Actuality of work is conditioned by the height of juvenile criminality that sharply puts a question about a search and development of new methods of fight against deviant behavior of teenagers. An aim of work is a selection of such organization of lessons of right that would promote in parallel along with mastering of legal norms fall the level of a teenager predisposition to illegal behavior. Based on this provision, a special form of presentation of material was worked out on a lesson. A method supposed creation on the lesson of conditions, that would compel students to compare the punishment supposed by them for a crime with really got one. The arising here highly emotional state probably could appear the good instrument of a preventive correction of teenager predisposition to illegal behavior. Verification of this supposition was realized through the use of the test "Propensity to deviant behavior". A pedagogical experiment with the classical scheme using experimental and control groups was conducted. The experiment results confirmed the effectiveness of this method as a means of preventive correction of adolescent deviant behavior. In the majority scales of the test students of the experimental group showed a significant improvement for the value of the corresponding indicators.
Keywords: Deviant behaviorcrimerightlessontestingexperiment
A fight against child's deviations requires the clear understanding, what is it, what they can arise up from, and what ways in this process of fight against them are optimal.
Deviation is a certain form of deflection from normal behavior. A social norm may be considered as some social instrument that in the concrete terms of people life regulates their activity (Kleiberg, 1994). Deviations from normal behavior can have two forms – positive and negative. The first not only is not dangerous for society, but even vice versa, society is interested to use this form because it is a creative activity. The second form, opposite, carries to society negative potential that is why society counteracts to it. Such forms are offences, criminal acts, alcoholism, drug addiction and so on.
By virtue of the age-related features and terms of life certain part of teenagers exhibits a predisposition to the active acceptance of such asocial forms of behavior. Causes of this are hormonal alteration of a teenager personality; uncertainty of his position in the family and society; the difficulties that arise with the change of a social control mechanism. In general, such phenomena are typical for all adolescents, because the teenager feels himself as the adult. It is possible to talk about deviance only when a teenager demonstrates the socially-negative behavior constantly (Kondratiev, 1997).
Among reasons of teenager asocial behavior psychologists usually names violations arising from the making and development of their personality (Bozhovich, 2001). In psychology a long ago the circumstance is noticed, that sharpness and peremptory opinion of a teenager very closely neighbors with his uncertainty and doubts. This is explained by the fact that the adolescent's comprehension of moral principles, because of his insufficient intellectual maturity, is being carried out slowly. From one side, he tries to come from the moral principles, and with other, - sometimes sees unconscionable flexibility of worldly norms of adults. This circumstance causes adolescent's internal protest that shows up sometimes in form of delinquent behavior (Obuhova, 1996). In addition, in this teenager age there is aspiration to become firmly established in a group. That is why for the sake of acquisition of authority in a group teenager often exhibits inwardly ready to step over through existent social norms (Belicheva, 1993). Aspiration to be noticed by a group, become the idol of Internet, pushes teenager to acts, from which the most "inoffensive" is to make injuries himself, and also to use other forms, more socially unacceptable. So an illegal act arises, a transgression, for which the modern Russian criminal statute is envisage the term of stay in penitentiary establishments. Unfortunately, the teenager himself very often does not see in the performed act antisocial action, because he simply does not realize the abnormality of their behavior (Muhina, 2006).
It ensues that from the specific of adolescent's age-related development, its delay, certain infantilism, such teenager accomplishes misconduct that can destruct all his life. This circumstance impelled us to take up the search of means, that able to prevent the using by teenager of the described higher hasty asocial actions.
Сorrectly build a research methodology.
To organize and carry out an experiment
Give an analysis of the results
Purpose of the Study
The problem to pick up such form of organization of the lesson of right was set, which through the actively carried out educational work among students in the field of criminal statute had to allow the level fall of predisposition of teenagers to illegal behavior.
Basing on said above, a research method was worked out. The main idea was a next supposition: mostly a teenager commits a crime because of the ignorance about what legal consequences from it he may be expected.
An experiment was built in accordance with the classic model of a pedagogical experiment - with two groups, experimental (25 persons), and control (20 persons). In a control group teaching of right was conducted by a traditional method. In experimental – by consideration, analysis by students the real criminal cases of the crimes of their coevals and expression by them the suppositions about got by persons involved in these crimes punishments. Only after completion of such discussion with a class the real judicial verdict was announced. We considered that difference in a degree between supposed by students criminal punishment and really got by the person involved in examined a court case could serve as emotional factor, the "emotional cudgel", which was able to promote responsibility of students for the possible wrong actions. The estimation of predisposition to deviant behavior was realized by means of the test "Propensity to deviant behavior". This test is intended to assess the adolescent's inclination to implement various forms of deviant behavior. There is the scale for each of these forms in the test. Points of a questionnaire cover all sides of life of teenager, his character and habits. The names of scales are next.
Scale of set on socially-desirable answers.
Scale of propensity to overcome norms and rules.
Scale of propensity to addictive behavior.
Scale of propensity to self-destructive behavior.
Scale of propensity to aggression and violence.
Scale of volitional control and of emotional reactions.
Scale of propensity to delinquent behavior.
A test is intended for work with teens and has two forms, masculine and woman variants. In each of two groups, experimental and control, a testing procedure conducted twice: preliminary, before the realization of corresponding educational influence, and control – after that. An experimental base was high educational school in Kazan city. For the work two ninth classes were attracted in an experiment, 9 A and 9 B. The first class was used as an experimental group, the second executed a role of control one. An experimental group consisted of 13 boys and 12 girls, control included 11 boys and 9 girls.
Mean values for boys are presented in a table
Let us conduct the analysis of a data on every scale individually. In an experimental group after the conducted experimental influence results on the scale of set on socially-desirable answers fell down. This suggests that in the process of work, between the experimenter and the subjects established good, friendly relations that allowed pupils to behave more openly and naturally, that inevitably had gave a positive effect on the results of the experiment.
In a control group students initially was not inclined to hide the positions and in subsequent for them the same looks remained.
On the second scale, scale of propensity to overcome of norms and rules, at students of experimental group a very substantial change happened towards lowering of such inclination, grew out aspiration to act only in accordance with an existing in society moral and rules. In a control group changes on this index practically did not happen.
The scale of propensity to addictive behavior showed an improvement of this parameter in an experimental group, while in a control group data remained unchanging. Thus there is an improvement of a social control of students over their needs, when they are in the addictive states.
A fourth scale, scale of propensity to self-destructive behavior, also talks about the happening improvement of values of this index in an experimental group. In a psychological plan it means, that at students the role of complex of guilt fell down in their behaving reactions, they began better to realize the value of a life, more often are thoughtful about the consequences of the life. In a control group similar changes were not observed.
A substantial change happened in an experimental group on a fifth scale, characterizing propensity to aggression and violence. It is necessary to say that an experiment initially educed the tendency of experimental class students to work out problems by means of power methods through application of a humiliation of a partner as an instrument of confirmation of the self-appraisal. After the work of experimenter with the group a value of index on the scale fell down and appeared near to the high bound of the norm. Changes did not happen on this parameter in a control group.
In the scale of volitional control of emotional reactions (sixth in an index list) reveal substantial positive changes in an experimental group also. Although students are in the zone of good emotional comfort, however the role of emotional component in their behavior is very great. This indicates on their desire to rely on their negative emotions, sensual attraction in the behavior. After the conducted experiment these values fell down to the lowered level, that talks about the strengthening of the degree subjects of self-control over their behavior.
In opposition to an experimental group, in a control group the value of index on the scale not only did not become better, but even vice versa, its worsening happened.
The last, seventh scale, scale of propensity to delinquent behavior, reveal the following. If in the control group the scale value appeared unchanging, then in experimental one it substantially displaced to the positive side. It means the next. After the work, carried out as a result of the experiment, the overwhelming majority of the students in this group came to realize the negative consequences, to which leads the violation of the established by society rules of life. This result characterizes a very positive effect chosen methodology of experimental work. In a control group the value of index did not change.
Thus, summarizing the results of the experiment with regard to the sample of boys, we can say the following. For all scales, characterizing the adolescent's penchant for implementing various forms of deviant behavior, the use of the proposed new method of teaching students at law lessons as a means of reducing their deviance has proved own effective. Although the level of such influence for all scales is different, the general trend, however, is positive.
Let us now find out, what extent such an effect will be manifested in the sample of girls to.
Mean values for girls are presented in a table
We will begin with the first scale - scale of set on socially-desirable answers. An interesting tendency came to light here. If in an experimental group after teaching students by means of new method this index fell down insignificantly (that indicates on small rising of their frankness), then in a control group at the repeated testing the value of this index grew strongly - from 44,0 to 48,7. We give such explanation to this phenomenon. Information about the experiment, being conducted in the school, caused alarm in sensitive female souls of the control group and compelled them to their more careful reaction.
Similarly to boys, for the girls of experimental group, though in a less degree, a lower index happened of the second scale, characterizing propensity to overcoming of norms and rules. In other words, they appeared a desire to behave more respectably. In a control group no changes happened here.
In a scale 3 (propensity to addictive behavior), as well as in a scale 4 (propensity to self-destructive behavior) neither in the experimental, nor in control group distinctions in value index at the primary and repeated testing did not come to light. Apparently, it can be explained by that girls, unlike boys, firstly, initially more obedient and majority from them not inclined to violate the existent rules of behavior, and secondly, from nature they are more careful and prudent.
The change dynamics of indexes value between the primary and repeated testing in both groups on scales 5, 6 and 7 are interesting. If on the scale of propensity to aggression and violence (fifth scale) in an experimental group the value of index went down, i. e. was being diminished motive to operate more aggressively, then in a control group aspiration to such acting in an experimental period only grew.
An analogical picture, only in the yet more brightly expressed form, is observed in a control group on a scale 6 (scale of volitional control and of emotional reactions) and on the scale 7 (propensity to delinquent behavior). We suppose that such changes of these two scales are closely associated with each other and the number increasing of delinquency girls is conditioned exactly by their weak volitional control of own actions. A taking place fact talks also about the ineffectiveness of traditional method of teaching of right as an instrument of reduction of antisocial behavior for teenagers.
Unlike a control group, in the experimental group value of a sixth scale did not changed, and on a scale 7 it became even better substantially, i. e. delinquent potential of girls in this group diminished. Thus, in a woman group, though in a less degree than in masculine, an experiment also showed the positive results.
Our experiment specifies on practical expediency of application of the lesson higher described model. There is possible because the lesson not only affect the intellectual sphere of teenager psyche, but also creates a strong enough involuntary emotional influence, which acts on him. Proceeding from this, it is reasonable to recommend a more wide using the proposed form of the lesson in the process of teaching law in schools.
Finally, by the goal of teaching law lessons in school should not be only a general legal education, but also effective and interesting for students organization of lessons in the vitally important for them sphere of criminal statute. For their subsequent fate this has a very large practical significance.
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05 September 2018
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Teacher training, teacher, teaching skills, teaching techniques
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Yusupov, F. M. (2018). Law Education As A Means Of Lowering The Level Of Deviant Behavior. In & R. Valeeva (Ed.), Teacher Education - IFTE 2018, vol 45. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 588-593). Future Academy. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2018.09.68