Polylevel Of Culture And Ethnolevel Of Culture In Professional Education

Abstract

This article is devoted to the actual pedagogical problem of the correlation of multiculturalism and ethno-culture in education, treating it as a professional context. The author considers the ethno-cultural context of Russian vocational education in a multicultural environment, considering education in the aspect of ethnicity, as the activity of transferring the content (values, spiritual and moral orientations, historical traditions, etc.) of a particular culture (ethno-cultural context), and not some abstract cultural -historic experience (multicultural context). In the modern socio-cultural situation of multinational Russia, the problem of the ethno-cultural context in the content of professional education, which is the guarantor of the preservation and transmission of ethno-cultural traditions, is being actualized, based on their thesis that it is not possible to identify an ideal balance, a harmonious correlation of multiethnic - culture and ethno-culture in the contemporary of socio -cultural situation of Russia and Europe. The article may be of interest to teachers, ethnopedagogy, cultural studies, in the design of the educational process at the University, work in geterogennykh student groups.

Keywords: Multicultural educationethno-cultural educationuniversity educationuniversityprojectinterdisciplinary project

Introduction

In the modern era, education has become one of the most extensive spheres of human activity. It employs more than a billion students and 50 million teachers. The social role of education has significantly increased: the prospects for the development of the mankind largely depend on its direction and effectiveness. Education, especially higher education, has been seen as the main factor of social and economic progress. The reason for this attention is the understanding that the most important value and the main capital of modern society is a person capable of finding and mastering new knowledge and adopting non-standard creative solutions.

"Education realizes its functions – forming of personality, forming of culture and professional function - in a specific socio-cultural situation" ( Aldoshina, 2015, 35). By the mid-60- s of the twentieth century, advanced countries came to the understanding that scientific and technological progress is not capable of solving the most acute problems of society and personality, and a profound contradiction is revealed between them. For example, the colossal development of the productive forces does not ensure the minimum necessary level of welfare for the bulk of the population; a global crisis has acquired an ecological crisis that creates a real threat to the total destruction of the habitat and the person himself as a species; ruthlessness with regard to plant and animal life turns a person into an unspiritual cruel being, science and art are a depressing picture. Mass culture bears the imprint of violence, hedonism, stratification and "barbarization" ( Dolzhenko, 2018). Particularly pronounced focus of the "barbarization" of culture has manifested itself at the turn of the century: a rollback into the past and a simplification of traditions (especially moral norms); the introduction into culture of a different logic of life - its mythologizing; the desire of the public elite to suppress (conquer, subordinate) the lower strata of society; frank propaganda of violence, cruelty, the cult of physical strength.

One of the functions of science is theoretical: the generation and systematization of objective knowledge about reality ("What is an object? What are its laws, structure, factors and mechanisms of development?"). The realities of the modern development of science, society and technology indicate that mono -disciplinary research has ceased to meet the requirements of objectivity and validity ( Bull, Fruehling, & Chattergy, 1992; Hart, 2006).

In the modern context, when the evolutionary-synergetic approach is dominant in understanding the development strategies of human civilization, whose development scenarios are variable and equal probable, the predictive possibilities of science are extremely relevant: "Openness", "randomness", "stochasticity" and especially "equal probability" of development scenarios determine the need for a qualitatively different prognostic toolkit to be developed on an interdisciplinary basis.

Problem Statement

The following discursive chains are topical for considering the importance of ethno-cultural values ​​in the situation of traditional propaganda of multicultural landmarks in the world and in Europe:

 Any modification of the educational space entails a reorientation of the axio-sphere (teacher and student): from the restriction of freedom of choice to the restriction of personal space, personal growth or its dynamics.

The opposition of anti-values ​​of mass culture (hedonism, barbarization, sexism) and ethno-cultural values, which is habitual in recent decades, overturns and blurs the conceptual space and problems of educational initiatives and traditions (rural areas, enclaves), reorientes their meanings and development vectors ( Dzhurinsky, 2015; Gukalenko, 2016; Vulfson, 2014).

In the current situation of the intensification of migration processes, there has been a change in the models of the multiculturalism of public life and education, "right" fascist tendencies have emerged, the values ​​of "open Europe" are actively debated, and in the polycultural education the obsolete approaches (melting pot, mosaic, "Assimilation".

The multipolarity of interstate relations (instead of the traditionally prevailing dual polarity of the world) generates regional multiculturalism (for example, Latin American, Arab or East Asian). This polycentricity of the world loses its cultural, confessional, historical originality, ceases to be a characteristic and the basis of the ethnic identity of the individual were studied by Boziyev ( 2017) and Buyeva ( 2010).

Research Questions

In this context, there are two research questions in our work:

How is it possible to implement the ethnocultural context in a multicultural university education?

What is the pedagogical potential of the interdisciplinary design method at the university?

Purpose of the Study

The purpose of the study is to identify the possibilities of using various types of interdisciplinary ethnocultural educational projects in university education.

Modern professional education is actualized within the framework of competence methodology. The concept of competence is not new for Soviet and Russian pedagogy. However, his modern interpretation is more often derived from the Western pedagogical tradition. The results of the analysis ideas of V.I. Bidenko, K.E. Bezukladnikov, I.A. Winter, E.F. Zeer, R.P. Millrud, L.F. Bachman, M. Celce-Murcia of modern approaches and analysis of the content of the concept have demonstrated, that competence is: a multicomponent newformation that is a qualitatively new, integrative whole, all the components of which function are interrelated; acts as a criterion for the manifestation of readiness and ability to a certain type of professional activity; allows you to solve specific problems with pre-defined parameters and obtain results; acts as a professional characteristic of a specialist, conditioned by personal characteristics and specificity of the species, professional function and sphere of professional activity; is formed in the educational process of professional training and is perfected in the further professional activity continuously.

Thus, competence combines prescription and chance, process and effectiveness, is a combination of not only the signs of education, education of the individual in vocational education, but also: "... personal growth, the consequence of self-organization and the generalization of activity and personal experience" ( Bolotov & Serikov, 2003, 8). "Competence, unlike subject knowledge and skills (knowledge and skills in the subject) is not tied to the subject as such. It shows not how much the student has mastered the subject of the curriculum, but how much he mastered the professional functions that he has to perform" ( Serikov, 2012, 72).

Changing the parameters of modern knowledge in general and professional education, informatization and digitization of the modern educational space raise the issue of changing educational technologies in the university and applying other, optimal, "economical" educational strategies. We are talking about the economy of cognitive forces and labor costs for obtaining the optimal educational result. Students of the University are able to independently receive, process, modify, interpret and analyze the result obtained with a clearly formulated professional task and the freedom to receive and interpret information (if subsequently it will be possible to prove its truth and quality). This will make it possible to obtain a different quality of the novelty of the product of the student's intellectual activity. The maximum effect of "qualitative growth" is obtained in the process of interdisciplinary design.

Research Methods

By solving tactical educational tasks at the university in shaping the professional competencies of future educators, we focus on interdisciplinary educational projects (Buyeva, 2010, Ivanova & Serikov, 2017; Ivanov & Ivanova, 2016) as a promising means of solving many methodological, theoretical and methodological contradictions in university education.

Obviously, to solve this problem, it is necessary to go beyond the understanding of integration as a system of interdisciplinary relations in education. In this connection, we share the viewpoint of Bezrukov. that integration is "the highest form of interconnection", "the expression of the unity of goals, principles, content, forms of organization of the process of education and upbringing, carried out in several sections of education, aimed at intensifying the system of preparing students" ( Buyeva, 2010, p. 126). It should be taken into account that integration has procedural and productive aspects: how it is a process "unfolding synthesis of elements in a single system"; at the same time considered as a result, it is "an integral system of independent purpose, which is not equal to the sum of the parts included in it, but is a qualitatively new integrative unity" ( Buyeva, 2010, p. 127).

Interdisciplinary design includes several types of integration, generating a new formation in university education - personal and professional - with a rich potential for research, analytical, diagnostic, prognostic, design, organizational, managerial, communicative, monitoring, evaluative and reflective potential. It is about the integration of: real project, communicative and cognitive motives with evolving professional motives; real educational and modeled professional activity of students; typical tasks of the professional activity of the teacher and tasks of the project activity; types of context of the simulated professional activity of the teacher; reproductive and creative activity of students; elements of the content of education; special subject knowledge about project activities and the content of general professional training for bachelor students, a combination of professional and general professional competencies.

In the course of implementing such multi-factor integration, the student is involved in several types of activities (quasi-professional activity, project activity, simulated professional activity with elements of self-regulation and self-control). At the same time, the project activity determines the necessity of solving professionally significant tasks and the formation of appropriate competencies in the logic of future professional activity, which allows certain competences to be integrated into the structure of the professional competence of future teachers.

The questionnaire survey and the content analysis of the productivity of students' educational activity (57 students of the first year of pedagogical profiles and 13 students of psychology (1 course) of the Institute of Pedagogy and Psychology of the Orel State University named after I.S. Turgenev) revealed the most attractive methods for their organization joint activities. Students appreciably and attractively "Active immersion in ethno-environment" -79%, but "Excite problems of ethnic identity" - not always (21%). The overwhelming importance and attractiveness of the "Emotional reaction to the artifacts of ethno-culture" is noted by a significant majority of respondents - 94%, but the presence of "Ability to engage in some kind of ethno-culture" and the importance of "Active attitudes to ethno-cultural values", and "Presence of creative personal style of activity" are few (6% ) or they do not understand the significance and substance of the issue in the context of activities in the class.

Traditionally, the project activity was considered as a target component of the preparation of engineering, technical and applied training students. In the training of teachers, the project activity took place as a stage of planning the lesson and after-hour activities of the teacher, having a clearly prescribed content. Design and forecasting remained possible only at the stage of technological and methodical elaboration of practical details.

Changing the orientations of vocational education, criticism of knowledge (read, pre-defined, final approaches to content analysis), the transition to a competency-based and personality-oriented model of vocational education, and the growing social order for the training of multifunctional specialists in the pedagogical profile, makes it necessary to rethink the traditional consideration of the pedagogical profession, on the formation of universal and multifunctional specialists, capable qualities. It is technically and productively to design the educational process at all its stages. In this regard, project activity becomes one of the key types of professional activity of teachers, as it allows to successfully organization of the educational process from setting goals and tasks to modeling strategies for professional self-development.

The scientists note that mastering students with project competence requires a specially organized educational process (Bespalko V.P., Bredneva N.A., Bukharkina M.Yu., Guzeev V.V., Gurye L.I., Monakhov V.M., Polat E.S., Sarayeva A.A., etc.) The theory and practice of pedagogical design was widely developed in the 90s of the XX century. At the root of the development of this direction in pedagogy were such scientists as Vzyatyshev V.F., Zaire-Beck E.S., Il'in R.I., Ilyasov I.I., Kirsanov A.A., Tyunnikov Yu.S., Bulanova-Toporkova M.V, etc.

Design (from the Latin "projectus", i.e. "thrown forward") was understood as a person's desire to improve the surrounding world, using the knowledge obtained about him through research, and also as the process of creating a project, the prototype of the intended or desired object, the state.

Findings

The author considers the ethno-cultural context of Russian vocational education in a multicultural environment, considering education in the aspect of ethnicity, as the activity of transferring the content (values, spiritual and moral orientations, historical traditions, etc.) of a particular culture (ethno-cultural context), and not some abstract cultural -historic experience (multicultural context).

Conclusion

The essence of the project activity is the creation of new objects with specified qualities and assumes active creative transformation of the existing reality. Pedagogical design ( Bushmarina, 2016) is considered as one of the key components of pedagogical activity and covers various components of the educational process (educational systems (municipal, regional, federal), the content of education, pedagogical technologies, management of the pedagogical process, planning and control of the development of the educational institution, etc.).

We use different types of projects ( Kvitkovskaya, Illarionov, & Illarionova, 2016; Martisina, 2016; Mukhametzyanova, 2009; Pavelko, 2004) within the framework of the discipline "Intercultural interaction and multicultural education":

  • scientific projects: - participation in scientific projects carried out by departments, laboratories, research institutes, the university as a whole and other organizations (for example, Matryoshka and Koksesi: general and special); - participation in grant (state budget and economic contracting) activities, incl. preparation of the application, presentation of the project for the tender, etc.

  • teaching projects: - teaching students sections of the disciplines of the studied direction of preparation (for example, preparing a report on the experience of multicultural education in Mali by the graduate student U. Kulibali); - the development and implementation of discipline programs for different types, profiles of training, educational levels (for example, the development of the course "Fundamentals of Tolerance" (class 10) for the profile of the humanitarian class - the development of programs for profile and elective courses in the direction of training (for example, the course "Traditional rag doll in Russian ethno-culture" for a class with in-depth study of disciplines of aesthetic profile).

  • creative projects: - publishing projects (periodicals, online publications, networks); - creative projects in the framework of olympiads, contests, festivals, etc. An example is the projects that took place in the final round of the regional interuniversity contest of educational projects "Steps" in 2013 - "Holy Sources of Orel region", "History of the Shrine", ethno-camp.

  • social projects: - monitoring of various aspects of personal and professional development of students at the university (tolerance, professional competence in various fields of activity); - projects related to building a general cultural upbringing space in the region ("Christmas Angel", "Shrovetide festivities"); - popularization of scientific knowledge (healthy lifestyle, significant dates having significance for the cultural space of the region, for example, the opening of the exhibition of the toy museum of the faculty of pedagogy and psychology in the Orel Museum of Fine Arts).

  • service projects: - projects in the practical application of professional competencies in the field of training to be mastered (centres for the education and support of persons with disabilities, pedagogical assistance to the family, psychological counseling, (for example, children and migrant families), leisure centres).

  • presentation projects: - presentations of research results (mass media, multimedia technologies), developments and inventions (on-line project, show projects, festivals, exhibitions, public-art); - development of PR-campaigns for the promotion of scientific results, projects of educational programs.

In the course of realization of interdisciplinary designing of ethno-cultural orientation the following tasks are solved:

  • Improvement of auditor and extracurricular work with students on all disciplines of the pedagogical block and, in particular, on the course "Intercultural interaction and multicultural education";

  • stimulation of professional interest of students in the future professional activity, its various kinds and realized professional functions;

  • activation of personal professional potential and formation of professional and personal development strategy for students;

development of non-standard pedagogical thinking and own professional style of activity;

  • use of social and pedagogical design skills in quasi-professional activities;

  • accumulation of experience in interpersonal professional interaction, cooperation and innovative forms of professional and personal communication, command modes of interaction.

Such projects provide a combination of theoretical training and practical activities, create conditions for the realization of the spiritual, intellectual, creative, physical and social needs of university students. The experience of the contest shows that students work in a mode of interdisciplinary: first, multicultural and ethno-cultural projects aimed at attracting schoolchildren within the framework of long-term projects (in the country camp, in the circle activity, in periodic educational activities (for example, ethnology) are interdisciplinary in content, including information on history, culturology, religious studies, pedagogy, methods and technologies of education and training at the school of local lore, etc.; secondly, association in creative groups for the preparation of projects of students studying in different areas of preparation of various faculties / institutes of the university. For example, the unification of psychologists and defectologists for the preparation of a fairy tale project (2017) led to the development of a correction-development project on the influence of the Russian folk, Tatar, Jewish, Hungarian and Chinese tales on the development of mutual assistance and dialogical speech among older preschool children; thirdly, the interaction of students enriches the projected activities with different aspects of the vision of the problem, which facilitates the transformation of the final project into transdisciplinary ones that go beyond the sciences, allowing to see the potential of the vision of the spatial problems of the modern world, personal and professional development.

In this narrow example, one can be sure that interdisciplinary design is a popular pedagogical technology successfully used by educators in the university's educational process and an interesting form for the students to organize vocational training and the formation of professional competence.

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Publisher

Future Academy

First Online

18.12.2019

Doi

10.15405/epsbs.2019.02.02.76

Online ISSN

2357-1330