The modern stage of the hotel industry development in Russia is characterized by the search for the new methods of hotel management, the formation and implementation of resource-efficient policy at the state level and creation of the necessary conditions for solving energy problems. Hotel industry in Russia is based on indirect legal regulation of resource consumption, which actualizes the issue of motivating hotel companies to implement resource-efficient technologies. The main objective in such conditions is to combine the efforts of the two parties - the state and the hotels themselves on the basis of interaction and mutual benefit. Effective utilization of production resources by implementing modern technologies allows hotels to reduce their costs and increase profits. The resource-efficient activity of enterprises is beneficial to the state, which saves money allocated for the development of energy-producing and distributing industries, as well as for waste processing. The positive result of all efforts is directed to the rational use of resources and the fulfillment of needs of the hotel product consumers. Motivation of resource-efficient production in the hospitality industry is an element of the hotel production management, aimed at optimizing existing business processes in the hotel and it equally satisfies all participants of the hotel market.
Keywords: Hotel industryresource-efficient technologiesmotivation"smart house"environmental hotel managementenergy efficiency
By far, the introduction of resource-efficient technologies in a modern hotel is a non-alternative solution for reducing production costs in terms of variable expenses. The problem is relevant both for the hotels and for society, which always strives to create benefits with the least losses for the natural and social environment and for the development of the individual and personality. In hotels around the world, experts are looking for a solution to the complex task of reducing costs in absolute and relative terms for water consumption (Gabarda-Mallorqui, Ariadna, Garcia, Xavier & Ribas, Anna, 2017), energy and waste utilization. Data on 876 Russian hotels with environmental certificates indicate interest in resource-efficient technologies (Becken, McLennan & Char-lee, 2017) and find a relationship between all the parameters noted.
The environmental responsibility of hotels (Gonzalez-Moreno, Angela, Diaz-Garcia, Cristina, Jose Saez-Martinez & Francisco, 2016) is manifested in the use of resource-efficient technologies through the development and implementation of specialized programs that adapt the foundations of resource-efficient hotel management to Russian conditions. One of the elements is the application of the environmental hotel management system (Scholz, Petr, Voracek & Jan, 2016), which allows one to increase the environmental safety of hotel services, improve their quality while reducing costs, boost the energy and resource efficiency of hotel production, attract new groups of tourists, for example, traveling with the purpose to visit friends and relatives (Gorbunov, Efimova, Kobets & Kilinkarova, 2016).
Modern recession in the world economy, the reduction of affordable and cheap natural resources set the motivation for introducing resource-efficient technologies into the hotel business
The motivation for the implementation of resource-efficient technologies in the Russian hospitality industry is associated with economic benefits through reducing the cost of operating the hotel in the future, as well as the need to ensure the rational use of natural resources and decrease the environmental impact to an environmentally safe level (Patel, Pankaj, Guedes & Maria Joao, 2017). At the same time, resource efficiency should be viewed as a factor in increasing the economic potential of the Russian hotels in order to maximize the financial effect from the implementation of ongoing activities. The main areas for boosting resource efficiency in hotels are: improvement of technological processes, modernization of equipment used by various hotel divisions, reduction of direct resource losses, structural changes in hotel business technology, structural changes in the hotel service, organizational and technical arrangements (Alekseeva, 2015).
Green practices are becoming the conceptual basis of the hotel production
This happens at the global level of their value awareness, but each individual hotel is not always ready to spend money on "green know-how." Such costs take a long time to pay off, and not all managers are ready to restructure their thinking on green business (Al-Aomar, Raid, Hussain & Matloub, 2017). It is possible to single out a so called "smart house" system as a resource-efficient technology that allows one to provide comfort (including security), and resource efficiency for all users through automation and high-tech devices. It integrates the ability to recognize specific situations occurring in a hotel room, and react accordingly: there is a possibility to control the functioning of electrical appliances and heating according to predefined algorithms. An important role of the hotel's top management is assigned to supporting the policy of resource efficiency and meeting the requirements for environmental protection, reducing resource consumption by identifying possible energy efficiency reserves in hotels.
Along with foreign systems of environmental certification, used mainly in hotels of international hotel chains, which operate in Russia, there are specialized Russian programs such as "Green Key", "Leaf of Life". The paramount task is to move from a single experience to a mass one (Pecheritsa, 2013).
Stating the problem of motivating the introduction of resource-efficient technologies in hotel activities makes it possible to realize what is already working and what needs to be done. One is not able to move forward without recognizing what situation is the turning point of the decision. The result of creating the target motivation is the mechanism of stimulating and shaping the hotels’ interest in the implementation of resource-efficient technologies.
The need to introduce resource-efficient technologies is determined by increased competition in the hotel market, the complication of the process of attracting new segments of guests, the optimization of hotel business processes and the reduction in the costs of hotel production. However, the introduction of resource-efficient technologies is progressing at a slow pace, which is due to:
the priority of solving short-term tasks that leads to the achievement of local success (at the level of a particular hotel), but does not have a long-term perspective;
predominance of the passivity in thinking associated with the seeming inexhaustibility of resources, which does not allow one to quickly adapt to an efficient environmentally-oriented operation of the hotel industry in Russia.
It is advisable to start with the training and preparation of the hotel staff, the next step is to implement a set of measures to improve services, and, further, to receive green or ECO certificates for business to cope with ever-growing competition (Cingoski, Vlatko, Petrevska & Biljana, 2018).
Knowledge on the environment positively affects environmental concerns and resource-efficient behaviour
The interdependence between environmental knowledge, environmental awareness of guests, environmental problems and the environmental behaviour of employees has been established that acts for the introduction of green practices in the hospitality industry (Chan, Eric; Hon & Alice 2017; Okumus, Fevzi et al., 2017).
The main concept, designed to solve global problems of today, is the concept of sustainable development for hotels
This concept involves the reproduction of renewable natural resources used in the hotel industry, slowing the pace of exploitation of non-renewable natural resources, minimizing waste and reducing pollution. The main indicators for the successful implementation of resource-efficient technologies in order to provide sustainable development of the hotel industry are: a decrease in the natural resource intensity of the hotel product, structural determinants of the hotel industry development, changing consumer behaviour and consumer satisfaction.
Quality management systems in hotels contradict the introduction of resource-efficient innovations
To mitigate this situation, environmental regulation is needed that is based on the motivation of stakeholders (Prajogo, Tang & Lai, 2014). Resource-efficient technologies should appear in hotels as a result of internal and external motives. The internal ones are formed by the hotel itself, while the external ones are set by the environment, society and the state. State participation is manifested in the promotion of mandatory requirements, without which the hotel will not be allowed to operate on the hotel market.
The rapid change in the indices of environmental well-being in a negative direction requires the solution of environmental problems in all spheres of human activity. Hotels consume a significant amount of resources, especially electricity. In current (variable) costs, it is accounted for up to 40-60% (Patel, Pankaj, Guedes & Maria Joao, 2017). As it is unacceptable to reduce the quality level of the hotel product, so the acute issue on the agenda nowadays is how to combine the tasks of preserving natural resources and providing high quality hotel services.
There is a specific business feature in Russia: if there are no clear and effective laws, in such case the competition is not always fair. To get an advantage, hoteliers spend little on energy-efficient innovations, since their absence has almost no effect on the revenue, but the expenditure increases in case of their implementation. The state does little to encourage resource efficiency and does not punish, even indirectly, for environmentally dirty technologies. Consequently, an economic mechanism is demanded to stimulate enterprises to increase the efficiency of resource use.
The main economic goal is to combine increasing satisfaction of consumers’ needs with optimal allocation of the resources spent
In the Russian hospitality industry, the practice of utilizing resources has remained unchanged for dozens of years. But at present it is impossible to ignore the problem of the growing scarcity of environmental resources required in the hotel industry. This is water, electricity, gas for heating. In addition, the issues of waste disposal and wastewater treatment are becoming very acute. Thus, the question arises: how to regulate resource consumption so that the available natural goods are used most efficiently?
Green trends in the hotel industry, manifested in various ways, require the creation of a resource-efficient hotel managing system which is based on up-to-date environmental management
The introduction of resource-efficient technologies makes it possible to boost the competitiveness of the Russian accommodation facilities and positively influence the state of the natural environment. It is necessary to carry out a set of measures at the level of the accommodation facility aimed at increasing the competitiveness of the hotel and providing ecological comfort for guests. These events affect the managerial, technological and financial-economic aspects of the hotel and they are directed to reducing the harmful impact on the environment when reaching the main objectives of management. The introduction of resource-efficient technologies involves the transition of several stages:
achieving compliance with the national environmental standards, which are in line with global trends;
increasing the efficiency of natural resources utilization by hotels;
creating an integrated system of environmental management;
developing closed technological processes that implement existing technologies for waste separation and recycling;
exploiting alternative types of raw materials and energy sources in order to ensure the smooth operation of the hotel;
ensuring a corporate culture that combines the principles of resource-efficient thinking with environmentally beneficial production associations.
Even recognizing the necessity of introducing resource-efficient technologies, Russian hotels are slow to realize this in practice. So, the question is how to motivate stakeholders to do this under the same rules for the national hotel market. We believe that it is possible to link the state system of hotel classification in Russia and the system of standardization and certification in the hotel business with solving the problem of increasing the resource efficiency of hotels and sustainable use of limited natural goods.
Purpose of the Study
The task of transition of Russian hotels to the regime of resource efficiency cannot be solved only by the will and understanding of the hotel management. The participation of the state is necessary. The state is able to define the "rules of the game" in the industry market, which are mandatory for all "players". This will become a stimulus for the introduction of resource-efficient technologies, because not complying with such conditions, the hotel simply will not be able to operate. The ultimate goal is to identify the directions, the mechanism and the tools for creating motivation for hotel management to introduce resource-efficient technologies, combined with the principles of environmental management, ensuring effective use of the resource potential of the hotel company, taking into account the requirements of environmental safety.
The task is becoming urgent and requires a comprehensive approach to the solution, the core issue is the motivation for introducing resource-efficient technologies in modern hotels
In practice, a comprehensive approach can be realized through the creation of:
a regular system of search and implementation of organizational and technical measures for saving and optimizing the utilization of various resources consumed by the hotel, including goal-setting, planning, organization, monitoring, control of the results in the field of resource efficiency;
motivational regulators for introducing resource-efficient technologies in modern hotels.
It is necessary to analyze the impact of the recession in the Russian and world economy on the assessment of the resource efficiency for hotel production
Russian hotels should not only understand the importance and act to ensure the efficient use of hotel production resources; they should as well unite in finding solution, so that each hotel did not "reinvent the wheel" anew, but enjoyed the achievements of other market participants. It is necessary to create an information field for cooperation of the hotels in all regions of the country in the matter of resource energy efficiency.
A methodological approach to scientific analysis consists in identifying trends in ensuring operation of resource-efficient hotels in the Russian hospitality industry. On the basis of clarifying the real situation and hidden motives in the hotels, the authors suggest ways to achieve the goals that are considered the main ones in this study.
The following methods have been directly used: analysis, statistical generalizations, synthesis, the method of comparisons and analogies. A systematic approach has been employed to identify the impact of introducing resource-efficient technologies on the activities of the Russian hotels and a pragmatic approach has been applied in analyzing the issues of production management related to the resource support of hotel production.
In order to answer the questions raised, an analysis of the Programs for introducing resource-efficient technologies in Russian hotels in the largest national tourist arrival centers such as Moscow, the Krasnodar Krai (Gelendzhik), the Caucasian Mineral Waters of the Stavropol Krai in the North Caucasus was carried out (Kolchugina, 2017). The results of the analysis clarified the existing state of affairs on the problem discussed.
The creation and implementation of the social and economic development strategy in the hotel industry can serve as the motivation for introducing resource-efficient technologies. The factors that influence the ecological situation, where the level of hotels is fundamental for solving specific problems of resource efficiency should as well be taken into account.
Only large companies, often members of foreign hotel chains that have sufficient financial resources, continue to be interested in implementing resource-efficient technologies
The motivation for using resource-efficient technologies requires state participation. It is realized through mandatory classification, standardization and certification for the Russian hotels. So far, only the Krasnodar Krai, since 2014 (during preparation for the Winter Olympics) has legislatively introduced the mandatory requirement to classify all accommodation facilities in accordance with the scheme where resource-efficient parameters are to be set. For the introduction of this classification, it is essential to generalize experience and strengthen the environmental component of accreditation standards throughout the whole country.
Large hotels in Russia's tourist centers are already implementing such resource-efficient technologies as:
change of the lighting systems to energy-efficient ones;
the use of natural renewable energy sources (sun, wind) as an additional measure, and in some cases as the way of completely satisfying the heating needs (costs) of the hotel;
economical water consumption in the F&B structure;
integration of the "smart house" system into the hotel infrastructure and others.
Implementation of resource-efficient technologies is carried out in the following areas:
the use of environmentally friendly building materials in the construction of hotels;
installation of environmentally friendly furniture;
incorporating energy-saving technologies;
introducing cleaning substances and other sanitary facilities that are environmentally friendly and safe for the health of the personnel and guests;
employing recycling technologies;
reuse of water to irrigate green areas.
The hotels are employing the effect of these actions for further improving of production management, as well as in marketing purposes to attract new and retain regular guests.
The main conclusion of the study demonstrates the existence of objective necessity, as well as the possibility of real motivation for the Russian hotels to introduce resource-efficient technologies. The need is explained by the evolution of the natural environment, which gives resources for hotel production and the development of competitive market relations in the Russian and world hospitality industry.
Motivation in hotel activities is the key to achieving the mission and goals of the hotel
Motivation is provided by objective processes in the modern economy of Russia and the world. Only the hotels that are motivated to use resource-efficient technologies will be able to withstand the growing competition in the hotel market of Russia. Resource efficiency is the way to achieve the mission stated by the hotel.
The process of ensuring the interest of the top Russian hotel management in implementing resource-efficient technologies should be handled by the state
The main governmental structures regulating hotel activity in Russia are the Government of the Russian Federation and the Ministry of Culture, which includes the profile committee for tourism. The powers of these government bodies assume the development of a regulatory framework for stimulating the introduction of resource-saving technologies. At present, this process is at an early stage. Despite this, there has already been some experience in a large region (Krasnodar Krai, Sochi), which can be considered positive and used to further improve the mandatory requirements for modern Russian hotels. Specific activities include:
development and adoption of federal and regional regulatory legal acts in the field of resource efficiency;
a rational, balanced, synergetic approach to the use of natural resources;
creation and introduction of the newest resource-saving technologies and technologies of "pure" hotel production;
strict adherence of various accommodation facilities to environmental standards;
ecologization of consciousness (education) of the management system at all governmental levels (Efimov, 2015);
the use of financial and economic regulators system that ensures the profitability of resource-efficient hotel production;
tax, credit, fund promotion of hotels that have taken the path of creating an environmentally friendly hotel service.
An important incentive for the hotel business of Russia to adopt resource efficiency is the development of competition in the hotel market. The country is now reconstructing the geographical structure of potential tourist destinations, but at the same time, the global socio-economic processes in the industry do not change at all. The authors have revealed a close interdependence between internal and external factors that form the motivation for the introduction of resource-efficient technologies in the activities of the Russian hotels.
- Al-Aomar, Raid; Hussain, & Matloub (2017). An assessment of green practices in a hotel supply chain: A study of UAE hotels. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, 32, 71-81. doi.org/10.1016/j.jhtm.2017.04.002
- Alekseeva, M.A. (2015). On promising use of the resource potential of tourism and recreation industry in the region. Vestnik of Kemerovo State University, 2(62):7, 138-141. Retrieved from http://vestnik.kemsu.ru/jour/article/viewFile/1687/1664
- Becken, Susanne; McLennan, & Char-lee (2017). Evidence of the water-energy nexus in tourist accommodation. Journal of Cleaner Production, 144, 415-425. doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2016.12.167
- Chan, Eric S. W.; Hon, Alice H. Y.; & Okumus, Fevzi (2017). An empirical study of environmental practices and employee ecological behavior in the hotel industry. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, 41:5, 585-608. doi.org/10.1177/1096348014550873
- Cingoski, Vlatko; Petrevska, Biljana (2018). Making hotels more energy efficient: the managerial perception. Economic Research-Ekonomska Istrazivanja, 31:1, 87-101. doi.org/10.1080/1331677X.2017.1421994
- Efimov, A.V. (2015). The necessity for educational activities in the development of environmental tourism. University Readings – 2015. Materials of scientific-methodological readings of PSLU, 14, 48-52. Retrieved from http://pglu.ru/upload/iblock/8fd/10.pdf
- Gabarda-Mallorqui, Ariadna; Garcia, Xavier; & Ribas, Anna (2017). Mass tourism and water efficiency in the hotel industry: A case study. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 61, 82-93. doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhm.2016.11.006
- Gonzalez-Moreno, Angela; Diaz-Garcia, Cristina; & Jose Saez-Martinez, Francisco (2016). Environmental responsibility among SMEs in the hospitality industry: performance implications. Environmental Engineering And Management Journal, 15:7, 1527-1532. Retrieved from http://apps.webofknowledge.com/full_record.do?product=WOS&search_mode=GeneralSearch&qid=24&SID=C5G1z4AIZJ8X1dqVsSf&page=1&doc=1
- Gorbunov, A.P., Efimova, E.V., Kobets, M.V., & Kilinkarova, S.G. (2016). Perspective tools of the strategic management of VFR tourism development at the regional level. International Journal of Environmental And Science Education, 11:18, 10801-10815. Retrieved from http://www.ijese.net/makale/1466
- Kolchugina, T.A. (2017). The analysis of the environmental situation and measures to preserve the eco-balance on the territory of the Caucasian Mineral Waters. University Readings – 2017. Materials of scientific-methodological readings of PSU, 11, 132-137. Retrieved from http://pglu.ru/upload/iblock/0e4/pages-from-chast-11_26.pdf
- Patel, Pankaj C.; & Guedes, Maria Joao (2017). Surviving the recession with efficiency improvements: The case of hospitality firms in Portugal. International Journal of Tourism Research, 19:5, 594-604. doi:10.1002/jtr.2132
- Pecheritsa, E.V. (2013). Foreign experience of applying environmental innovations in accommodation facilities. National Interests: Priorities and Security, 34, 49-60. Retrieved from https://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/zarubezhnyy-opyt-primeneniya-ekologicheskih-innovatsiy-v-sredstvah-razmescheniya
- Prajogo, D, Tang, AKY, & Lai, KH (2014). The diffusion of environmental management system and its effect on environmental management practices. International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 34:5, 565-585. doi: 10.1108/IJOPM-10-2012-0448
- Scholz, Petr; & Voracek, Jan (2016). Organizational culture and green management: innovative way ahead in hotel industry. Measuring Business Excellence, 20:1, 41-52. doi:10.1108/MBE-12-2015-0057)
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
About this article
17 December 2018
Print ISBN (optional)
Social sciences, modern society,innovation, social science and technology, organizational behaviour, organizational theory
Cite this article as:
Alekseeva, M., Efimov, A., & Yefimova, O. (2018). Motivation For Implementing Resource Efficient Technologies In Activity Of Russian Hotels. In I. B. Ardashkin, B. Vladimir Iosifovich, & N. V. Martyushev (Eds.), Research Paradigms Transformation in Social Sciences, vol 50. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 1-9). Future Academy. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2018.12.1