substituted. Globalization really happens, but against the dominating role of a single country” (Penzina, 2012). Thus, globalization may be characterized by the substitution of concepts, where in reality globalization is understood as “westernization”. Naturally, some western analysts may object that the domination of the West is only caused by the fact that the USA and Europe were developed much quicker. They were following the right historical path, while the rest were less lucky, but now it will be better for them if they, having realized it, will finally chose the right path, i.e. will copy American and European models without any further undue efforts. They can say, look at us, we are economically prosperous. If you follow our advice, you will achieve the same. Many believed in these words, however, in reality neither country, which accepted the advice of the western partners, failed to achieve the economic prosperity. It shall rather be noted that globalization caused an array of problems which they never faced before.
6.5. After the defeat in the World War II, Germany ceased to exist as a uniform state, the British Empire was destroyed, but they did not cease to exist but received their share from the “third world” countries, and later united with the USA to fight against the USSR. The problem of dominance in the countries of the Western civilization was solved in favor of the USA, but the problem of the USSR remained unsolved. The countries entering the Soviet military block could threaten the scared Europe, though the USSR did not have any realistic aggressive plans. The British and American politicians thought about the plans of the USSR in the same manner as they got used to think, namely from the perspective of power, aggression, enslavement and exploitation.
In his Sinews of Peace on March 5, 1946, Winston Churchill recognized the USA as the state at top of the world power. He called for the brotherly union of all English-speaking people with the aim of preventing war. According to Churchill, the Soviet danger shall unite the people of Europe since communism is dangerous for the Christian civilization. Winston Churchill urged all European nations to unite in the issue of military safety to make the Soviet Russia lose a taste for armed forces in its aggression. Thus, the western civilization was integrated to fight against communism. After the World War II Americans and their allies “began the routine propaganda aimed at underestimated role of the Red Army in the victory over Germany”, leveled fascism and communism, generated Russophobia and anticommunism (Leontyev & Koval, 2015).
In fact, it was about the collision of two globalization projects of the world: liberal and communistic. At first there were reasons to believe that the communism shall win in the post-war Europe. Europe was destroyed by war. Its restoration required giant investments. It meant that European capitalists would force workers to work for low salary, reduce social benefits, which could cause the discontent of the population and desire to start building the communism. In his speech Winston Churchill emphasized the rise of communist parties in European countries, especially in Italy, which, if lost, would be a harmful strike for the union of the USA and Britain in view of its strategic location in the basin of the Mediterranean Sea and impossibility of landing in case of the outright conflict with the USSR. The confrontation of two superpowers happened on the territory of Western Europe via multiple arms and propaganda actions. Americans were in a better position since their country did not need to be restored after a horrible war, therefore they made a strong move and started lending money to Europeans at low interest rates, and moreover, in U.S. dollars without exchange into national currencies. Europeans could buy goods from Americans for dollars thus enriching the American economy and increasing the dollar exchange rate. It was also possible to pay with dollars for intra-European trading thus making US dollars a European currency. Thus, the Americans were able to achieve several objectives at once. On the one hand, they prevented a victory of communists in European states, and, on the other hand, they fostered economic absorption of Western Europe having created a base there to fight against the USSR. The Soviet Union had to restore after war independently and had no sufficient financial resources for a new war in Europe. Besides, rapid advent of nuclear weapons on both sides made the military scenario unattainable. Nuclear weapons made regular war inefficient and outdated. Even the campaign of Adolf Hitler on the East proved that classical war, where one party is engaged in the outright conflict with the other, leads to huge losses thus making the third countries benefiting from this. The lost war is always a high risk since one may lose everything that is unacceptable for bourgeois consciousness. There was a draw situation on a political board of Europe. The military solution was impossible in view of the mutual murder, and the diplomatic solution was unacceptable for both parties. Nevertheless, the fight continued leading to unaided modes, such as political pressure, information diversion, intelligence support, introduction of double standards to diplomacy. Military methods were generally limited to various rebel movements, such as the Forest Brethren in Baltic states, support of nationalists in Ukraine or assistance to the Vietnamese army in fight against the USA and in the race of arms.
A.A. Zinovyev considered the Cold War a war of new type. There was no open use of the army, but there was a continuous threat of its utilization. Political, economic and information means were prevailing. According to him, these peaceful means of war can do more harm than the military forces. Thus, the Warsaw Treaty Organization and the Soviet Union collapsed as a result of the Cold War. From 1990s to 2000s the population of Russia decreased more than during the war with fascist Germany. The mortality exceeded the birth rate, life expectancy of the population was reduced by 10 years. For quite a long time western strategists were developing the theory of changing the regime through revolution, takeover, bribery or recruitment of individuals from governmental structures or high officials. They tested the theory in practice by arranging takeovers in many Third World countries, each time improving their methods. Their main objective was to break the faith of communists in their ideology. They used various means for this purpose. All visitors coming from under the “Iron Curtain” were subjected to heavy influence, which aim was to prove that life in the West is better than in Russia. It was not so difficult in view of the fact that economically the West was developing much quicker due to its more efficient economy. The USSR was facing a deficit in many goods and their quality was not able to compete with western goods. The so-called “soft power” concept developed in the West also played an important role in this process and unlike standard propaganda, which is appalling when imposed, is a smarter means of influence. Long ago and quite carefully the West created an attractive image hiding all drawbacks. One of the mechanisms to create this image is through education, namely through education of foreign experts. A student gains certain perception of the country, studies its culture, language, builds contacts, which positively affects the image of the state. The majority of European officials and their children studied in the USA. Besides the “soft power” there was the “hard power”, i.e. direct pressure, for example economic sanctions and blackmail in case of substantial external debt of the state. It is fairly noted by M.M. Lebedeva: “personal interests form the basis for any power, no matter whether it is “soft” or “hard” (Lebedeva, 2017). The main objective was to develop an attractive image of the state or a set of states, or the West in general among certain audience. The state was gradually building the so-called “fifth column” consisting of different dissidents offended by authorities and sympathizers. A well-chosen moment, for instance, a crisis, is convenient for a coup or change of power into loyal West, which, in fact, is the first step towards “westernization” or as it is mistakenly called globalization. Such crisis situation also occurred in the USSR. The unsuccessful war in Afghanistan, which required impressive resources, reduction of oil prices in the world market, and finally, the rise of one of the sympathizers to the western ideas M.S. Gorbachev to power, who initiated the anti-communist revolution and the collapse of the USSR and allowed its country to be “westernized”.
“Westernization” by nature represents the transition of either state under the control of the USA and its allies. With regard to Russia economy, “westernization’ meant the destruction of large industrial enterprises, which, from the very beginning were unable to compete with foreign industrial companies and were in most cases plundered during privatization supervised by western advisers. The introduction of the market economy and free ruble exchange rate led to a powerful surge of inflation and impoverishment of the nation. Many talented specialists in various areas of technology lost an opportunity to work and bring benefit to their families and the state and were forced to go abroad in search for a job. Foreign goods and companies captured the Russian market. Russia was turned into a raw-material appendage of the West. The former Soviet Baltics was developing following a similar scenario. Neither of the large enterprises operating in the Soviet times survived, and the majority of the young population went to seek employment in Germany, Poland, France, Great Britain, etc. As Ernst Jünger truly stated (Jünger, 2000, p. 172) that “the ideal of liberalism is not open but veiled superiority and, hence, the veiled slavery; a weaker competitor holding inferiority in economy acts as the guarantor of a universal state”.
In the political sense Russia was the ally and advocate of ideas of the American policy for many years. With its tacit consent and applying classical military means the Americans destroyed Yugoslavia, occupied Iraq, sent troops to Afghanistan, destroyed Libya, i.e. all former allies of the USSR were betrayed and humiliated. With the assistance of Americans, the rebellious and terrorist movement was organized in the North Caucasus of Russia for its further breakdown. Russia lost almost all the allies and, in fact, turned into the obedient “bear” dancing to the Western pipe.
Culturally, the ideals of high culture created in the USSR were subjected to oblivion and vulgarized, and were replaced by low, flat and dissolute standards of consumer mass culture of the West. High culture created by paternal generations failed to find its continuation and was in fact absorbed by the western culture in its mass option. The domestic civil aviation was also destroyed similar to domestic cinema. The West established its supremacy almost in all spheres. “In terms of liberal mainstream the private property and market economy is the economic basis of modern society entirely defining the nature of superstructure, and hence, profitability and corruption in their direct and figurative meaning become the dominating political trend (similar to cultural and spiritual spheres)” (Grachev, 2016). The Soviet or Russian education was not recognized thus forcing people moving there to be retrained. The diplomas gained abroad were valued in Russia more than domestic ones. Even in modern Russia, which is trying to fight against the aggression of the West, scientific publications written in foreign editorials are ranked higher than domestic scientific journals even if their content and quality leaves much to be desired.
All these problems could not but influence the demographic situation putting the state in extremely difficult situation and forcing it to undertake the unpopular pension reform. First of all, the demographic crisis was caused by economic reasons. Low salaries and pensions against the background of high housing prices resulted in difficulties for youth, which was unable to start families and to give birth to children for a long time. Lack of resources led to actual disorder of the army, which maintenance was too expensive for the state, similar to militia, doctors, professors, teachers, which led to degradation of the sphere of defense, education, health care, and the soaring corruption. This also deteriorated the level of patriotic feelings in the society. Russia adopted the western image of emancipated woman who ceased bringing up children and began to work on an equal footing with men. As a result, “the refusal of woman to fulfill the traditional role of a mother, a nanny, and a wet nurse threatens the survival of the nation or ethnos” (Leontyeva, & Vinogradova, 2015). The system of traditional education of children was also destroyed since the western model was based on a thesis “on absolute equality of children and parents, children and teachers” thus damaging mental and moral health of children (Matvienko, 2017).
Naturally, the above problems and losses can be described for ages and they only briefly touch all those issues, which made Russia refuse from its own way of development and attempt of association with the West. Perhaps, this can only be compared with the invasion of the Batu Khan to Russia. The famous Russian philosopher Alexander Zinovyev even put forward the idea of globalization as a world war of new type. According to the philosopher, it is characterized by the disappearance of boundaries between military and nonmilitary means, as well as by the division into professional military officers and civilians whose actions can make a stronger impact than the weapons. According to him, such war has neither front nor back, there is no clear difference between peaceful and military operations, and it is not clear whether the peace came or the war continues. Economy, education, culture, and politics become the objectives, while belief, bribery, blackmail, extortion serve as means of achieving those objectives. The citizens of the state seeking to destroy the Fatherland, as it happens since 2014 in Ukraine, become the soldiers of this war. Once “in 1936 the Germany faced a concept of totalitarian war. Its author was the colonel general Erich Ludendorff... it is the concept of preparing for and conducting the aggressive war using all possible means and methods...” (Gulevsky, Gulevskaya, & Glushchenko, 2014a). In fact, globalization became the advanced totalitarian war of Ludendorff where the armed violence was only a part of the multifaceted struggle for supremacy. The totality of this struggle represents its inclusiveness. There are no minor spheres. Everything where it is possible to have any instantaneous and long-term impact is important. We can’t but agree with A.A. Zinovyev that “the Western world is the initiator of globalization, the globalization takes its roots from the West, it is implemented by the forces of the West and for the benefit of the West” (Zinovyev, 2017).
6.6. In his philosophy A.A. Zinovyev came to a tragic conclusion on the fact that communism was the peak in the development of the Russian history and hence, the death of the Soviet society meant the end of the entire Russian history and the Russian state which came to its decline. The authors disagree with this conclusion and consider that the historical mission of Russia is to stop the global aggressors during the most difficult moments of the world history. The global aggressors made the right conclusion that Russia stands in their way to world conquest and decided to unite all forces to fight against it understanding that it is impossible to conquer it alone. Nevertheless, Russia found strength to awake from a dream, to take the scales of lie off from its eyes and to see the imminent danger. The West is strongly trying to change the regime in Syria. It uses military and non-military means, but cannot achieve its objectives without direct military collision with Russia, which it will unlikely accept for the same reasons that prevented it from war against the USSR. Treachery, bribery, threats and sanctions will not help the West to win this time. No one believes it any more since it revealed its true face. The victory in Syria can initiate the liberation of the people and the countries from American influence and creation of the multipolar world based on the principles of equality and non-interference into internal affairs of the states. However, towards this complex mission Russia shall build a new powerful union, much stronger than the Soviet military block, shall make its economy efficient, shall breathe life into its culture, shall live for the sake of the country and its interests and be proud of it. We shall also remember that the West is heterogeneous. It has enough forces that disagree with the US vector of global policy, and these forces need help and support. It is not an easy task, which still shall be solved, to find the right approach to these forces and to rally them for fight. “The matter point of a problem is whether this world will represent a projection of American political and socio-economic system or other nations and the states, having united into regional neo-imperial unions, will be able to respond to a threat of the American empire and preserve its civilization identity” (Grachev, 2015).
Despite the fact that the authors consider war as a phenomenon, first of all, the armed struggle and physical destruction in arms as a type of technology, the “westernization” under the image of globalization represents a new type of total struggle where the armed violence is minimized, or serves as means of psychological pressure. Economic pressure, external political control, incitement of religious and national hatred, external total information pressure, cultural expansion, bribery, blackmail and recruitment of individuals, support of necessary public organizations, influence on media, local military operations and many other things separately or taken together are used as means of globalization. The social importance of globalization shall be the Western form of struggle for global leadership, fight for evolutionary development of the human society, for which the West does not leave other alternatives but to obey.
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29 March 2019
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Sociolinguistics, linguistics, semantics, discourse analysis, science, technology, society
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Bogdanova, I., Leontyev, A., Leontyeva, E., Gulevskaya, N., & Gulevsky*, A. (2019). Globalization As A Form To Struggle For Global Leadership. In & D. K. Bataev (Ed.), Social and Cultural Transformations in the Context of Modern Globalism, vol 58. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 2116-2127). Future Academy. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2019.03.02.245