Factors Influencing The Level Of Reading Strategies Of Fifteen-Years-Old Pupils In The Moravian-Silesian Region
The purpose of this article is to describe, analyze and evaluate selected factors influencing the level of reading strategies of fifteen-years-old pupils in the Moravian-Silesian region in the Czech Republic. The first part of the article defines the basic terminology of the research problematic, i.e. reading literacy and strategic approaches, which relate to the development of education of the reader. The second part describes the methodology of this research (research goals, research issues, research sample) and the starting points of quantitatively oriented research that uses structured interview with selected pupils. Research interested in the pupil's view of motivation to read, reader's creation, sources of information when working with text. Further describe the contemporary state of the researched problematic in order to find out the level of reading strategies of fifteen-years-old pupils in the Moravian-Silesian region. The research is also considering the processes of critical thinking and their application in working with the text and its comprehension.
Keywords: Communicationreading literacyreading strategiesunderstanding
In international and Czech pedagogical, cultural, social, and societal contexts, there is a clear interest in a functional understanding of reading literacy. Everyone’s readiness to live and succeed in an accelerated electronic age of information attack and an increase in knowledge of a different nature is also highlighted by many outputs from international literacy research focused on different age groups of the population (PIRLS, PISA, PIAAC).
The low level of reading literacy of fifteen-year-old pupils in the Czech Republic is repeatedly highlighted in the reflection of the results of the international reading literacy survey (PISA, 2000, 2009, 2018), as well as other analyses and evaluations of the results of regional research on reading strategies organized in the university environment, e.g. at the Pedagogical Faculty of the Palacky University in Olomouc (Vicherková, 2016).
Review of literature
Definition of reader literacy
From a didactic point of view, each person’s development is expected to have a certain increase in his literacy potential when working with a text. This concerns several strategic steps, from basic literacy connected with the decoding of key meaning levels in the written expression, along with the direction of processing the information through the process of elaboration in which, thanks to the reader’s activities of processing of the sought functional details, we begin the process of finding a complex solution to the reader’s problem, in co-operation with the operation of the inference of new information from the text, leading towards its comprehension.
In the text inference, we distinguish, by a specific level of knowledge, experience, and motivation, in order to make an effort to understand the text. Elaboration reflects the character of the divergence of individual thinking. At this stage, we can speak about already experiencing a personal reading dimension in order to enrich reading the text by a more complex knowledge apparatus, in conjunction with systematic education, and so-called “maturing culturally”. From the search and processing of the read information, we aim to reflect the acquired knowledge through active reading, using strategic thinking and problem-solving. We are talking about reading skills, which form part of communicative skills, competence to solve problems, and competence to learn, along with motivation for lifelong learning. The above aspects are part of the curricular objectives, and are included in the curriculum document of the Czech Republic in the FEPPE (2017).
Framework Education Programme for Primary Education (2017)
Readership development can be monitored from the first manifestations of literacy to elementary literacy, and further to basic literacy in which, according to Gavory (2002), each person gains or acquires an imprinting of functional literacy and, in connection with the termination of compulsory school attendance, becomes literate, but at different literacy levels. Taxation of the theoretical background to literacy growth has also brought other authors’ concepts, e.g. Tracey & Morrow (2012), Hejsek (2014), and others.
The level of a pupil’s functional literacy is also related to the alignment of their specific outcomes in relation to their formation of behaviour and self-concept. Directing emotional, motivational, and ethical feelings is a lifelong process. According to Mareš (2013), an individual at the age of fifteen is already aware of himself, and is interested in finding and using effective learning strategies. However, it is clear that the fifteen-year-old generation does not have motivational maturity, and seeks ways to justify what, why, how, when, and where to learn or not learn. Typical for this age is flexibility (not stereotype and inertia) in searching for diverse, effective/ineffective learning strategies, creativity, and skills in working with different learning sources and tools, frequent comparisons with other people, space-time planning for learning, the desire to be independent, and at the same time, to be able to co-operate in a team, and critically evaluate the quality of human relationships. At the end of primary education, pupils think about their future professional orientation, recognize their strengths and weaknesses, look for the causes of erroneous decisions, and learn the consequences of the next steps to learn to be responsible for their decisions, behaviour, and actions.
For there to be an effective learning process, it is important to find consistency between effective self-regulation and external control.
Strategic learning and self-regulation
The classification of strategic procedures in direct relation to self-regulation was elaborated by Hoferová et al., (1998, pp. 66-72, in Mareš, 2013, p.249). The author distinguishes learning strategies as: cognitive, metacognitive, leading to self-knowledge, motivational.
In agreement with other authors (Mareš, 2013, p. 244, modified by Paris, Parisová 2001, pp. 97-98), this research is inclined to believe that the development of reading comprehension of written information can use similar strategies as during self-regulation of learning.
An essential role in the development of strategic reading through strategic learning is played by the teachers’ teaching styles, while at the same time respecting the specification of communication situations in both in-school and out-of-school contexts. According to Fenstermachera (2008), teachers’ teaching styles can be categorized not only by different social roles, but also by the specificity and preference of individual practices for a particular educational purpose (objectives).
Today’s teacher has a rich array of teaching and communicative methods, strategies, and forms at his disposal to develop a pupil’s reading potential. Today’s progressive educational system in economically advanced countries has modernized general education by assigning a technological curriculum to its basic concept, thereby contributing to the transformation of the educational process, according to UNESCO’s original intent and the conclusions of the World Conference of Ministers of Education, with the programme direction aimed at the elimination of illiteracy (Tehran, 1965).
The preconceptions of pupils and adolescents in relation to comprehension in communication and functional literacy, as well as the art of leading participatory discussion in the international context, were also emphasized by Deyo (2018) and Harits et al. (2015). In agreement with the authors, we consider it important to activate pupils in constructivist lessons, so that the pupils themselves have the intention to strategically and critically learn with comprehension.
Therefore, it is clear that, in line with the PISA target focus, it is a social obligation and a challenge to observe, define, characterize emerging trends, needs in the knowledge and skills of fifteen-year-old pupils in different global geographic groups. Furthermore, it is necessary to identify and design a flexibly growing and changing range of knowledge and skill sets suitable for application to everyday life in all its phases, with respect to the future vision.
The PISA research projects are not primarily focused on verifying the knowledge of the curriculum, but on the ability of fifteen-year-olds’ knowledge and skills for use in normal life situations. Based on the quality of the results achieved in reading literacy (in the PISA survey), pupils are enrolled into six skill levels for the overall literacy scale. The PISA research methodology (2000 to present) classifies reading skills as: searching for information, overall comprehension and interpretation of the text, content and formal reflection of the text. In relation to reading skills, PISA distinguishes three readers’ scales, namely: obtaining information, processing information, and evaluating the text.
The link between outputs from PISA international research, research conducted at Palacky University (Vicherková, 2016), and this research, is their interest in factors influencing the regular concept of using reader strategies (readers’ intentions), reading skills (automated reader practice activities), and reader competencies (multilayer signs of the need to read).
The bases of this research include international PISA research and investigations (Vicherková, 2016). The observation of pedagogical reality in the education of the reader is a timeless task and a challenge to improve the level of reading strategies of pupils, not only in the Czech Republic, but also throughout Europe and the rest of the world. Also, for future research intentions, this is a current topic, with a timeless overlap.
Selected aspects of reading literacy research
PISA (2009) found that the Czech Republic (the Moravian-Silesian region) is among a below-average reading literacy countries, including Italy, Portugal, Spain, Luxembourg, Chile, Turkey, and Mexico. From the reading literacy test (PISA, 2009), it is clear that Czech pupils have fallen to the last third of the monitored final results.
The persistent dissatisfaction with the PISA measurement results (2000, 2009>, 2018) in a sample of fifteen-year-old pupils in MSR motivated the Ostrava research team at the Faculty of Pedagogy of the University of Ostrava (2018) to conduct a research survey of factors influencing readers’ strategies of fifteen-year-old pupils in MSR, according to the proven research methodology (Vicherková, 2016).
Above all, it is the interest of the monitored group of pupils in readers’ activities in reading instruction with proactive critical thinking of pupils (e.g. RWTC methods - Reading & Writing for Thinking Critically), the priority choice of respondents for the realization of diverse teaching methods (especially activation methods in working with text, but also classic and complex methods). Activation methods in teaching are assessed positively by respondents, as they reject the stereotype in teaching activities, and support the design of a reader-motivated climate, creativity, natural curiosity in reader-motivated interactive teaching, and so-called “peer-to-peer learning”.
By increasing the pressure to increase the pro-learning culture as a starting point for a learning society, the learners are considered suitable for interactive learning to be included as a successful reading activity.
Research has shown that pupils do not sufficiently think about the activity being carried out, and that co-operative forms of teaching are poorly implemented in the mother tongue. Furthermore, research has shown that work with a coherent, artistic text can be referred to as the most frequently used method in teaching the Czech language and literature. From the point of view of pupils, the work with different types of texts in the Czech educational reality is not sufficiently varied, and pupils often use a very poor range of reader strategies to comprehend the text.
Tracking and analyzing pedagogical practice in a target sample of respondents in MSR of the Czech Republic, focused on the development of fifteen-year-old pupils’ reading strategies in MSR of the Czech Republic, brought new insight into the state of reader literacy levels of pupils who are considered literate readers, even though their target comprehension uses the minimum of reader strategies, they often do not visit the library, and only read or think about the text to meet school obligations. The analysis of the text deals only with the teaching of the mother tongue, not with teaching activities across disciplines. Describing and reflecting the level of reader strategies of a selected sample of respondents by the meta-cognitive view of the monitored pupils themselves indicates which factors affect their reading strategies and reader literacy.
The need to understand written information in teaching and everyday activities is a necessary educational tool for every individual, both in the present and future society, and therefore this paper ask which teaching methods, forms, information sources, types of texts, reading activities, and other subjective and objective macro/micro factors influence the development of reader strategies of fifteen-year-old pupils in MSR of the Czech Republic, in relation to PISA research outputs and other previous regional research findings on related issues. Are respondents considered reader-literate, even though they are consciously unable to use reading literacy strategies?
Aim of the study
The aim of this study is to find out what the levels of readership strategies of fifteen-year-old pupils in the Moravian-Silesian region are, and to find out what factors influence the reflection of fifteen-year-old pupils when working with the text, that they are considered reader literate.
Firstly, I studied valid curricula, prescribed curricula, professional literature, and the outputs of international reading literacy investigations (PISA, and others), regional research on reading strategies aimed at the generation of fifteen-year-old pupils in MSR of the Czech Republic.
Following the observation of pedagogical reality, i.e. mother tongue teaching in MSR for selected fifteen-year-old pupils (2016/2017), I developed a positive review of the structured interview structure to develop a methodological framework for monitoring the level of readership strategies for fifteen-year-old pupils, and defining factors for reader strategies that have an impact on fifteen-year-old pupils. A structured, full-time interview with fifteen-year-old primary school pupils in MSR of the Czech Republic was used for the target diagnosis. The research tool (interview) contained 28 dichotomous item questions, which were presented by data processing in a table of frequencies and graphs, accompanied by expert commentary on the problematic investigated phenomena.
Targeting a structured interview was aimed at identifying pupils' views of problem areas, factors that may affect reader reading literacy and pupil reader strategies, such as pupils' ideas about using reader strategies to understand the text, pupils' ideas about sharing the reading information in the home and school contexts , pupils 'ideas about how to read at school, methods, forms and activities to promote text comprehension, pupils' ideas about the values and needs of reading the text, pupils 'ideas about the criteria for choosing reading books, pupils' ideas about books as sources of information, about the level of their reading literacy. The research survey was attended by 306 respondents, pupils of the 9th year of elementary school in MSR of the Czech Republic. The study was conducted from February to May 2018. The average age of pupils was 15 years old. Reliability of the findings was confirmed by Pearson’s Contingency Table Chi-Square Independence Test.
Methodological framework for determining the level of reader strategies for pupils, along with the factors that influence pupils’ reading strategies
The methodological framework of this research is a valid curriculum document, a Framework Educational Programme for Primary Education, which contains key learning objectives, content of education, and other binding measures and information for the implementation of primary education in the Czech Republic.
The development of reading literacy in mother tongue education in the Czech curriculum contributes primarily to three key competences: learning competences, problem solving competences, and communicative competences. Objectives, content, methods, forms, methods of measurement of identified problems in relation to reader education, learning conditions and diagnostics of teaching outcomes of the research conducted by us is based on the principles of developing reading literacy in mother tongue education for fifteen-year-old pupils.
Testing the selected research methodology
The pilot research was prepared according to the methodology proposed by us, and was implemented in February 2018 on a sample of 20 fifteen-year-old pupils of the 9th year of primary school in Ostrava. A structured interview was conducted with the pupils, the content of which was consistent with the concept of a structured interview with fifteen-year-old primary school pupils in MSR (Vicherková, 2016). In the pilot phase of the research, pupils could ask about possible problem phenomena, based on the concept of 28 questions on the factors influencing pupils’ reader literacy levels after the realization of the interview. Respondents (12 of the 20 respondents) agreed that they use the reader’s strategies to comprehend read information in the mother tongue randomly, non-systemically, and do not distinguish between reading skills and reader strategies. Pupils often prefer intuitive reading comprehension over work with text; they do not work intentionally with a diverse database of reader strategies.
Based on previous research experience from the research conducted at Palacky University (Vicherková, 2016) and the above-mentioned pilot research, repeated research using the same research procedure on a sample of 306 fifteen-year-old pupils in MSR of the Czech Republic was conducted from February to May of 2018. MSR primary schools, which were both rural and urban, were located in the following districts: Frýdek-Místek, Karviná, Opava, Bruntál, Nový Jičín, and Ostrava. Of the 358 elementary schools 60 were approached. Interest in participation in the research was shown by a total of 14 schools (from which there were 3 village primary schools and 11 town primary schools), which was an intentional selection of the ensemble. Data collection was performed on a participatory basis, using structurally processed items in an interview, through 2 contractors who visited the primary schools in MSR region.
The total number of respondents - pupils by district - is shown in the following table.
Presentation of selected assessments of the individual items of a structured interview
The issues of the structured interview into four categories, which is a definite statement on the influence of factors influencing the comprehension of written information:
the first category consisted of questions in which pupils reflected their personal relationship to books, the area of readership, and reading experience;
the second category consisted of questions describing the process methods of achieving pupils’ comprehension of the problem in the text, area of use of a varied/poor range of reader strategies;
the third category consisted of questions that identified the effects of factors in the context of the school, and their influence on the level of pupils’ reading strategies, the area of school context constraints, and reader comfort;
the fourth category consisted of reflexive questions about the mental values that reading brings, i.e. the area of reading reflection.
From the selected problem areas, I was interested in information as to whether the target group of respondents read for pleasure or for knowledge. A numerically lower group of fifteen-year-old pupils (184, i.e. 60.13%) replied that they read for pleasure. Group 196 (64.05%) of pupils said they read for knowledge.
Reading for pleasure is influenced by several factors of different natures. Objective factors include the family environment in which the pupils grow up. A reader-motivated family is a direct factor in creating a positive reading pattern for children. If reading for pleasure is one of the basic methods and priorities of a family’s lifestyle, it is the natural sharing, acceptance of certain reading habits and rituals, which are essential tools for the offspring for the future everyday life. It can be considered to be an imprint of pleasure and the interest in reading information as a lifetime need. Reading for pleasure in the family circle enriches the social, cultural, intellectual, communication, emotional range of expressions, values, ideas, attitudes, knowledge, skills, and thought processes. Pleasure from the reader’s experience shows the further dynamic effect of a number of objective factors of the macro-environment (in-school and out-of-school institutions), political, economic, and cultural influences.
Fifteen-year-old pupils are also influenced in reading for pleasure by subjective factors (emotions, intellect, moral maturity, flexibility, independence, etc.). The formation of a reader’s personality also includes the wealth of socially-reader-inspired contact (e.g. visits to libraries, discussions about read information with various people, and their frequency, sharing experiences with media adaptations, creative works, visits to exhibitions, concerts, theatre performances, and the like).
A smile before reading, while reading, and after finishing reading a book is the basis of positive metamorphosis for curiosity, rest, and the creation of a friendly climate with good relationships.
Reading for knowledge is influenced by the reader’s motivation to learn, knowledge, curiosity, desire for the unknown, interest in discovering context, new methods and content of the world. Reading for pleasure and knowledge is linked to the growth of key competencies. Reading for knowledge reflects the level of reader strategies and the relationship to the text as the bearer of factual information that the individuals should be able to look up, process, evaluate, find, and connect. Reading for knowledge also expresses the relation to educational media (textbooks).
Reading for pleasure and for knowledge is the expression of the relation to books as a means of passing on (transferring) traditions and social values.
Another issue is the number of read books per calendar year. A minimum limit of three read books per calendar year has been set. Two-thirds of respondents from group 186 (i.e. 60.78%), said they read more than 3 books per calendar year. This group of non-readers has a distinct low reading metamotivation and a lack of quality in communicative skills, which can be one of the factors for the failure of a person to solve problem situations in everyday reality.
The problem of respondents visiting libraries brought interesting data, in that group 145 (i.e. 47.39%) of them regularly visit the library. Visiting libraries is another factor in expressing the relation to books, the desire to read the text of their own choice, to enhance self-education by reading for pleasure, for knowledge, and for professional (school) obligations. Regular visits to the library, respecting the established library reading rules, shapes the personal, character, interest, intellectual, emotional, moral, and professional profile of the personality and its maturity.
One specific is also the problem circuit towards ownership of the library for respondents. From respondents’ answers, it is clear that two-thirds (185, i.e. 60.46%) of pupils own a home library. It is clear that the reader-motivated respondents have their own space at home, a place that is their intrinsic reader value, a wealth of thought, mystery, a territory that the individual protects, cares about, expands, etc., creating a reader’s anchor for the lifelong need for reading.
Only group 83 (27.12%) of the respondents revealed the existence of a person as a role model for reading in the family or in the school. Explaining the relationship of the respondent to a person who is a role model for reading books, in terms of both the number of books read and the quality of the books read, is a manifestation of socio-cultural and intellectual maturity. It is clear that the reader’s role model does not only work out of the context of the family and the school, but also the out-of-school environment, can be re-emerging, disappearing, and can change throughout the lifetime of an individual. The role model for reading may not just be a person, but could also a larger number of people, then they can differ in/match their internal and external qualities.
Other reading literacy factors (indicators) for pupils’ reading literacy can be assigned to the following reading strategies, which lead to the comprehension of written texts. This is a set of strategies of strategic thinking, e.g.:
149 (48.69%) respondents search for the main idea in order to understand the text;
only 65 (21.24%) of respondents make the structure of the reading text (outline);
only 123 (40.20%) respondents are asked to answer the questions;
most respondents (183, i.e. 59.80%) search for the context of the read information.
It is obvious that the active use of reader strategies is not rich enough for the respondents. A third group of pupils studied has no reader experience with activating and using reader strategies when working with and understanding a text. Effective coping with readers’ strategies in the process of reading develops critical thinking, influences vocabulary growth and logical sentence construction, textual structuring, and so forth. Three lessons and activities should be balanced in school teaching (text learning): information retrieval, information processing, information evaluation.
From the other evaluation of the items, it is clear that 132 (i.e. 43%) of the respondents discuss the read text, and 169 (i.e. 55.23%) of the respondents prefer to read about a certain topic or topics.
A major finding is that two-thirds of respondents (224, i.e. 55.23%) do not need a teacher’s interpretation to understand the read text. It is obvious that the pupils under study show a majority interest in self-study without direct participation of the teacher’s interpretation. In self-study, students independently control the time, space, amount, and frequency of information to process and evaluate, as well as motivation to learn, read, and understand the given text. The unilateral reception of information without providing feedback on the success of information comprehension, work with one source and one form of information, are risk factors for creating reader pitfalls in understanding the text, such as an impossible interaction with a competent person.
Other research findings have shown that:
there is a silent reading in the mother tongue, which was reported by 203, i.e. 66.34% of the respondents;
mother tongue textbooks are comprehensible to pupils (251, i.e. 82.03% of them);
one third of respondents (114, i.e. 37.25%) out of a total of 306 respondents only work with school textbooks;
half of the students surveyed (147, i.e. 48.04) only read books out of school obligation.
I consider key information to be that two-thirds (180, i.e. 58.82%) of respondents consider working with texts in school to be important for their everyday experience. This note confirms the finding that 211 (i.e. 68.95%) of respondents are helped by teaching activities to understand and remember the text. Interestingly, 187 (61.11%) of the respondents stated that reading and analysis of the text is dedicated only to the mother tongue.
Reading is a lifelong process, to which 218, i.e. 71.24% of pupils surveyed, have the same opinion, which is almost the same number of respondents responding as for confirming the opinion of pupils (214, i.e. 69.93 of them) that reading is in fact a lifelong need.
Finally, the majority of respondents (267, i.e. 87.25%) are considered literate, but 242 (i.e. 79.08%) do not consider books to be the most important source of information, and a mere 138 pupils (i.e. 45.10%) consider books to be friends.
The current electronic age is evidenced by the fact that 263 (i.e. 85.95%) of respondents report that they spend more time watching other media than reading books.
Assessment of hypotheses
The evaluation of the hypotheses (H1a - H1d) in relation to the inclusion of the use of a certain kind of reader strategy is the idea that the pupil is considered reader literate.
pupils who seek the main idea of understanding the text are considered reader literate more often than pupils who do not find the main idea of understanding the text; (hypothesis H1a)
pupils who, while reading, create the structure of the read text, are considered reader literate more often than students who do not create the structure of the read text; (Hypothesis H1b)
pupils who ask helping questions while reading are more reader literate than students who do not ask helping questions for comprehension of the text. (hypothesis H1c)
pupils who look for context in read information are considered reader literate more often than pupils who do not look for context. (hypothesis H1d)
The pupils responded to question B6 (whether they look for context in the read information) and question D3 (whether they think they are reader literate).
The hypothesis evaluations (H2 – H9) are shown below.
The fifteen-year-old pupils who said in a structured interview that they are reading for joy consider the book to be the most important source of information; (hypothesis H2)
The pupils responded in the interview to question A1 (whether reading for joy) and question D5 (whether they regard the book as the most important source of information.
fifteen-year-old pupils who, in a structured interview, said that they read for information, consider books to be the most important source of information; (hypothesis H3)
The pupils responded in the interview to question A2 (whether they read for knowledge) and question D5 (whether they regard books as the most important source of information).
fifteen-year-old pupils who, in a structured interview, state that when choosing a book they are affected by out-of-school activities, they are more likely to seek the context of the reading than other pupils; (hypothesis H4)
The pupils responded to question D4 (whether pupils are influenced by out-of-school activities when choosing a book) and question B6 (whether they look for context about the read information).
pupils who have a role model, discuss texts with other readers (at home or at school) more often than readers who do not have a role model; (hypothesis H5)
The pupils responded to question A4 (whether they have a reading role model in their family or school) and question A7 (whether they discuss the read text with someone at school or at home).
pupils who have their own libraries are considered reader literate more often than pupils who do not have a home library; (hypothesis H6)
The pupils responded to question A3 (whether they have their own library at home) and question D3 (whether they think they are reader literate).
pupils who have their own library read more books per calendar year than pupils who do not have their own library; (hypothesis H8)
The pupils responded to question A3 (whether they have their own library at home) and question A5 (whether they had read more than 3 books in the previous calendar year).
pupils who had read more than three books in the previous calendar year discuss with someone (more often than not) the read text (at home or at school) more than students who had not read three books in the previous calendar year; (hypothesis H9)
The pupils responded the question A5 (whether they had read more than 3 books in the previous calendar year) and question A7 (whether they discuss the text read someone with at school or at home).
pupils who study and analyze texts only in the mother tongue do not consider working with text (reading and text analysis) important for their everyday experience (everyday life). (hypothesis H7)
The pupils responded to Question C6 (whether they engage in reading and analyzing text only in the mother tongue) and question C4 (whether they consider work with texts in school to be important for their day-to-day activities).
All of the above hypotheses (H1 - H9) were accepted or rejected at a significance level of 0.05.
The research confirmed the effectiveness of the diagnostic tool to define the factors influencing the level of reading strategies of fifteen-year-old pupils in the Moravian-Silesian Region. The outcomes of the structured interview with pupils confirmed the fact that there is a contradiction between the majority of fifteen-year-old students of MSR of the Czech Republic that are considered reader-literate, and the resulting findings of international pupil testing outcomes (PISA, 2009) The Moravian-Silesian region was ranked below average, thanks to its results in testing the level of reading literacy.
The categorization of question items for structured interviews identified 4 problem areas as proposals for taxing the sorting of factors influencing the level of readership of fifteen-year-old pupils in MSR of the Czech Republic.
Hypotheses H1a, H3, H4, H5, H7, H8 were confirmed in agreement with the conducted research (Vicherková, 2016).
Hypotheses H1b, c, d, H2, H6, H9 have not been confirmed in accordance with the conducted research (Vicherková, 2016).
I am of the opinion that that the development of pupils’ reader strategies Particular attention should be paid to activating the learner when working with a text, for example by introducing RWTC methods into the teaching process, as it is demonstrated that RWTC methods develop pupils’ critical thinking, and also increase the effectiveness of the strategic processes in the reading comprehension process. Working with different types of texts, individualizing teaching, supporting the lifelong need and the desire of individuals to learn, motivating individuals towards diverse reading activities, these are all supportive factors in increasing reader literacy of the entire Czech population, not just the fifteen-year-old generation of MSR of the Czech Republic. Promoting reader education is an interdisciplinary element that promotes the development of intellect, but also social and soft skills, including the growth of values and attitudes.
Conclusions and recommendations
This study shows that the development of reading strategies, reading skills, and reading competences form an integral part of the development of key communicative competence (in line with the requirements and expectations of the FEPPE valid curriculum document, 2017, in the Czech Republic, and with worldwide trends in education in the field of reader education).
Attention should be paid to both external and internal factors that increase the growth potential of fifteen-year-old pupils in MSR, both macro and micro factors. In the mother tongue, it is advisable to include dialogic methods (Socrates, Heuristic Interview) as well as monological, e.g. narratives by the teacher, pupil/pupil, sharing of reading experiences, and their reflection. Activation methods, both classical and complex, are designed to create a wide range of practices used to develop reader literacy.
In the analysis of pedagogical reader’s reality through the eyes of fifteen-year-old pupils in MSR of the Czech Republic, research found that:
fifteen-year-old pupils use a poor range of reader strategies to understand written information, most often searching for the context of read information and searching for the main idea in the text;
it is alarming that fifteen-year-old pupils in MSR of the Czech Republic consider themselves reader literate, although this does not correspond to the level of their reader strategies and competencies;
fifteen-year-old pupils do not consider reading books to be a key source of information, or books as friends;
fifteen-year-old pupils understand reading information as an important skill for everyday life, even though, in their opinion, work with texts is mainly learned during school lessons;
reader literacy is understood by fifteen-year-old pupils as a process that develops throughout their entire lifetimes.
The key outcomes of this empirical research include describing the current state of reader strategies and reader education for fifteen-year-old pupils at primary schools, as well as describing, analyzing, and reflecting factors influencing the comprehension of written information by metacognitive and metamotivational views of fifteen-year-old pupils in MSR of the Czech Republic.
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