Features Of Professional Self-Determination Of Modern Schoolchildren In The Kabardino-Balkarian Republic
The article investigates the features of professional self-determination of graduates of secondary schools in the Kabardino-Balkarian Republic (KBR), Russian Federation. The relevance of the study is due primarily to the need for students of early professional choice in the current situation, when psychological readiness to make a conscious and responsible choice is still insufficient. The requirements of the federal state educational standards (FSES) of secondary education of the Russian Federation provide for requirements for personal learning outcomes, the characteristics of the graduate school - he must be prepared to make a conscious choice of profession, to understand the value of professional activities for the individual and society. The results of an empirical study of the influence of self-esteem of professional inclinations and abilities on the choice of a future profession by graduates of general education schools of the KBR are given. There are four types of professional choice: taking into account abilities and aptitudes; taking into account only the abilities; taking into account only inclinations; excluding the abilities and aptitudes. The differences between girls and boys are revealed. Comparing the results of the urban and rural students showed a higher percentage of rural students who choose a profession without regard to aptitudes and abilities (150).The recommendations on the organization of vocational guidance work with adolescents and high school students, aimed at the formation of psychological readiness are presented. The use of methods aimed at the formation of professional identity in the process of teaching students will help to activate.
Keywords: Professional self-determinationchoice of professionabilityinclination
The problem of self-determination is an interdisciplinary research area at the intersection of such sciences as philosophy, political science, sociology, pedagogy, psychology. Breakthrough development of science and technology in modern times led to increased requirements for professional identity and, therefore, the process of choosing a future profession school graduates. In the modern world, the progress and innovation potential of the region is primarily determined by the level of education and professionalism of the staff (Altudov, 2017). Professionalization starts with the right choice of profession. The process of choosing a profession, defining oneself and the image of one’s future in the professional world is called professional self-determination Professional self-determination is part of the processes of socialization and personal self-determination. The versatility and complexity of this process leads to the fact that despite the large amount of research, many aspects of professional self-determination of modern school graduates are poorly understood.
he beginning of human studies as a subject of choosing one’s life path is rooted in Russian psychology K.A. Abulkhanova-Slavskaya (Abulkhanova-Slavskaya, 1980). A great contribution to the study of professional self-determination was made by the Russian psychologist Yevgeny Alexandrovich Klimov, a Soviet and Russian psychologist, and psychphysiologist. From the point of view of E.A. Klimov professional self-determination is a multidimensional process, in the study and implementation of which many approaches are applied: sociological, where professional self-determination is seen as a series of tasks set by the company before the person ; socio-psychological, including a process of gradual decision-making by the person, which can be used to coordinate their preferences with the needs of society; differential psychological, forming an individual style of professional activity дифференциально-психологический. Professional self-determination of youth should be carried out in the course of a specially organized research and practice activity - vocational guidance. A great role in this is equal interaction of the individual and social structures. roviding graduates of general educational institutions with assistance in professional self-determination, learning a profession, transition from studies to independent work, competitiveness after completion of vocational training requires putting individual interests and needs into the focus of attention and largely determines future success in independent life (Klimov, 2005).
From the point of view of I.V. Syromyatnikov, self-determination is based on the willingness and ability of a person to relate his desires, qualities, capabilities and requirements imposed on him by others, society and the occupation of a certain position on this basis (life, professional, etc.) and the implementation of life (professional) strategy (Syromyatnikov, 2013).
In our opinion, the basis of successful professional self-determination of school graduates is psychological readiness to make an independent and responsible choice. The psychological mechanism of self-determination is a choice understood as the orientation of the subject in the space of its own capabilities and can be developed in the process of training and education, provided by the teacher's support the student’s creative, subjective activity (Veraksa, 2014). Selection requires a certain level of personal maturity. Orientation in the world of professions, motivation, ability to self-analyze, developed inclinations are necessary (Krivtsova, 2014).
Tendency can be called desire, the need to engage in certain activities. It is important to distinguish between interest in the result and in the process of activity. About inclination one can tell when a person is attracted not only the result but also the process of activity. It can be a tendency to take care of animals, to understand complex texts, to solve math problems, play music, and interact with people.
Abilities are called individual personality traits that determine success in an activity. Abilities are called individual personality traits that determine success in an activity. Although abilities are based on innate inclinations, abilities themselves develop in activities . Thus, abilities reflect the capabilities of a person, affect the degree of success and time of mastering various types of activities. . The development of inclinations and abilities is based on the selective attitude towards school subjects, which develops during adolescence and practical experience of participating in various types of activities available to a schoolchild: design activities, subject circles, sports clubs, volunteer movement and much more.
The requirements of the federal state educational standard of secondary general education of the Russian Federation provide for the following personal characteristics of a graduate ("portrait of a graduate school"):prepared for an informed choice of profession, understanding the importance of professional activity for a person and society; provide for the formation of graduates of general education schools conscious choice of future profession and the possibility of implementing their own life plans. This poses to teachers and psychologists the task of studying the psychological factors of the development of professional self-determination of schoolchildren. We consider such a factor the ability to make a decision on the choice of a future profession, taking into account our capabilities, which include self-assessment of our professional inclinations and abilities. The objective situation of choice is reflected in the mind as a subjective space of possibilities (Bagova, 2018). The task of teachers, psychologists, parents is to contribute to the expansion of the space of opportunities and the ability of the student to orient them in this space, to be able to recognize, evaluate and take into account their capabilities.
The study of professional self-determination of graduates of secondary schools of the Kabardino-Balkarian Republic was conducted by us from April to June 2018 in 12 educational institutions. The study involved 364 students in 11- th grade.
Purpose of the Study
The aim of our study was to study the influence of inclinations and abilities on the decision on choosing a profession from modern graduates of secondary schools in the Kabardino-Balkarian Republic.
We used the following techniques: a survey to identify the chosen profession « Differential Diagnostic Questionnaire (DDQ) by E.A. Klimov», «Questionnaire of professional inclinations by L. Yowayshi», «Map of interests» by A.E. Golomstock. DDQ technique is designed to identify the self-assessment of professional aptitudes and abilities to different types of activities (Samoukina, 2004). The technique of L. Yowayshi is aimed at identifying students' aptitudes toward various spheres of professional activity: working with people, practical, intellectual, aesthetic, planned-economic or extreme. The advantage of the technique is the use of indirect questions that reveal hidden motivation, unlike most of the methods that ask "frontal", straightforward questions. The method "Map of Interests" by A.E. Golomshtok is designed to explore the interests and inclinations of high school students in various fields of activity. Golomshtok A. E. (1963) identifies 23 such spheres: physics, mathematics, chemistry, astronomy, biology, medicine, agriculture, philology, journalism, history, art, geology, geography, social activities, law, transport, pedagogy, working specialties, services, construction, light industry, appliances, electrical engineering.
As a result of the analysis of diagnostic data among the subjects, four groups of respondents were identified: the choice of profession corresponds to the abilities and inclinations; the choice of profession corresponds to abilities, but does not correspond to inclinations; the choice of profession corresponds to inclinations, but does not correspond to abilities; the choice of profession corresponds to neither abilities nor inclinations. Data analysis was conducted on gender and territorial basis. The results are shown in Table
A gender analysis showed that among the young men there were more respondents choosing a profession with regard to both inclinations and abilities (29%) than among girls (21%); among girls, there is a higher percentage when choosing a profession that does not take into account either the inclination or ability (38%) than among boys (30%). This means that young men are more conscious in their choice of future profession; perhaps for them the profession is more significant due to the traditional distribution of gender roles in the Caucasus, including Kabardino-Balkaria, where girls more associate themselves with the future family role than professional.
Comparing the results of diagnostics of schoolchildren living in urban areas and rural settlements revealed that urban pupils have a significantly higher percentage of those who choose their future profession, taking into account their own inclinations and abilities (29%), among rural schoolchildren there are fewer (18%). Those who focus only on abilities without affection for propensities among rural schoolchildren are more (14%) than among urban ones. Also among rural schoolchildren there is a greater proportion of those who choose a profession without considering their inclinations or their abilities (36%). Thus, the process of choosing a profession for urban schoolchildren can be considered more conscious. Rural students consistently show lower results compared with the results of urban schools. There is a problem of improving the quality of education in rural schools, including metasubjective and personal results. This requires special approaches to the organization of education, for example, balance learning pedagogics (Kalimullin, Korshunova, & Koinova-Zoellner2016a).
With orientation only on abilities or only on inclinations E.A. Klimov considers it more important to choose a profession on the basis of one’s own inclinations since abilities are developing further in the process of activity. In the table as a whole, orientation toward inclinations prevails (30%) compared with less evident orientation toward abilities (11).
The choice of profession is not associated with the inclinations and abilities in 34% of the respondents. The share of this choice is higher in the group of girls (38%) and rural graduates (36%). Such results raise the problem of increasing the psychological readiness of schoolchildren to self-development through the development of reflection skills, self-regulation, and the subject position. (Kalimullin, Kuvaldina, & Koinova-Zoellner, 2016b).
The results indicate that a third of graduates of general education schools of the KBR choose their future profession without taking into account their professional inclinations and abilities, which makes it possible to recognize the professional choice as insufficiently conscious and thoughtful. This fact should be considered when admitting applicants to universities, organizing vocational training, should include practice-oriented activities, for example, participation of students in professional skill contests (Mikhaylenko & Lesev, 2018).
The results obtained can be used in organizations developing work with teenagers and high school students. It is necessary to use technologies that activate professional self-determination, aimed at the formation of psychological readiness for choice, the formation of skills of reflection, subjective position, such as trainings, role-playing and business games, project activities (Veraksa & Veraksa, 2015). The results of the development of psychological readiness to choose a future profession will be more effective if one consider the gender and territorial affiliation of students.
When organizing career guidance and a campaign to receive applicants, universities can be recommended to organize career guidance by psychodiagnostics and professional counseling for applicants who are not fully confident in their choice (Borytko, 2017).
When organizing students' training, the use of practice-oriented methods aimed at the formation of professional identity will help students to ensure the correctness of their profession choice and enhance professional self-development (Pryazhnikov, 1996; Pryazhnikov, 2015).
With regard to self-esteem of their own professional inclinations and abilities and taking them into account in the process of choosing a future profession, four types of professional self-determination can be distinguished: the profession is chosen in accordance with the abilities and inclinations ; the choice of profession corresponds to abilities, but does not correspond to inclinations; the choice of profession corresponds to inclinations, but does not correspond to abilities ; the choice of profession does not correspond to any abilities or inclinations.
The most optimal can be recognized as professional self-determination, taking into account your own inclinations and abilities. This choice of profession is observed in 25% of all respondents, the proportion of this approach to the choice of profession is higher among boys compared to girls and urban schoolchildren compared to rural ones.
It is necessary in the organization of educational activities with adolescents and high school students to use methods that activate professional self-determination, aimed at the formation of psychological readiness for choice, the formation of skills of reflection and subject position. The results of the development of psychological readiness to choose a future profession will be more effective if you consider the gender and territorial affiliation of students.
When organizing career guidance and a campaign for the admission of applicants, universities can recommend the organization of vocational guidance by psych diagnostics and professional counseling for applicants who are not completely sure of their choice.
When organizing the training of students, the use of practice-oriented methods aimed at the formation of professional identity will help students ensure the correctness of their choice of profession and enhance professional self-development.
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29 March 2019
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Bagova, R., Baysieva, L., Mikhaylenko, O., & Nogerova, M. (2019). Features Of Professional Self-Determination Of Modern Schoolchildren In The Kabardino-Balkarian Republic. In D. K. Bataev (Ed.), Social and Cultural Transformations in the Context of Modern Globalism, vol 58. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 150-156). Future Academy. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2019.03.02.18