The system of education is a powerful factor of the society development. Here pedagogical conditions are especially important as methods of improving functioning of the pedagogical systems and enhancing the efficiency of the educational process. An important place belongs to the stable pedagogical process of vector development and personality formation in its upbringing, education and familiarization with values, norms, rules and behaviour patterns. Globalization necessitates a unified estimation system of education quality and Bologna process made this integration possible. These transformations impacted the quality of the Russian educational system. Pedagogical conditions for further development of the educational system in the country, region, of education sociology take the first place. Reorientation from the socio-centric, authoritarian approach in education to a new concept – learner-centered model taking into account his individual abilities turns a teacher into a facilitator, developing learners’ abilities. Pedagogical conditions are created for transition of educational systems onto a new level: democratization, humanization and integration. This trends include such objectives as: reorganization of the educational system on democratic grounds; maintenance of certain requirements to the level of personal interest fulfillment; providing certain freedoms to the subjects and objects of the educational process for successful implementation of the pedagogical process; etc. Graduate employment issues are among the most important issues of the tertiary school in regions as the graduates may be not in demand on the labour market.
Keywords: Educational systemBologna processpedagogicalsociology
Education in the third millennium is one of the most important spheres of the human activity; great achievements in this sphere grounded significant social and engineering transformations peculiar for the outgoing century. On the other side, widening the sphere of education, results in evoking problems in this sphere, scientific research evidences the crisis in education. As the result of searching the ways to overcome the crisis in education significant changes take place and a new educational paradigm is formed. The place of education in the society is determined by the role which people’s knowledge, experience, skills, possibilities of developing professional and personal qualities have in the society. This role increased in the second half of the XX century, changing significantly during last decades. Contemporary world understanding its interrelation realized the necessity in a unified system of criteria for estimating the quality of education. This integration is fulfilled through the Bologna process. It necessitates strengthening the process of mobility, openness, tolerance and comparativeness (Lolaeva et. al. 2014). Education has always been a powerful factor of the society development. It provides access to intellectual resources accumulated by the humanity during all the stages of development as well as acquiring social and moral imperatives which foster establishment of a person. Contemporary pedagogical researches are aimed at studying the issues of educational system perfection, enhancing the level of the educational process; a special attention is paid to the pedagogical conditions which provide a positive effect of the pedagogical activity. Peculiarities of the pedagogical conditions depend on the content of the concept “pedagogical conditions”, classification groups, which are aimed at determining the nature of the problem being solved by these conditions. The researches treat pedagogical conditions as a system including environmental, social, economic, internal and external aspects, actively influencing upbringing, teaching, and behavior, moral, physical and psychological development of a person.
The article raises a complicated issue of the role of pedagogical conditions solving the issues of education, upbringing and familiarization with social values for students at any level of education and the role of education in the process of personality formation. In this sense education has a substantial role in a human upbringing with peculiar aims at vital needs and interests, contains powerful educational content, orienting the society at socially important values. The quality of the educational system in the contemporary Russia contradicts social development, further science and technology progress, economy and human development. It results in the necessity of its reconstruction. This contradiction is manifested in pedagogical conditions for transition of educational systems onto a higher level involving the following areas: democratization, humanization and integration. These trends involve the following objectives:
- education reorganization basing on the democratic grounds, introducing democracy issues, implicating the interrelation of rights and duties of the learners; certain requirements maintenance to the level of personal interests and needs and so on. It results in a pedagogical principle of democratic relations, which provides the subject and objects of the study process certain freedoms for successful implementation of the pedagogical process;
- personal formation as one of the main tasks of the education. Factors determining social maturity of a person are level and quality of education, depth of morality, moral content, which are shaped during upbringing and education, and introduction to the culture and knowledge accumulated by the society. This moral core of a human regulates his or her behaviour in the society. Via morality a person estimates own actions, forms personal convictions in the correctness or antihumanity or associality of this or that factor of life. Thanks to humanization education is aimed at individual and personal potential development, at imperatives of the human values, at ideals and universal moral norms, which reflect moral experience of the humanity, at optimal interaction of a person with the society;
- as integration of education we understand profoundly built process of education and upbringing, which promotes reinterpretation of the total structure of education system, preparing learners to the process of perception, understanding, analysis and realization of information, developing notions and ideas about the determined interaction of all the processes in the world as a whole. That is why, nowadays Russian society optimizes these critical aspects – a new strategy for the development of education has been developed, basic parameters for modernization of secondary and higher schools have been developed according to the principles of outstripping development, new educational standards have been developed and discussed by instructors on a large scale.
Researchers dealing with pedagogical conditions relate them with their influence on education and personal development, his or her familiarization with the social values, norms and rules of behavior. The contemporary approach to this phenomenon is directly related to the pedagogical system which is a necessary part of a diverse educational area. Multiple researches determine the following pedagogical conditions in the system of education: organizational-pedagogical, psychology-pedagogical and didactic. Disclosing the content of organizational-pedagogical conditions researchers prioritize solving serious educational tasks with the use of new technologies into the educational process. Psychologo-pedagogical conditions provide solution to the formation of the pedagogical culture of the person. Didactic conditions provide effective solution to the content and methods of education. Reorientation of education from the socio-centric approach to the learner’s centered approach with personal abilities becomes the most important. An instructor becomes a facilitator, a mentor developing learner’s abilities to think, investigate, compare, analyze that is to learn. This understanding of the subject-subject interaction of a teacher with learners involves studying new aspects of interaction, with the right of a student to determine, evaluate and respond to the quality of education, the subject, the curriculum. Here, not only the depth of the subject teaching, degree of its comprehension, but psychological characteristics of the subject and object of the studies are estimated. They include a teacher, a pedagogical group, a student, a class or a students’ group. This evokes a question how topical is the issue of investigating functional efficiency of educational institutions, pedagogical conditions for effective generalization of the accumulated experience, critical analysis and estimation of their activity. Here the role of education is not a passive matter but a powerful motivational impulse driving education onto the tops of the intellectual potential of humanity. In other words education and upbringing are two sides of the same issue; they should be viewed in interrelated unity.
Every society in its historical development determines it social mandate to education, including strategic state needs, as well as their practical fulfillment taking into account national interests and ethnic and regional peculiarities. From this point of view our experimentalists have done everything to destroy the national system of education, the best some time ago. From European and American systems of education a new model of Russian system is formed without the account of social, economical, historical, cultural peculiarities of our country, this new system is oriented at the western model containing models with foreign names: “baccalaureate”, “master course”, “marketing”, “management” and so on. No surprise that with these foreign terms we are starting to forget our national origin, and what we serve to. After the demise of the Soviet Union, in a short course of time Russia turned into a resource appendage, industrial waste deposit and moral victim of the developed countries, who have not refused any of their moral values and ideological standards. But we are imposed to the standards of Western mentality and pedagogy. It is sad. Our society got into the tunnel without exit. This situation affected a new generation most of all, the youth evidences failure of the social value of education itself. Nowadays an engineer can earn less than a cleaner, and a certificate about completion of the courses in accounting is estimated higher than a diploma on higher education. All these determine social behaviour of the students. That is why character of the social processes nowadays necessitates new approaches to the theory and practice of upbringing. Conceptual uncertainty in this sphere is dangerous for the society at any stage of its development and today, when the mentality transforms – in particular. That is why the purpose of contemporary pedagogy is a pedagogical process of multi-faceted development and personality formation by upbringing, training and education.
What factors hinder innovations in the education and what are the solutions to these?
Lack of the financial support. Regular subsidies should be aimed at renovation and supplementation, but now they are aimed at stop-gap.
Incompetence (uninformedness in particular) of the authorities in regional system of education.
Absence of onsite courses which would allow teachers improve their professional level without significant expenses, on-line courses solve didactic issues not those of a particular subject.
Incoherence of certain educational establishments.
Unlike in big cities, parents have no opportunity to obtain necessary educational literature and providing necessary textbooks and workbooks is the task of teachers who are overloaded.
Strange as it may be, parents have no social mandatory at all: teach what you want.
The most traditional factor is pedagogical conservatism.
To solve these issues it is important to create the atmosphere of infirmity of all the subjects of the educational process, which should lead to understanding of the outer changes which require significant changes inside a certain educational establishment (Slastenin & Podymova, 1997).
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of our work is studying pedagogical conditions of moral upbringing of a new generation. Thus the main issue of the system of education today is developing the state strategy in the issues of moral up-bringing of the youth, which became a significant impact in developing positive tendencies of the social development. A certain place in moral upbringing of the youth belongs to patriotic upbringing, necessitating solution of the following tasks:
- Deepening the knowledge about the history of Russia and little Motherland;
- Developing fidelity to duty to the Motherland and readiness to defend the country;
- Formation of respect to national heritage, tolerance, communication culture, reverential attitude to the intellectual properties of Russia;
- Humanism formation, significance of universal human values and mercy;
- Formation of demand in healthy life-style and creating favorable conditions for preserving and strengthening physical health and stamina of a young generation.
Admitting the necessity of transformations in classical education we determine that not always the vector of changes is clear. Perhaps, it explains borrowing of Western experience. Certain elements are demanded but we should not forget about national peculiarities of our traditions. We think it is wrong to forget our own experience accumulated with centuries. We should not forget widely-sought after scientific schools, methods of teaching. But in academic pedagogy of the Soviet period there were significant drawbacks – it was based on the models of upbringing not related with the social reality. It considered education as a process without taking into account the unity and system of establishments in the society. Rational value deficit in the social system and organization of the education itself aggravated objective contradictions in teachers’ work.
Historical order formation and purposes of the school, formulated by a narrow circle of the authorities and serving them political strategists, did not unite the state and society, pedagogy and ethno pedagogical experience based on national upbringing. There is an antithesis here: the system of education functioned within the cultural heritage, reproducing internal values of the ethnos, the other in the logics of state-political sceneries. Both parties lost. Without social support and ethno pedagogical ground of the education an official system turned out to be scholastic and lifeless. Peoples ethno pedagogy and community without professional community, professional pedagogic instrumentarium and state system possibilities turned out to be restricted. A developed system of education combining our traditions and global experience allows creating such cultural-educational system which can become a basis for formation of national education responding to the realities of the Russian state development.
Today, the pedagogical conditions for further development of the educational system, sociology of education, are studying and improving the whole social process with the account of poly-ethnic nature of the regions, the process of formation and development of a harmonically developed person. Basing on this we can say that they have common conceptual framework and methods of research, where philosophical and sociological ideas and concepts are used and there is a necessity to handle all the important grounds of education – from the individual background to social intention. In 1990 the concept “social upbringing” appears in academic literature and substitutes the concept “upbringing”. It is determined as purposeful creation of conditions (material, spiritual, organizational) for human development (Osipov, 1998).
Plural meaning of the concepts “education” and “upbringing” used in soviet and Russian pedagogy is partially transferred onto the social discussion. If we take the definition of the concept “upbringing” used in Russian sociological encyclopedia (the process of targeted, systematic personality formation according to existing social models), than it turns up to be included into the education, as it expresses personal level of the educational process and one of the scopes of educational system functioning as a social institute (Osipov, 1998).
The main components in the bind education- upbringing are teachers and family. They are in interaction with each other and together influence the whole process of education and upbringing. From the point of view of the structure of education as a social system, learners’ parents are an active component of the educational system and of that educational surrounding where educational institutions and teachers work. Family is a powerful factor of learners’ motivation. When this factor is positively manifested monitoring and communicative activity of a teacher gets easy, and the result of education improves. That is why family is important in society and education. In the block of pedagogical conditions – family and interaction with it, including androgogics, this interaction is fulfilled by the educational establishment in several directions: “...acquainting parents with the content and methods of the educational process”, “psychologo-pedagogical education of parents”, “involving parents into mutual activity with kids”, “help and education correction in separate families”, “interacting of parents with social organizations” (Kodzhaspirova, 2010). It is important to note that pedagogy of collaboration which is actively developed today is based on educational approach to education. A child should be judged not by the knowledge but attitude to labour, people, and moral values that he or she has (Baleevskikh, 2018).
Nowadays, education has many sided social value, which is determined by collaboration of social subjects, it provides adequate development of the society in general. At the same time pedagogical conditions for the system of education (aims, subjects, ways of interaction of teachers and learners) are conditioned by the culture type and change together with it. Consequently, interaction of culture and education provides production, distribution, acquisition and utilization of knowledge and values.
Issues of education and upbringing, as a basic part of the pedagogical process, in modern realities become acute, as the system of education crates the foundation of national security. Education in contemporary Russia is a strategically important sphere of social life. It forms intellectual potential of regions, nation on the whole, which creates foundation of livability and independence in conditions of the global rivalry. At the same time educational situation nowadays is mostly considered pragmatically. Education as a form of culture translation and factor of social subject reproduction is not always considered as value but mostly is considered a necessity. There is a parodoxal situation nowadays when education does not guarantee a well-paid stable job or high living standards. It may seem that absence of demand for education will result in devaluation of education. “But multiple research evidence that in any state of national economy, culture, science, to strive for higher positions and privileges in society it is necessary to have good education. Education is prestigious though objective conditions of the modern life hinder it” (Pilieva, 2010).
Pedagogical conditions of contemporary educational technologies are based on different forms of collaboration. These forms develop in the logics of restructuring levels of self regulation from maximal teacher’s help to students in solving educational issues to consequent increase of their autonomy upto total self-regulating subject, methodological and professional actions and collaborating with a teacher (Petrov & Аlmadakova, 2013).
There is a necessity to establish succession, for example through relating phenomena of the past and present with a certain pedagogical tradition and system… at dialectal relation with the pedagogical heritage as a part of the contemporary pedagogy (Аstafieva, 2015).
Quality of education is a subject of research both of general pedagogy and pedagogy of the higher school and represents pedagogical conditions for standardized society requirements to education as one of its important subsystems, in the necessity to correspond to criteria of the effective functioning that is optimal implementation of its social functions.
Basic components in the system of pedagogy are “family-school”, “family-university”, influencing educational process and being directly interconnection.
Contemporary Russia and world require objective estimation of the accumulated pedagogical experience. Most important lessons must be drawn out of it and included into the existing science and practice, all mistakes and challenges should be studied in order to be avoided further (Shkurpit, Molchanova, & Babich, 2016).
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29 March 2019
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Borisovna, K. A., Victorovna, K. L., Taimurazovna, L. D., Eduardovna, P. D., & Chermenovich*, R. V. (2019). Pedagogical Conditions As Factor Of Development Of Educational System. In & D. K. Bataev (Ed.), Social and Cultural Transformations in the Context of Modern Globalism, vol 58. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 1503-1509). Future Academy. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2019.03.02.174