The issue of minors’ legal protection is of great importance in contemporary socio-economic realities in Russia, which is of particular relevance at the present time. A new threat to minors has appeared recently - their inclination to suicide. As a result of suicides, which increased in forty subjects of the Russian Federation, 720 children died in 2016. Of the 150 committed suicides in Moscow and near Moscow, most of the children jumped from the roof. In 2017, the staff members of the Bureau of Special Technical Activities of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation in social networks detected more than 200,000 publications calling for suicide. 12,000 users were identified, 234 criminal cases were initiated by internal affairs bodies, and 1,400 such kinds of crimes were disclosed. The leading approach to the study of this problem is the dialectical method of cognition, based on the use of dialectical materialist teaching. The article presents modern forms of suicide prevention in the children's environment, some aspects of the prevention of domestic violence against minors, which are often the cause of children’s suicide. The results of the re-search can be used by psychologists, teachers and police officers in the implementation of preventive activities to counteract the tendency of minors to commit suicide.
According to the International Convention of the United Nations on the Child’s Rights (adopted by the UN General Assembly Resolution 44/25 (Assembly, 1989), consisting of 54 articles (Soviet Journal of International Law, 1991), Government Decree of August 22, 1993. No. 848 ‘On the implementation of the United Nations Convention on the Child’s Rights and the World Declaration on the Survival, Protection and Development of Children’, and in accordance with Article 38 of the Constitution of the Russian Federation, motherhood, childhood and the family are protected by the state.
In 2017, the staff members of the Bureau of Special Technical Activities of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation revealed 5000 amateurs of child pornographPlease y in social networks in 79 countries, more than a hundred crimes related to child molestation and pornography were disclosed by the bodies of internal affairs (children aged 11-14 years and 7-10 years old, including those who suffer from a disorder of sexual preference (pedophilia) who are trying to get such work, where they can contact with children, for example, in school (Kudryavtseva & Eminova, 1995).
From 2000 to 2010 the number of sexual crimes against minors increased 30 times. According to social studies, 29% of boys and 34.9% of girls had violence sexual experience un-der the age of 15 years. According to the number of distribution of pornography, Russia occupies the second place in the world.
All this contributes to the growth of suicidal risk in the children's environment.
The bodies of preliminary investigation are trying to identify the creators of death sites - Internet resources, organizers and instigators, who orient children to self-murder and establish the motives that guide them (Petrov, 2017). The causes of this phenomenon are recognized: the lack of proper control by the family and educational institutions; aspiration for self-assertion, manipulation by coevals, gaining power, demonstrating superiority over other people, unquestioning fulfillment of even the most absurd tasks, informational attack on Russia, and violence against children and other close people. The problem of prevention of the latter acquires particular urgency in the light of the changes introduced in Art. 110 (‘Bringing to suicide’), art. 116 and 116.1 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation (hereinafter re-ferred to as the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation) with regard to the regulation of liability for beatings and other violent acts that caused physical pain and the supplements of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation. 110.1 (‘Declination to committing suicide or facilitating the commission of suicide’), art. 110.2 (‘Organization of activities aimed at inducing suicide’).
The motives for inducing children to commit suicide are low motives, ‘tsinizm’ (‘you do not want to die, one of your family will die - parents, grandfather, grandmother, brother’ or a favourite cat), the self-serving goal of coordinators of suicidal communities of material extraction benefits, motives of extremist orientation and persuasion (often perverted). Since July 2017, on average every week an administrator or curator of ‘death groups’ aged 13 to 23 years has been the detention, half of them are underage girls. Thus, a group of teenagers from Krasnodar, Novosibirsk, Khabarovsk, led by a 23-year-old girl from Khabarovsk and a teenager from Krasnodar (Falaleev, 2017), was convicted and detained for coercion to commit suicide of a girl under the threat of murdering her entire family. All this testifies that the issues of the prevention of child suicide are of relevance in modern conditions.
To identify the educational potential of the family in the field of prevention, correction of deviant and addictive behaviour at a minor age
Define modern forms of suicidal risk prevention among of minors
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the article is to identify the educational potential of the family in the field of prevention, correction of deviant and addictive behaviour at minor age, discussion of existing problems of mental health of children and adolescents with deviant behaviour and the search for new approaches to solve the problems of children’s deviations; formulation and justification of modern forms of suicidal risk prevention among of minors.
During the research, the following methods were used: theoretical (analysis, synthesis, generalization); empirical (study of normative and educational-methodical documentation); statistical method.
The empirical basis of the research was: scientific literature in the field of deviant, suicidal subject matter, addictive behaviour in children, normative documents regulating the issues of responsibility for the creation of ‘death groups’ and suicidal topics on the Internet (the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation, and methodical manuals, scientific articles on pedagogy, criminology and criminal law).
The methodological grounds of the study are based on the use of the dialectical materialist doctrine:
the declination of minors to suicide is a crime and is regarded as a social phenomenon, and therefore the methods of sociology and social psychology are used;
suicidal risks in children's environment are analyzed in connection with other negative social deviations and various forms of social pathology;
organizational and methodological support for the countering the involvement of juveniles in suicidal games, ‘death sites’ is the development and adoption of special regulatory acts of a departmental nature, methodological methods, and the conducting of appropriate classes on the prevention of suicidal risk in adolescents.
The methodological basis of the research was made up of the dialectical method of cognition, as well as general scientific and special methods of cognition - system-structural analysis, formal-logical, comparative-historical, concrete-sociological, formal-legal, historical-legal, comparative legal, statistical (method of the study of statistical data was used to decide how fully the official criminal statistics reflects data of actual attacks on life, health and sexual in-violability of minors).
The criminal law protection of minors from bringing them to suicide, inducing suicide or facilitating the commission of suicide and organizing activities aimed at inducing suicide, are devoted to articles 110, 110.1 and 110.2 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation. The genus object of these crimes is the person, the life of the person, the immediate object in our case is the life of the minor (normal development and upbringing is impossible without it).
The main object of crimes against the family and minors are social relations in the field of protecting the interests of the family and minors. An additional object is physical (corporal) and moral (spiritual) inviolability, as well as personal health.
The criminal actions of individual warning provoking suicidal behaviour are prosecution of the persons under Art. 110, 110.1 and 110.2 CC RF, as well as The Criminal Code of The Russian Federation articles with so-called dual prevention (murder threat grievous injury, involving minors in criminal activity, antisocial behaviour, and so on. (especially qualifying features above crimes are such as to involve a minor in these acts by violence or threats of its application (h 3, article 150 and Part 3. 151 CC RF), as well as its involvement in criminal group or in a grave and especially grievous crime (ch. 4, v. 150 CC RF).
Sources of information on those prone to getting the people to suicide are criminal cases, court sentences.
Analysis of literature.
126 persons in Russia and 1 person in Tatarstan were condemned for the forcible involvement of children in crime and in antisocial actions in 2009-I half-year of 2016. 658 per-sons in the Russian Federation were convicted under art. 151 of the Criminal Code in 2012-2015 and 25 persons in the Republic of Tatarstan were convicted in 2013-2015 (according to the Judicial Department under the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation for 2012-2015 and its Office in the Republic of Tatarstan for 2013-2015). In total for the crimes against the family and minors (united in chapter 20 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation), 512,960 persons were convicted in the first half of the year 2016 in the Russian Federation and 7022 people were convicted in the Republic of Tatarstan in 2009-2015.
The share of the total number of convicts for crimes against the family and minors also in-creased and varied from 2008-2009 to 2017, within the range of 4-5.1% (these crimes - chapters 20 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation - account for 5% of the total number of crimes committed by women (Kasterina, 2007).
The number of recorded attacks by adults on juveniles remains at a high level and amounts to: 227458 in the Russian Federation, in 1995-2015 under art. 150 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation; 540 in the Republic of Tatarstan in 1996-2015 under Art. 151 of the Criminal Code. 8889 in the Russian Federation, in 1997-2015; 124 in the Republic of Tatarstan (Data of Rosstat in the Republic of Tatarstan, n.d.).
The most dangerous manifestations of violent crime are recognized by Argunova and Yutskova (2001) as violent encroachments on the person (including a minor), since the child is recognized as a full-fledged person with all the rights and freedoms, above all the right to life, social and other rights, the share of which has been steadily increasing since the 20th century (their object is a person).
These include encroachments on life, human health, sexual immunity and sexual freedom of the person (rape - the proportion of children in some regions of the Russian Federation reaches 50%, compulsion to act sexually, violent acts of a sexual nature (including acts of moo-music for children), encroachment on individual freedom combined with violence as a means to achieve the goal (Argunova & Yutskova, 2001, p. 501) (every 15th child who suffered from a crime died or suffered serious bodily harm. The proportion of minors among those who received serious health damage in the Russian Federation ranged from 5 to 8% in 2001. According to the data of the Judicial Department under the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation in the first half of 2016 for ill-treatment with minors in Russia, 622 persons were convicted (Kulikov, 2016).
According to V.A. Sebrebryakova, violent crimes most often represent a certain way of getting rid of the recently close people (Argunova & Yutskova, 2001, p. 792). Thus, about 30% of murders, intentional infliction of serious harm to health are committed on domestic grounds, their victims are often relatives (8% - close relatives) of the criminal (Argunova & Yutskova, 2001, p.503). Most often, in relation between relatives, family members, domestic crimes (which are the most disclosed) are committed by alcohol abusers who lead an immoral lifestyle (Argunova & Yutskova, 2001, p. 502). There is always a close connection between drunkenness and the dynamics of violent crimes against life, human health (Argunova & Yutskova, 2001, pp. 501, 792).
In some cases, such criminal encroachments on minors are facilitated by abnormal family relationships (whose presence was confirmed by 30-35% of the interviewed criminals (Argunova & Yutskova, 2001, p. 796), one of the reasons for which is the decrease in real incomes of the population (for example, from 1991 to 1995 by 20%), leading to mutual sexual alienation of spouses (Valimov, 1983). This fact could not but affect the situation of women, families with children (Argunova & Yutskova, 2001, p. 791). Expanding processes in the field of family relationship leads, according to Evgeny Savinkova, to a deterioration in the conditions of family upbringing of children (Argunova & Yutskova, 2001, p. 771).
The research shows that 2/3 of unsuccessful families and juvenile offenders before the time of committing a crime were outside the control of law enforcement agencies (Argunova &Yutskova, 2001, p. 454).
Specific causes and conditions of domestic violence, which are one of the causes of juvenile suicide, lie mainly in the areas of the formation of the life of the adolescent: in the family and the school). Perfection of moral and psychological education in the family and school is of great importance in terms of preventing children from suicidal. In this regard, the recovery of the microsocial environment remains the initial stage of prevention of suicide in a children's environment.
Prevention of suicidal encroachments implies ensuring the principle of the inevitability of punishment for their commission (punishment is not only a legal concept, but also a general social one.) Thus, in pedagogy it is considered as a method of education (Sundurov, 2005, p. 6).
Some authors identify the notion of ‘prevention’ and ‘ prophylaxis’, the others interpret them as the prevention of crimes, and not criminality in general (Avanesov, 1984).
The purpose of a special warning can be considered as achieved if the person who commit-ted the crime not only during his punishment, as Shmarov (1968, p.62) stated, but then refrains from committing crimes.
With a special warning of suicide, minors from disadvantaged families, people without a certain source of income, who are below the poverty line are related to high-criminogenic groups. The subjects that are most not protected from physical violence -children, etc. are related to the highly-victimized groups). In the special prevention measures of early prevention, immediate or ‘secondary’ prevention of suicide are used.
There are following preventive measures of juvenile suicide presented in the literature: the federal level, regional and group preventive measures; measures to prevent individual criminal behaviour.
Individual prevention is aimed at: the circumstances that promote-out the crime); unfavourable formulation of the individual life in the domestic environment (primarily in the family); in the studying. The individual impact must be such that its intensity increases or decreases sequentially, depending on the results. To do this, methods of individual suicide prevention in the children's environment are used, such as persuasion, preventive and educational conversation.
The general warning is directed to all members of society, citizens of the state (Martsev, 1970, p.73), mainly to the persons who are predisposed and / or prone to antisocial behaviour. At the same time, the criminal law, with its prohibitions and punishments, is not indifferent to other citizens, they accept the information about what is recognized as a crime (Sundurov, 2005, p. 165).
Children’s addictive behaviour – addiction, bad habit; one of the special forms of destructive (destructive) behaviour, is expressed in the desire to escape from the surrounding reality through a special change in one's mental state. This is a kind of transient suicide. Gambling addiction in its logical conclusion makes the child to choose between life and death. Deviant auto-aggressive behaviour of adolescents is: delinquent anti-right, antisocial, anti-disciplinary, auto-aggressive: self-harming, suicidal thoughts.
The study allowed to make conclusions about the need:
carrying out preventive measures to counter: involving children with unsustainable, inclined to commit offenses, in such deadly games as ‘roaming’, ‘zatseping’; the provision of tools and means to commit suicide, the organization of the Internet and social networks of suicidal games, mobile applications such as ‘fairy’, ‘run or die’, ‘transfer money or die’, etc., the billing system ‘Thor’ so-called ‘closed forums’, ‘death groups’ (the statement that the manipulation of minors originates from any one center, has not been confirmed by the Minis-try of Internal Affairs); establishing their administrators and coordinators, provoking children to commit suicide;
strengthening supervision activities over the implementation of the current legislation to identify Internet resources targeting children for suicide by the Federal Service for Supervision in the Sphere of Communications, Information Technology and Mass Communication, which should notify law enforcement authorities about the facts of detecting prohibited con-tent;
reports to law enforcement authorities of the detection of prohibited content;
implementation of the norms of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation on criminal liability for slope-by persuasion, bribery, deception or blackmail of children who have played up to suicide, as well as for the promotion and moral and psychological pushing of juveniles to suicide.
Parents and teachers need to pay attention to the cuts on the hands, the presence of tattoos depicting whales, which may indicate children’s dependence on suicidal play. In such cases, it is advisable to follow the recommendations of police psychologists: to calm the child and talk tactfully with him about the detrimental effect of such a game.
Thus, the punishment for inducing juveniles to commit suicide should be consistent with the situation of the perpetrators of the society and the real opportunities for educational and corrective treatment.
The legal protection of minors presupposes the need to identify circumstances related to the living and upbringing conditions of every minor, his state of health, other factual data, as well as the reasons for the commission of criminal offenses, in order to take measures provided by law to achieve the maximum educational impact of the judicial process in relation to minors.
The problem of antisocial actions of minors requires further in-depth analysis, since their antisocial behaviour is a danger not only for society, but for themselves, as it forms the wrong worldview and habits.
The work is performed according to the Russian Government Program of Competitive Growth of Kazan Federal University.
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05 September 2018
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Mulyukov, F., & Ibragimov, A. (2018). Modern Forms Of Minors’ Suicide Prevention. In & R. Valeeva (Ed.), Teacher Education - IFTE 2018, vol 45. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 661-668). Future Academy. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2018.09.77