Today in the Russian Federation there are about 800 thousand drug addicts. And they are only those who cost on the corresponding account. By informal calculations about 6 million Russians permanently use drugs, at the same time average age of familiarizing with drugs in Russia doesn't reach 25 years. Cases of the drug use by children of 6-7 age are known. With drugs they are acquainted by parents – addicts. In this connection it is difficult to overestimate formation at future teacher of law of competences in prevention of not medical consumption of psychoactive substances (surfactants). The formation of these competencies allows to make a significant contribution to counteract the spread of ideas of loyal attitude to the use of psychoactive substances. As a result, they will serve as an effective mechanism for the formation of a healthy social environment in modern society. The purpose of article consists in scientific justification and allocation of criteria of formation at future law teachers of competence in the sphere of counteraction to not medical consumption surfactant at pupils and prevention of drug addiction in young people. In the article the factors actualising a problem of formation of counter-narcotics stability among young people are allocated and ways and means of formation of counter-narcotics competence of future law teachers are offered.
Keywords: Counter-narcotics stabilitycounteraction to not medical use of drugsprevention of drug addiction
Consumption of psychoactive substances, perhaps, one of the most discussed problems in modern society and it is quite explainable. At all sharpness of a question, the normative definition of the concept ‘psychoactive substance’ is absent. Federal law from December 24, ‘On Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances’ (Government of the Russian Federation, 1997) regulates the concept of ‘new potentially dangerous psychoactive substances’, at the same time, the legislator avoids formulations of intrinsic character and, in fact, is limited only to sending to the register of such substances.
Within this work we do not pursue the aim of elaboration of such definition though, in our opinion, it would be quite logical and expedient. Studying and development of the ways and methods counteracting consumption by the person of any psychoactive substances excepting their application on medical indications is of much bigger interest to us. By psychoactive substances we mean alcohol, drugs, psychotropic substances, their analogy and precursors.
The international independent non-profit organization The World Justice Project (WJP) annually conducts large-scale researches for the purpose of the index of the rule of law definition in a number of the countries of the world. According to the official report from 2016 (Gubaidulina, 2018), the Russian Federation occupies the 92nd place in the specified rating out of 113. At the same time crimes in the sphere of drug trafficking occupy the lion’s share from the total number of criminal actions and in no small measure influence rating indicators of this sort.
The special social danger is constituted by the use of the above-stated substances at early age. Statistical data of teenage alcoholism in Russia are unfavorable, i.e. two out of three teenagers systematically consume alcohol (Teenage drinking. Reasons and consequences, 2013).
The strengthened toxic impact of alcohol on an organism of children and teenagers has been empirically established by doctors at the end of the last century. Medical literature of the end of XIX – the beginning of the XX century abounds with examples of the hardest poisonings and deaths at people of this age group. Modern researches allow claiming reasonably that in an organism there are no such bodies and fabrics and in general such level which toxic influence of alcohol would not affect. Alcohol at the molecular level interferes with natural chemical processes of the person: synthesis of proteins, carbohydrates, fats, breaks fermented metabolism. Having got to an organism, it is rather slowly split in a liver, and only 10% of it is brought out of an organism in not changed form. The physiology of the teenager is characterized by high permeability of fabrics in a type of their saturation water; in this connection alcohol quickly spreads on all organisms. Considering the stated, it can be imagined what loss even single consumption of alcohol can bring to health, without speaking about its sharp negative impact at the systematic use.
As for the drug addiction problem, today in the Russian Federation there are about 800 thousand drug addicts. And it only those who cost on the corresponding account. By informal calculations about 6 million Russians permanently use drugs, at the same time average age of familiarizing with drugs in Russia does not reach 25 years. Cases of the use of drugs by children 6-7 years old are known. They are acquainted with drugs through their parents-addicts (The department of narcology and psychotherapy of Institute of professional development of FMBA, n.d.).
Such modern realities as smoking mixes and new synthetic drugs also aggravate existing situation. It should be noted that drug trafficking forms special social environment in which valuable orientations of the personality are considerably deformed. Special attention representatives of drug trafficking pays to young people as optimum for drug culture distribution. It is known that demand generates the offer. And demand for psychoactive substances, unfortunately, does not weaken. As result their numerical options are multiplied, their chemical properties, ways of realization and other are improved. The accompanying element of this negative social phenomenon is the crimes committed in connection with their consumption or caused by need of their realization.
Thanks to the considerable efforts of the state, educational and public organizations directed to prevention of the use of psychoactive substances fight against drug trafficking, psychotropic substances, their precursors and analogy and also to cultural development of a healthy lifestyle the quantity of dependent was reduced. However, despite the traced tendency of decrease in cases of not medical consumption of psychoactive substances, it is difficult to overestimate value of need of formation at younger generation of resistant ‘immunity’ to different consumption of intoxicants, they will build our future. The ability to resist to negative impacts and manifestations in everyday life gains the special importance because promotes formation of the full-fledged healthy personality. It becomes obvious that it is difficult to overestimate value of ways and means of counteraction formation to consumption of psychoactive substances.
As the first acquaintance to alcohol and drugs often happens during training in the organizations of secondary and higher education, one of the effective mechanisms of fight, in our opinion, will be formation of socially useful behaviour at students expressed in understanding of scales of negative impact of psychoactive substances by them and desire to render feasible assistance in prevention of their consumption. For achievement of an objective at students it is necessary to create set of the personal properties leading to permanent refusal of the use of psychoactive substances in any situations. In other words, our purpose - the counter-narcotics and anti-alcoholic stability of the individual reached due to awareness of importance of a healthy lifestyle and negative impact of all types of psychoactive substances on a human body..
To reveal the role and place of formation of anti-drug competence in the system of prevention of non-medical consumption of psychoactive substances
Purpose of the Study
Scientific justification and allocation of ways and means of counteraction to not medical consumption of psychoactive substances and formation of counter-narcotics competence of the living in future teachers of law.
Analysis of scientific literature on the problem of research, generalization, study of the legal framework.
Authors of the concept ‘counter-narcotics stability’ mark out knowledge of negative consequences of drug addiction (Altynbayev, 2006). We carry to their number not only the medical aspects connected with the description of the harm done to health to the person but also legal aspects. So, for example, awareness of weight of the illegal acts connected with illicit trafficking in drugs and psychotropic substances allows realizing fully also public danger of this negative phenomenon. In the course of training of students, emphasis of their attention on the analysis of history of the counter-narcotics legislation, the extensive list of normative legal acts of statistical information and other special sources on the corresponding subject form at them extremely negative attitude to psychoactive substances.
The strategy of the state counter-narcotics policy of the Russian Federation till 2020 specifies that one of the preferable directions of counter-narcotics activity is inclusion in the main and additional educational programs of the general education organizations, the professional educational organizations, the educational organizations of the higher education and the organizations of additional professional education of sections for prevention of abuse of psychoactive substances (Government of the Russian Federation, 2014).
Considering the specified recommendation, by office of legal education of law department of the Kazan federal university to the program of training discipline ‘Legal bases of counteraction of consumption in not medical purposes of drugs and psychotropic substances and fight against their illicit trafficking’ has included. Besides a problem of studying of standard instructions in the field, the objectives of formation of counter-narcotics and anti-alcoholic stability are achieved.
During studying of this discipline as one of types of independent work students carry out preparation of reports on any of the offered subjects: ‘Legal bases of prevention of consumption of psychoactive substances’, ‘Connection between drug addiction and crime’, ‘Drug addiction as negative social phenomenon’, ‘Responsibility for commission of crimes in alcohol intoxication’. Thanks to such work students consider a large number of scientific and special literature and also study the publications in mass media devoted to the analysis of negative impact of psychoactive substances on a mental and physiological condition of the person. Such vigorous cognitive activity happens under control of the teacher and guarantees the correct perception of the studied material. Besides, during the whole time of studying of this discipline the idea of negative impact of psychoactive substances on safety and health of modern society stands out.
Before studying of degree course students were offered to pass the anonymous poll devoted to identification of their relation to problems of consumption of psychoactive substances. Students did not sign questionnaires and did not do in them any additional marks. Similar survey was conducted in the end of the specified course.
Results of the research have shown that the relation of students to consumption of psychoactive substances has changed from ‘neutrally negative’ to ‘actively negative’. Practically all students have expressed importance and need of informing teachers or parents on the facts of the use of psychoactive substances (especially narcotic) their friends and acquaintances in case they become known to them. The achieved results are of great value. We will note that among respondents before studying of discipline there was no pupil who is positive to abuse of psychoactive substances that in no small measure is a merit of state policy of the Russian Federation pursued in the field of prevention of consumption of psychoactive substances. At the same time direct work with students within studying of the course designated above has allowed to strengthen and create at them a steady position of denial of any actions connected with abuse of psychoactive substances, readiness and ability to actively resist to this evil.
Thus, inclusion of similar disciplines in training programs of the educational organizations will allow not only to execute instructions of regulations in the sphere of counteraction to consumption of psychoactive substances that strengthens internal control of pupils (Buslayeva, 2009), but also substantially will increase the level of counter-narcotics and anti-alcoholic stability of students.
At the same time, considering specialization of the graduate ‘Teacher of law’ and special orientation of his future profession, knowledge and installations gained by him as a result of development of the designated discipline will allow to carry out effective preventive activity at school, influencing minds of younger generation.
Involving as lecturers the staff of various departments, directly or indirectly carrying out counteraction to drug trafficking including law-enforcement will allow increasing efficiency of formation of a socially active position of denial of consumption of psychoactive substances among students. The similar practically focused approach will give, in our opinion, very positive result. The authority and trust to public authorities and her representatives in the student’s environment will be strengthened. Besides, considering the preparation received by students the expedient moment will be inclusion in the program of student teaching holding out-of-class actions by students at the schools directed to prevention of consumption of psychoactive substances. Students need to hold the specified events under control of the supervising teacher and school psychologist. Such approach will guarantee efficiency and the acceptability of the stated material taking into account psychological features of school students. In our opinion, similar actions can become significant addition of prevention of psychoactive substances abuse with minors system.
The offered concept of formation of counter-narcotics competence can be successfully used at preparationexperts in the field of law. Achievement of the maximum educational results will be possible when using electronic educational resources. Thanks to what the following aspects will be enhanced: interactivity of training, visualization of educational information, a possibility of modeling of the studied object, openness for introduction of data and compactness of storage. However it must be kept in mind that unsystematic use of electronic educational resources can result in information glut of educational process which will perhaps lower the level of digestion of material, emergence of cognitive loading, copyright problem, etc.
Including in educational process of new electronic tutorials will be successful at their competent and high-quality use.
As electronic educational resources are innovative means of education, they cannot be realized fully at traditional model of training. New methodical decisions should be looked for among modern developments of teachers, methodologists in the field of technologies of modern education. Among such advanced pedagogical technologies it is possible to note: dialogue technologies (debate, discussion, round table, dialogue lecture, ‘an open tribune’); the personal focused technologies (workshops, master classes; Person technology); technology of an advanced lecture; technology of the educational presentations; technology of development of critical thinking through reading and the letter; technology of drawing up mind maps; technologies of reflexive activity, etc. (Isupova, 2012).
Besides, it is necessary to consider that one of tasks of future lecturer in law is solving the problem situations. The problem situation is the condition of intellectual difficulty, set of circumstances generating need of making decision on actions which are directly or indirectly connected by implementation of instructions of the legislation. It is possible to reveal a problem situation based on the analysis of social reality, assessment from right positions for the purpose of its realization. Solving the problem situations is carried out by means of stages:
The first stage is identification which includes the purposeful analysis in a certain field of activity or the relations which promotes identification of these or those shortcomings, their ratio with the right, professional competences and realization of the right in practice.
The second stage is the formulation of a problem situation: the profound analysis of the facts, use of legal means when checking conclusions, consideration of possible difficulties at the solution.
The third stage is permission of a legal task, including determination of precepts of law which regulate legal relationship, adoption of the right legal decision.
This decision has to be reasonably proved. In the argument the statements conducting to a solution are necessary. They have to be proved from a position of the fact and the right. Arguments which are embodied in the legal decision have to be guided on the legislation, judgments and own positions.
- Altynbayev, S. A. (2006). Medical aspects of counteraction of drug addiction in the Republic of Kazakhstan. Pavlodar.
- Buslayeva, M.Y. (2009). The psychologist – pedagogical conditions of formation of emotional stability of students of teacher training college (Doctoral dissertation, Chelyabinsk State Pedagogical University). Retrieved from http://www.dslib.net/psixologia-vozrasta/psihologo-pedagogicheskie-uslovija-formirovanija-jemocionalnoj-ustojchivosti.html
- Government of the Russian Federation. (1997, December 24). On Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances. Retrieved May 18, 2017 from https://www.global-regulation.com/translation/russia/2941954/on-narcotic-drugs-and-psychotropic-substances.html
- Government of the Russian Federation. (2014, July 1). Russian State Antidrug Policy Strategy. Retrieved May 18, 2017 from http://www.eegyn.com/pdf/Russian%20State%20Antidrug%20Policy%20Strategy.pdf
- Gubaidulina, E. M. (2018, February 1). Problems of interaction of civil society and judicial authority in the Russian Federation. Paper presented at the International scientific and practical conference on current problems of reforming of the modern legislation, Samara, RF.
- Isupova, N. I. (2012). Methodical features of application of electronic educational resources. Modern problems and ways of their decision in science, transport, production and education: collection of the proceedings of International scientific and practical conference, 4(23), 92-96.
- Teenage drinking. Reasons and consequences. (2013, August 22). Retrieved from http://www.blogoduma.ru/detskij-alkogolizm-v-rossii-statistika
- The department of narcology and psychotherapy of Institute of professional development of FMBA. (n.d.). Drug addiction statistics. Retrieved from http://www.doctornik.ru/stat-nark.
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05 September 2018
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Teacher training, teacher, teaching skills, teaching techniques
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Gubaidullin, A. A. (2018). Formation Of Counter-Narcotics Competence Of Future Teachers Of Law. In & R. Valeeva (Ed.), Teacher Education - IFTE 2018, vol 45. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 628-633). Future Academy. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2018.09.73