The Study Of School Education Through Historical And Pedagogical Modeling
The article deals with school education as a significant fact of pedagogical history, the study of which allows one to explain and understand many of the problems and realities of the contemporary system of Western education. School education is viewed through the prism of certain parameters, united in the concept of “basic model of school education”. As the basic models, the author singles out the “Studium” school, traced back to the texts of the German school statutes, and the “Convictus” school, approved by the Society of Jesus (SJ). The criterion for this distinction is the normative
Keywords: Martin LutherSchool statute“Studium” schoolSociety of JesusRatio studiorum“Convictus” school
Despite some peculiarities, Russian school education belongs to the Western pedagogical tradition, which is confirmed by a number of historical facts. Thus, the first schools in Moscow appeared in the “German Quarter” (“Nemetskaya sloboda”, originally the site of the settlement of any foreigners) under the patronage of Ernest The Pious, Duke of Saxe-Gotha (1601-1675), a well-known philanthropist and patron of arts and sciences (Polyakova, 2014). Since the 17th century the works of the “brilliant” Erasmus of Rotterdam (1469-1536) had been actively translated and made use of in Russia (Sofronova & Romanova, 2017). The further development of the system of school education in Russia took place under the obvious influence of the German school tradition. A number of contemporary Russian specialists in the field of history of education view the Russian school as a product of the historical development of the European model of education.
In this connection, the question arises of understanding school as a kind of
All this allows us to emphasize once again the interdisciplinary and methodological pluralism of pedagogy as a science (Cambi, 2017, p. 410), which links together the functioning of school in the space of social structures, roles and status. In order to understand the importance of school in the life of society and an individual, as well as the possible prospects for the development of education in general, we have to concentrate on the following:
why school education is the optimal pedagogical way of solving them;
how school organizes
what the features of the
what pedagogical ideas, impressions, teachings, theories, concepts, technologies, techniques are embodied in school practice, how school practice influences their genesis and transformation” (APA, 2017).
Purpose of the Study
The elucidation and analysis of these issues within the framework of historical and pedagogical research will allow us to approach the solution of the basic question of pedagogy (the purpose of the Study): “... the question of how and how education, upbringing and training of a person can and should be organized on the basis of his/her maximum possible personal involvement in the pedagogical process and effective use of the available reliable knowledge of his/her upbringing and learning potential; available pedagogical methods and means of working with him/her; all types of available resources; needs and demands of all spheres of society (economic, social, political, spiritual) and its various entities and members” (APA, 2017). Also it determines the ways in which the reform of Western school education as a whole (Laeng, 2014, p. 27) should be carried out.
In this case, the
Hence, it is clear that modeling is a special way of studying a complex (pedagogical) phenomenon that allows a researcher to solve a number of problems of gnosiological, heuristic and prognostic character, and it is not without reason that this method is often used in modern pedagogical studies (Haris, 2018). In this interpretation, the
The formation of a social phenomenon that is an object of a special study, including the prototype of the model being created, can be traced on historical material. But historical approach is fraught with the danger of “
It is indicative that a similar understanding of the correct functioning of school was proposed much earlier (before Marrou and Becky) by John Amos of Comenius in his “Laws of a Well-organized School” (
At the same time, work and people are bound by certain bonds – by
It is quite clear that these are the same basic aspects that were presented in the Marrou and Becky scheme, where they were only formulated in a more abstract way (a model again!). In this respect, they differ little from the abovementioned questions which are central to our interpretation of schooling. First of all, they indicate that the study of school (school education) should be conducted in the
In other words, there is a certain scheme for studying the phenomenon of school education, which makes it possible to single out in the extensive historical and pedagogical material the so-called constructive principle linking the facts of the pedagogical past together in a chain of origin, formation, development, normative design and public recognition of the pedagogical phenomenon (school education). All this is passed through a certain educational practice, the manifestations of which allow us to identify key points, key aspects in the formation of the
Two models of school education
When distinguishing and characterizing these models, it is expedient to use the scheme described earlier. As indicated, the key
The first parameter: who (learns)
The framework of the
The “pupil-family” dichotomy is related to the inter-institutional relations of the child pupil and the family in which the first stage of socialization and education in general takes place. In accordance with this criterion, the educational institutions of the Reformation period, represented in Luther’s educational program (Polyakova, 2016), can be characterized in terms of regulation of “school leisure time” as “Studium” schools, since training in them was limited to several hours a day. This pattern was set down in numerous school statutes, which in turn were constituent parts of the Church Charters (
Jesuit collegiums are a typical example of the “Convictus” school, implying the constant presence of a pupil at school (except for summer holidays). Such a system did not take shape immediately and, most likely, was caused by the influx of pupils from other cities or even countries, many of whom could not afford to “rent a house”. Thus, the Jesuit collegiums solved one of their most important tasks, which consisted in teaching absolutely everyone, regardless of their financial means and even of their religion. In addition, it should be borne in mind that such an organization of the “common life” corresponded to the ideas of the Order and, in general, to the communal spirit of early Christianity, and also carried echoes of both the polis system and the Jewish unity synthesized by Christianity (Shmonin, 2016). Often the collegiums were a unified system of establishments that included a school, seminary (bursa), a church, dwelling houses (boarding houses), outbuildings (Lyavshuk, 2015), theaters (Mashevskaya, 2017).
It should be noted that both these
The “pupil-pupil” dichotomy reflects the organization of children inside school, their relations with each other and the division of pupils into classes. The need for age gradation of students had already been understood in the educational system of Ancient Greece. However, it is difficult to say whether school learners of those times were to stay at the place of training, or whether academic studies were regulated with respect to time. But it is quite certain that such a division took place in the 16th century with the German reformers, as is stated in the works by a friend and associate of Luther, Philip Melanchthon, who proposed to break children into groups which he called “Haufen”.
The Jesuit collegiums managed to borrow all the best aspects of school life regulation from their religious opponents and bring the organization of the
It seems that it is the “fundamental” approach of the creators of the
The “pupil-teacher” dichotomy belongs to the social aspect of school as an
German school statutes, in addition to imposing requirements for the teachers’ professional qualifications, prescribed special rules of conduct and a dress code. “Ratio studiorum” is on the whole a codified set of instructions for teachers, which even lists recommendations for teaching particular subjects.
The regulation of certain aspects of the teaching profession is a confirmation of the fact that the educational process in the era of the
The second parameter: how (by what methods) learning
Interpersonal relations in school are directly linked to the parameter “
The Statute pays much attention to the problem of discipline. First of all, the disciplinary organization within the pupils’ groups is worth notice. Thus, in
In “Ratio studiorum”, the idea of the methods of education is present everywhere – in substantiating the division of children into classes and within classes, in prescribing rules for teachers, pupils, etc.
As far as punishment is concerned, it should be noted that the Jesuits did not seek to use this disciplinary measure in the extreme form of corporal punishment. Even if such penalties were applied, they were not carried out by the teachers, but by laymen who did not belong to the Society of Jesus, – so-called
It can be seen that with respect to
The third parameter: for what purpose learning
Perhaps this similarity of models of school education is due to the invariant purpose that was pursued in the spread of education and the opening of schools both by the Protestants, beginning with Luther, and the Jesuits – namely, fostering a true Christian. It is through this purpose that the ideological component of these models is clearly expressed. The main thing that education has always striven for is the formation of a person, an individual,
From ancient times man had tried to pass his experience, property (including intellectual heritage), traditions, on to the younger generation – in other words, to socialize it. This was achieved by involving the younger members of a community in the life of the elders; yet, apart from participation in common activities; this required a certain special (theoretical) preparation. All this was reflected in various types of cultural succession –
By the 16th century in the Western world (Europe), the understanding of socialization had been implicitly entering a new phase: the profession-oriented interests, confined to the training of specialists who would be able to act under the new conditions of market-based culture associated with written language, merged with the objectives of Christianity, which was being renovated by the Reformation and Counter-Reformation. Both the reformers and the Jesuits had a twofold
The ideological (Christian) aspect of the school models coincides, regardless of the irreconcilable strife between the two trends in Western Christianity. But the confrontation of the two branches of Western Christianity and the two approaches to the organization of educational process produced a new entity – the Western school with its two basic varieties: the “Studium” school and the “Convictus” school. The fact that these models were formed precisely during the period of the highest confrontation of the competing Christian doctrines testifies, as it seems, that Christianity as a whole – the Christian world outlook and Christian ethics in particular – became, owing to a long historical, genetic, and civilizational development, essential attributes of Western culture, and the
This study demonstrates the potential of historical and pedagogical modeling through the construct of the
- Academy of Public Administration. (2017). Institutes of education, pedagogical ideas and doctrines in the history of human society. Moscow, DC: Author. [In Rus.]
- Becchi, E. (2016). The children of the Marrou. Studi sulla formazione, 19(2), 309-320. doi: 10.13128/Studi_Formaz-20218 [In Ital.]
- Cambi, F. (2015). Maria Montessori between epistemology and psychopedagogy. Studi sulla formazione, 18(2), 125-130. doi: 10.13128/Studi_Formaz-18019 [In Ital.]
- Cambi, F. (2017). The pedagogy as known today: the epistemically statute and the educational paradigm. Studi sulla formazione, 20(2), 409-413. doi: 10.13128/Studi_Formaz-22196 [In Ital.]
- Caputo, F. (2014). The pedagogical care as the helpful relationship. Topologik – Rivista Internazionale di Scienze Filosofiche, Pedagogiche e Sociali, 15, 115-138. Retrieved from http: //www.topologik.net/F._Caputo_Topologik_Issue_n.15_2014.pdf [In Ital.]
- Comenius, J.A. (1652). Laws of a Well-organized. Retrieved from: https: //www2.unimannheim.de /mateo/camenaref/comenius/comenius1/p3/Comenius_opera_3.4.html#s457 [In Latin]
- Comenius, J.A. (1651) School pansophica. Retrieved from: https: //www2.unimannheim.de/mateo /camenaref/comenius/comenius1/p3/Comenius_opera_3.1.html#s006 [In Latin]
- Dobrenkov, V.I., & Nechaev, V.Ya. (2003). Society and education. Moscow, AB: Infra-M. [In Rus.]
- Federal State Budget Educational Institution of Higher Education «Industrial University of Tyumen». (2014). Mathematical methods and models in management, economics and sociology (8th ed.). Tyumen, DC: Author. [In Rus.]
- Haris, I. (2018). Recontextualization of the Types, Forms, Strategies and Methods of Continuing Training in Enterprises as New Perspectives. Topologik – Rivista Internazionale di Scienze Filosofiche, Pedagogiche e Sociali, 23, 112-126. Retrieved from http://www.topologik.net/Ikhfan_Haris_Issue_23.pdf [In Germ.]
- Laeng, M. (2014). Tradition and innovation in the reform of the school. Studi sulla formazione, 17(1), 25-31. doi: 10.13128/Studi_Formaz-15026 [In Ital.]
- Lombardi, M.G. (2017). Space pedagogical in the encounter with the other. Studi sulla formazione, 20(2), 357-364. doi: 10.13128/Studi_Formaz-22192 [In Ital.]
- Lyavshuk, V.E. (2015). The Jesuit Collegium in the socio-cultural urban context on the Belarusian lands of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in 1569-1773: problems and results of the research. Vesnik Hrodzenskaha Dziarzhaunaha Universiteta Imia Ianki Kupaly. Seryia 1. Historyia i Arkhealohiia. Filasofiia. Palitalohiia, 203, 39-43. [In Rus.]
- Mashevskaya, S. (2017). Common and different in theatre systems of Comenius, Sturm and of the Jesuits. In S. Marchukova (Ed.), Heritage of Jan Amos Komensky: view from the XXI century. Materials of international scientific and practical forum’s (pp. 242-255). St. Petersburg: Petershule. [In Rus.]
- Polyakova, M.A. (2014). Andreas Reyher’s “Schulmethodus” and the first German schools in Moscow. Gumanitarnyj vestnik MGTU im. N.E. Baumana, 16, (p. 1). doi: 10.18698/2306-8477-2014-2-167 [In Rus.]
- Polyakova, M.A. (2015). On the problem of genesis of school in the system of institutions of socialization. Alma mater, 9, 57-62. [In Rus.]
- Polyakova, M.A. (2016). The formation of the basic models of schools in Western Europe in the XVI century. Kaluga, AB: Ejdos. [In Rus.]
- The jesuit Ratio studiorum. (1600). Dilinga, MA: Apud Ionnem Mayer. [In Latin]
- Shmonin, D.V. (2016). Graeco-Roman and Jewish religious components in the history of the formation of the Christian educational paradigm. Schole, 10, 183-195. Retrieved from https: //nsu.ru/ classics/schole/10/schole-10-1.pdf [In Rus.]
- Sofronova, L.V., & Romanova, M.V. (2017). Brief Autobiography of Erasmus of Rotterdam. Prepodavatel XXI vek, 2-2, 421-434. Retrieved from http://prepodavatel-xxi.ru/sites/ default/files/ PXXI_2017-2-2.pdf [In Rus.]
- Württemberg Church Order. (1743). Stuttgart, MA: Ben Christian Gottlieb Köβlin, Hof und Canβlen Buchdruckern. [In Germ.]
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.
About this article
Cite this paper as:
Click here to view the available options for cite this article.