In the conditions of cultural diversity, which is an undeniable advantage for Russia, a contextual and comparative-correlative study of Russian and national literatures (in particular, Tatar) is becoming the most productive approach to the study of literature at the University in the aspect of the dialogue of cultures (foreign literature as well). This involves the assimilation of spiritual and moral values of both your own native literature throughout its development, and other cultural worlds and civilizations on the basis of the principle of continuity and the change of certain literary traditions by others. Formation of professional qualities of the future teacher of Russian and Tatar literatures in the classical University is effective with the observance of general didactic principles, as well as specific methods and techniques which result from the specific character of teaching literature in the multilingual environment: contextual approach in teaching historical and literary subjects, interdisciplinary integration, work with translations of the works of Russian writers into the Tatar language and the works of Tatar writers into the Russian language, comparative-correlative analysis of literary texts, lecture-conversation, lecture-discussion, the resolution of the difficult situation (case-study, work in small groups, role play (dramatization), multimedia presentations, extramural excursions, etc.).
Keywords: Teaching methodologyliterature teachinginteractive educational technologiescontextual analysiscomparative-correlative analysis
Modern society imposes new requirements to literary education both at secondary school and at University. Such qualities of the personality of the future teacher-philologist as independence of thinking, the ability to make quick and professional decisions, creative thinking, mobility, creativity, the ability to orient themselves in the modern information space and also mastering interactive technologies of teaching are becoming topical. It is impossible to form professional qualities of the future teacher-philologist exclusively by means of pedagogical, psychological, methodical subjects, in this connection it is necessary to reconsider the forms and types of organization of educational activity of students when studying historical and literary subjects. It is necessary to increase cognitive activity of students-philologists, introduce active forms of training into the practice of teaching of historical and literary courses and also make a number of changes at the substantial (information) level.
The basis for the method of professional skills and abilities formation of students of pedagogical directions at classical universities is the personality-oriented principle of teaching, when mastering the subject is most effective in the process of students` active creative work at the conscious-creative level, involving the implementation of scientific ideas on the basis of individual research experience under the guidance of the supervisor.
In the process of studying such historical-literary subjects as: "History of the Russian literature", "History of the Tatar literature", "Literature for children ", "The theory of literature" students-philologists, future teachers of the Russian and Tatar literature, should learn how to replenish and deepen their knowledge in Philology on their own, have a good knowledge both of the texts obligatory for reading, analysis and educational and scientific literature, they should also show sufficient knowledge of scientific literature and good skills in literary analysis. As students learn more about the subjects of history and literature they acquire the ability to analyze the plot and composition of the book, the system of images, genre specifics, features of verbal and stylistic means of the works of art, to determine their place in the system and in the history of genres development.
In parallel with assimilation of the lecture course material, the main means of obtaining theoretical and historical-literary knowledge is students` work on their own with textbooks, monographs and articles on the subject, didactic materials posted on the electronic educational resource (EER) site of the Kazan Federal University. Skills are practiced at seminars and practical classes through commented reading and integral analysis of separate works of art of the Russian and Tatar writers of one genre, comparison of the works of various genres according to their main markers, comparison of the system of figurative and expressive means of the works and identification of stylistic formulas and individual techniques.
The essential feature of the effectiveness of professional skills formation of the future teachers of Russian and Tatar literature is their high level of knowledge of the subject. This will enable them in their future teaching activities to generate interest among secondary school pupils in literature and to achieve good results in subject learning. The effectiveness in mastering the subject is due to systematic and consistent character of studies of historical and literary subjects in high school, as well as the use of convincing facts about similar phenomena in the Russian and native (Tatar) literatures, their interrelations; identification of works similar in the subject matter and close in problem and genre relations, and also comparison of works, varying the overall theme on the different national material, ("horizontal" relationships).
The choice of the Tatar literature for comparative analysis is not accidental and is due to the thousand-year history of relations between the Russian and Tatar literatures, the long period of relationships between the Islamic and Christian cultures. This allows us to consider the centuries-old history of interaction of the peoples who traditionally lived on the same territory, and at the same time belonged to different ethnic groups, professing different religions, and developing in different socio-political conditions. Over the past two decades, literary scholars tended to consider the main stages of the development of Russian and Tatar literature and individual writers in the broad historical and literary context.
The question about interrelations of national literatures, including the Russian-Tatar inter-literary reception, is traditionally considered by comparative literary studies, the founder of which was Veselovsky (2006). Various forms of comparative literary studies (historical-genetic, comparative-historical, historical-typological, etc.) make it possible to trace the continuity of artistic values of different national literatures, typological similarities, to determine the relationships and influences of literatures.
A typological type of research dominates in the study of Russian-Tatar literary interrelations and it is based on the concepts of "common typological series" and "literary epoch", introduced into the scientific circulation by Neupokoyeva (1976). First and foremost, typological research suggests determining the conditions of origination and development of homogeneous literary phenomena and processes. This type of research allowed such Kazan literary scholars and linguists as Amineva and Ibragimov (2014), Amineva (2015), Ganiyeva (2002), Zagidullina and Amineva (2016), Nigmatullina (1997), Sayapova (1982), Zamaletdinov et al. (2014), Yusupova (2015) to consider the Russian-Tatar interrelations in the context of the system-complex study of the art and literature, within the framework of the integrative studies of social sciences and humanities, the interaction of conceptualism, methodology and research techniques peculiar to various areas of social science.
In the modern comparative literary studies the problems of typology of mental orientations as the basis of inter-literary similarities are actively considered. A significant achievement in the field of methodology and methods of comparative-correlative study of literatures is the distinction between the levels of their typological affinity. The first level is manifested in the structure of the work of art and reveals the similarities and differences of themes, plot, ideological concepts, images, genre peculiarities, compositional constructions, style, and forms of poetry. Therefore, when forming professional skills of the future teachers of Russian and Tatar literature, it is necessary to take into account the specificity connected with the fact that they have to work with children whose native language is Tatar, at schools, characterized by bilingualism and the concurrent study of Russian and Tatar literatures. This requires a specific approach to the implementation of traditional methods of teaching literature in the multi-ethnic environment, it should be connected with the study of native literature, with the assimilation of foreign (Russian) literature and theoretical concepts arising from the parallel study of native (Tatar) and Russian literatures.
The successful formation of knowledge and skills of students-philologists in literature assumes the observance of proper general didactic principles of scientific character, readily available presentation of literary and cultural material and continuity among all subjects studied by students at University, establishing the synchronic and diachronic interrelationships within the literary-historical subjects ("History of the Russian literature") and interdisciplinary connections ("History of the Tatar literature", "The theory of literature"), the comparison of translations of Russian writers into the Tatar language with their originals, as well as active implementation of the activity approach in teaching literature, interactive forms of teaching.
Special responsibility in solving the problems of aesthetic education and spiritual development of the younger generation is on the future secondary school and high school teachers of Russian and Tatar literature with native (non-Russian (Tatar, in particular) language of instruction. Poly-linguistic, multicultural environment of educational institutions of this type involves the choice of specific forms and methods of Russian literature teaching. Successful solution of this problem in Kazan Federal University is favoured by the active and systematic application of innovative and integrative principles of teaching Russian and Tatar literatures in practice of professional training of future teachers of Russian and Tatar literature for schools with education in native (Tatar) language.
What influences the formation of professional qualities of the future teacher of the Russian and Tatar literature?
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this paper is to analyse the process of implementation of innovative and integrative principles of teaching Russian and Tatar literature at university in the training of future teachers of Russian and Tatar literature under conditions of multicultural environment.
Aesthetic and philological education and upbringing are nowadays one of the most acute problems of school and University education. The scientific and pedagogical community expresses its growing anxiety about the significant gaps in the aesthetic and moral development of the young people. In these circumstances, a special responsibility in solving the problems of aesthetic education and spiritual development of the younger generation is on the graduates of the philological faculties of universities, including teachers of the Tatar language and literature, working at schools with teaching in native (non-Russian) language. Poly-linguistic, multicultural environment of educational institutions of this type is supposed to have a number of specific forms and methods of teaching Russian literature. In this case the problem of formation of students' humanitarian thinking, which is one of the prerequisites for the preservation and development of peoples` cultural heritage in the modern society, is actualized. The leading principles of mastering humanitarian knowledge by students are contextual and comparative-correlative studies of native (Tatar) and Russian literature and this assumes the development of spiritual and moral values both of their own native literature throughout its development, and other cultural worlds and civilizations on the basis of the principle of continuity and the change of some literary traditions by others.
The problem of interethnic interaction and multicultural secondary and higher education is relevant not only for educational institutions with the native (non-Russian) language of instruction. The peculiarity of Russia as a multinational state, the strengthening of migration processes in modern society made the issues of intercultural approach in education urgent. The problems of bilingual and multicultural education, preservation of linguistic and cultural diversity in higher education, as well as ensuring affordable and quality education were named among the priorities in the Communiqué "New dynamics of higher education and scientific research for the change and development of society ", approved by the world conference on higher education, held under the aegis of UNESCO.
In this regard, various aspects of intercultural approach in education are realized in Russia and the following problems are solved: "regardless of their ethnic and religious affiliation, to cultivate in children and the youth, personal responsibility and inter–ethnic tolerance; to increase the socializing and communicative role of the Russian language while concurrently developing multilingualism and the dialogue of traditions, peculiarities of national character and the perception of diversity as a normal condition of communication in the multi-ethnic environment" (Goryachev, 2011). For the effective solution of these problems there is a strong need in the specially trained staff of teachers of Russian language and literature, able to organize the process of literary education at school on the basis of the principle of inter- relationship of Russian literature with the world literatures and those of the peoples of Russia. Graduates of the Russian-Tatar department of the university are a good example of this approach to literary education both at school and university.
The specificity of the socio-cultural situation in the Republic of Tatarstan is determined by the system of bilingual education and the availability of a large number of schools, gymnasiums, where the educational process is carried out in the native (Tatar) language. At the same time a full knowledge of Russian and one of the foreign languages is guaranteed for this gives the students access to the Russian and the world culture. The dialogue of cultures is becoming the basis of the educational system at schools with the native (Tatar) language of instruction, contributing to the creation of a humanitarian cultural model of teaching literature.
At literature classes students-bilinguals can trace the dialogic relations between the Russian and native (Tatar) literatures. This method of teaching literature is based on the principle of the dialogue of cultures which was put forward by Bakhtin (1986), justified and substantiated in the research works of Bibler (1993), Cherkezova (2007), Khayrullin and Surzhikova (2015). It is applied to the specificity of teaching literature in the context of the dialogue of cultures.
Education and development in the process of studying the Russian language and literature define the problems of literary education at schools with the native (Tatar) language of instruction that are being developed by the following scientists-methodologists Mukhametshina and Galimullina (2014), Golikova, Zamaletdinov, Vafina, and Mukhametshina (2016), Ibragimov, Galimullina, and Shemshurenko (2017) also intercultural approaches are successfully employed, the effectiveness of which is revealed in a number of linguistic studies (Safin, 2015; Safonova and Erofeeva, 2016). Scientific studies allow us to scientifically substantiate and implement into the practice of school literary education literature lessons based on the dialogue between the Russian and Tatar cultures.
Questionnaire survey, observational data of the educational process organization at Russian literature lessons at schools with education in the native (Tatar) language, conversations with teachers and students of Tatar schools and high schools of the Republic of Tatarstan, as well as our own pedagogical experience allowed to formulate the problem of our research resulting from the contradiction between the new tasks of literary education and the old approaches to teaching modern Russian poetry at school. The aim of our study is theoretical justification and methodological development of the system of professional skills and abilities formation of future teachers of Russian and Tatar literature for schools with education in native (Tatar) language in the process of literary training of students in the conditions of classical University on the basis of contextual and comparative-correlative literature training and integration of historical and literary courses.
The study is based on the historical-genetic, historical-functional, comparative-correlative and typological approaches to consider the specificity of the embodiment of themes, problems, images in the Russian and Tatar literature at the synchronic and diachronic levels.
Successful study of Russian literature at schools with teaching in native (Tatar) language is carried out by the introduction of interactive and information technologies of training into the educational process, as well as by contextual teaching of literature on the culturological basis, the integration of pithy components of Russian and Tatar literature in synchronic and diachronic aspects and their relationships in terms of the ethno-cultural and bi-mental trend of literary education, and also the specific character of the perception of Russian literature by Tatar pupils as non-native (the phenomenon of transposition, interference, etc.).
Consequently, successful formation of the knowledge and skills in literature training of students-philologists involves the observance of general didactic principles of scientific character, availability of presentation of literary and cultural material, continuity among all subjects studied by students at University, establishing the synchronic and diachronic interrelationships within the literary-historical subjects ("History of the Russian literature") and interdisciplinary connections ("History of the Tatar literature", and "The theory of literary »), comparison of translations of the works of Russian writers into the Tatar language with their originals, and also implementation of activity approach in literature teaching, interactive forms of teaching (lecture in combination with students ' reports; multimedia presentations, made by students; role games; dramas; extramural excursions to literary places), organization of teaching of historical and literary subjects with the emphasis on the problem of literary traditions. Introduction of the regional component into the classroom and extracurricular work of the students studying at the department of Tatar Philology may have a pronounced effect in the study of Russian literature in the framework of the studied historical and literary subjects "Russian-Tatar relations; literary traditions" and "Russian and Tatar literature for children: the classical and the contemporary literature".
In practice of teaching Russian literature to students of national departments at universities the leading role is given to traditional forms of organization of the activity of teachers and students, namely, to lectures, practical classes, seminars, independent work of students, pedagogical practical work in accomplishing of which the elements of interactive forms of training are included: role-playing games (staging the novel "Marfa-posadnitsa" by N. M. Karamzin); mini-conferences (a practical lesson "The journey from St. Petersburg to Moscow" by A.N. Radishchev); solving the problem situation (an element of case-technology) at the seminar "Evolution of the genre walking / traveling in Russian and Tatar literatures" in the form of case-technology (analysis of the real situation), students analyze the question: "India in the perception of two medieval merchants Afanasy Nikitin and Ismail Bekmukhametov: Christian and Muslim mentality." In solving the problems of artistic method in the works of the Russian writers of the XVIII century (M. V. Lomonosov, G. R. Derzhavin, D. I. Fonvizin, A. N. Radishchev) the method of "brainstorming" is rather helpful allowing to discuss the problem in a dynamic form.
A teacher can summarize the results of lectures, workshops and seminars through oral discussions; exchange of views by the entire academic group (20 students), or in small groups (4-6 students); through a graphic image (drawing up tables, schemes (e.g. "Classicism", "Sentimentalism", "Pre – Romanticism"); in the form of "unfinished sentences".
One of the methods of reflection on the material studied can be a thematic crossword, created by students after their study of the monographic theme ("Creative work of F. Prokopovich", "Satirical work of A.D. Cantemir" or section of the subject "The Originality of Russian sentimentalism").
At practical classes the work can be organization both with the whole academic group (20 students) or in small groups (4-6 students), or in pairs, together with performances on the results of various types of students` independent work (reports on the problem of the class work, presentation of the abstract of the monograph, scientific article, writing an article or report, abstract, course work, master's thesis). Thus, the problem of literary traditions of Ancient Russia and of the XVIII-th century in the literary process of the Modern time generates scientific interest among students, as it is relevant for modern literary science, especially on the terms of comparison. Students-Tatars are also attracted by the chance to become familiar with the culture and literature of their native land. Thus, the regional, local material allows students to make creative, multimedia projects-presentations on the following topics: "Traditions of literature of the XVIII-th century in the literary process of XIX-XXI centuries" and "Russian-Tatar interrelations: literary traditions".
At the lessons of the optional course "Russian-Tatar relations: literary traditions" students work at the following problems that have not yet been studied in literary terms: 1. The problem of the Turkic-Russian dialogue in "The Word about Igor's regiment". 2. The image of India in the perception of the old Russian and Tatar merchants ("Walking beyond three seas" by A. Nikitin, "Notes..." by Bekmukhametov). 3. Images of rulers in the Russian and Tatar medieval literatures ("The Word of Igor's regiment"," The sermon" by Vladimir Monomakh, " Babakhan"," Idegey", "The tale of Yusuf" by Kul Gali). 4. Women's images in Russian and Tatar medieval literatures ("Yik Margan", Kotb" Khosrov and Shirin", Kul Gali, "The tale of Yusuf"," Tale of bygone years"," The Word of Igor's regiment", "The Story of Peter and Fevronia", "The life of Archpriest Avvakum"). 5. Artistic originality of the translation of the "The Word about Igor's regiment" into the Tatar language. 6. Educational trends in the Russian and Tatar literature of the XVIII – XIX centuries (on the example of creativity of M. V. Lomonosov, G. R. Derzhavin, G. G. Kandali, Chakry, etc.). 7. Originality of translations of the poems written by G. R. Derzhavin into the Tatar language. 8. The Tatars and other peoples of Russia in the travel notes of A. N. Radishchev "To Siberia" and "Siberia". 9. Translation of the novel "Poor Liza" by N. M. Karamzin into the Tatar language (R. G. Rahmati "Meskin Faiza"). 10. Translation of the N. M. Karamzin’s poem "Autumn" into the Tatar language. 11. Translations of the works of A. N. Radishchev into the Tatar language. 12. The evolution of the genre of travelling in Russian and Tatar literatures in the XI – XXI centuries. 13. The evolution of the genre of visions in the Russian literature of the XI – XXI of centuries. 14. The Tatar picture of the world in comparison with the Russian model of the world. 15. Specificity of formation of literary trends in the Tatar literature. 16. Classicism as an artistic method and literary trend in the Tatar literature. 17. Sentimentalism as a literary and artistic method in the trend of the Tatar literature. 18. Romanticism as a literary trend in the Russian and Tatar literatures. 19. Translations of Pushkin's works into the Tatar language. 20. Translations of Lermontov's works into the Tatar language. 21. A. A. Akhmatova as a translator of G. Tukai’s poems. 22. G. Tukai and Russian literature. 23. The role of K. Nasiri in the development of Russian-Tatar interactions. 24. The role of scientists and teachers of Kazan University in the development of Russian-Tatar literary relationships. 25. Traditions of satirical literature of the middle ages in Russian and Tatar literatures of XVIII – XX centuries (N. I. Novikov, D. I. Fonvizin, I. A. Krylov, M. E. Saltykov-Shchedrin, Tukai). 26. Leo Tolstoy and the Tatar literature. 27. I. C Turgenev and the Tatar literature. 28. Creativity of I. S. Turgenev and F. Z. Amirkhan: comparative aspect. 29. Creativity of I. A. Bunin and F. Z. Amirkhan: comparative aspect. 30. Poetry of A. Blok and Dardmend: General and private. 31. G. G. Iskhaki and the Russian literature. 32. Gorky and the Tatar literature. 33. Translations of Russian writers into the Tatar language. 34. Translations of Tatar writers into the Russian language. 35. Postmodernism in Russian and Tatar literatures. 36. Evolution of the image of the House in the Russian and Tatar literatures of XI-XXI centuries. 37. Images of Tatars in the works of Russian writers. 38. The images of representatives of the Russian and Tatar people in the works of Russian and Tatar writers.
Literature for children plays a special role in the formation of the student's personality. Unfortunately, in the present school curricula very little part is assigned to the literature for children and to the literature about children. The optional course "Russian and Tatar literature for children: the classical and contemporary literatura" allows Philology students, future teachers, to study the works of Russian and Tatar writers for children and works included into the list of compulsory reading for children from classical to modern times, and reveal the cases of typological convergence. The content of the course allows teachers to use interactive technologies: pair work and work in small groups when discussing the problematic issues: "The hero and antihero in the works of teenagers", "One in the field is not a warrior?", "Friendship, cooperation or confrontation?" (about the problem of the relationship between the world of adults and the world of teenagers in the modern literature). In the form of case studies students find solutions (analysis of the real situation) to the questions in the novel written by V. Zheleznikov "Scarecrow": "Is Lena Bessoltseva – a victim or a heroine?", "Is "crazy Evdokia" really crazy?" (The novel "Crazy Evdokia" by A. Aleksin), "Who is luckier: teenagers of the 1980s or the 2000s?" ("Time is always good" by E. Pasternak and A. Zhvalevsky). Children's poetry provokes great emotional excitement and cognitive interest in students. Students dramatize the poems by D. Kharms, K. Chukovsky, S. Marshak, J. Moritz, G. Sapgir, I. Tokmakova, V. Berestov, etc.
In the course of the study and during the training experiment at lectures and practical classes with students, we came to the following conclusions.
Formation of professional qualities of the future teacher of the Russian and Tatar literature under the conditions of classical University is effective with the observance of general didactic principles, and also specific methods and modes resulting from the specific character of teaching literature in the polylingual environment: a contextual approach in teaching historical and literary subjects, interdisciplinary integration, study of translations of the works of Russian writers into the Tatar language and the works of Tatar writers into Russian, comparative-correlative analysis of literary texts, lecture-conversation, lecture-discussion, problem solving (case-technology, work in small groups, role-playing games (dramatization), multimedia presentations, extramural excursions, EERs, etc.).
It is established that active and systematic realization of innovative and integrative principles of teaching Russian and Tatar literature into the practice of professional training of future teachers of Russian and Tatar literature for schools with teaching in native (Tatar) language assumes the following:
Multilevel, contextual approach and a moderate integration of subjects "History of the Russian literature" and "History of the Tatar literature", " Literature for children's ", as well as "The theory of literature", "Methods of teaching literature" and optional subjects: "Russian-Tatar interrelations: literary traditions", "Russian and Tatar literature for children: the classical and contemporary literature", etc.
Activity trend of the content and organization of teaching Russian and Tatar literature at the philological departments of classical universities, while maintaining the leading function of the traditional forms of organization of the educational process (lectures, practical classes, seminars, independent work of students, teaching practice) with interactive forms of learning: role-playing games, mini-conferences, elements of case-technologies, the method of "brainstorming", etc.), work within the framework of integrative optional courses ("Russian-Tatar interrelations: literary traditions" and "Russian and Tatar literature for children: classics and modernity", etc.), contributing to the creation of students ' positive motivation in the formation of professional qualities of the future teacher of the Russian and Tatar literature.
Acquiring at University such subject competences as: theoretical and literary concepts, analysis of the work of art, as well as the formation of the following professional competences of a teacher of literature: mastering of both traditional methods and techniques of teaching literature and also interactive learning technologies will contribute to the formation of a harmonious personality of the future teacher of the Russian and Tatar literature.
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05 September 2018
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Galimullina, A. F., Galimullin, F. G., Mingazova, L. I., & Arslanova, G. A. (2018). Innovative And Integrative Principles Of Teaching Russian And Tatar Literature At University. In R. Valeeva (Ed.), Teacher Education - IFTE 2018, vol 45. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 833-842). Future Academy. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2018.09.97