The relevance of the problem of the article is due to the fact that volunteer support for people with disabilities is sufficient; however, despite all possible attempts to form the attitude of society to the disabled as equal, they are not always taken in full. One of the areas of interest to us was the organization of volunteer support for adults on the basis of hospitals and children of preschool age in the shelter. The possibility of support and organization of assistance in the practice of the future specialist requires not only a high level of formation of psychological and pedagogical, but also other professional competencies for the effective correction of psycho-emotional, speech and cognitive functions of children and adults with special needs. The purpose of the article is to develop methodological techniques and organization of professional activities of specialists. The leading method for the study of this problem is the method of modeling, which allows considering this problem as a purposeful and organized process for the improvement of professional, special competencies. The structure of the presented work includes the target, content, organizational and procedural and effective components. Optimization of the model of differentiated approach to the organization of speech and psychological assistance to children and adults with special needs is given.
Keywords: Compendium of volunteer supportchildren with special needssocial interactionadults with special needs
The relevance of the study is in the socialization and psycho-emotional support of children and adults with special needs in recent years, increasing attention is paid to non-drug means (Nosov, 2010). Among these tools are methods in the practice of a psychologist, which are successfully used in the correction and prevention of functional (social, communicative and psycho-social patterns of dysontogenetic development (Hecht, Bogolepova, & Sorokina, 2001). However, the use of these methods for social interaction is difficult and ineffective. The reason for the low efficiency of the methods is that the basic principle of these methods is the paradigm of direct support, when a specialist is tasked with simple patient care without mutual assistance, without a comfortable psycho-emotional state.
In this work, we have tested an example of interaction and support of children and adults with special needs . Social adaptation of patients in society is difficult, as evidenced by the increasing levels of socially dangerous actions, loneliness, and unemployment. In this regard, there is an urgent need for the development of rehabilitation programs and their implementation in the practice of training of future specialists, on the example of psychologists (Chernikova & Sapronova, 2009).
The aim of the project was to organize the work of the creative platform at the regional vascular center Emergency Hospital of Naberezhnye Chelny and at the Child care center specialized for orphans to accelerate the psycho-emotional and physical rehabilitation of patients by engaging in volunteer work of disabled people on an equal basis with healthy people (Dzhunusova & Kurmashev, 2002).
What is needed for the successful implementation of the creative platform specialized for orphans to accelerate the psycho-emotional and physical rehabilitation?
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the article is to develop methodological techniques and organization of professional activities of specialists.
Research methods: the following research methods were used in the research process: analysis of normative documents and products of activity, method of mental experiment, forecasting, systematization and generalization of facts and concepts, study and generalization of experience, diagnostic methods (Cohen, Manion, & Morrison, 2002).
The experimental base of the research: the Regional vascular center, Emergency Hospital of Naberezhnye Chelny and Child care center.
The study was conducted in three stages:
- at the first stage-the preparatory stage – we analyzed the current state of the problem in psychological theory and practice; and developed a program of research methods;
- at the second stage-the main stage-the state of psycho-emotional, speech and cognitive sphere of children and adults with special needs was studied, priority diagnostic materials were selected; experimental work was carried out to test the effectiveness of the project in the practice of the future psychologist;
– at the third stage – the final stage-the systematization, understanding and generalization of the results of the study were carried out; theoretical conclusions were clarified; processing and execution of the results of the study were carried out.
Structure and content of the work:
The developed approaches in the practice of future specialists of the psychologist include the target (goals, objectives aimed at overcoming psycho-emotional stress in people with special needs); methodological (approaches, principles); content (direct conditions of the organization of volunteer support); organizational and procedural (psychological and pedagogical mechanisms, organizational and pedagogical conditions, scientific and methodological support) and effective components (performance indicators).
The introduction of this technology involved the following stages of experimental work:
- Implementation of diagnosis: gnosis, praxis, speech status, emotional state assessment using self-assessment test HAM (Health, Activity, Mood) and Spielberger – Hanin test (STAI), hospital scale of anxiety and depression, MMSE, expert assessment of doctors and psychiatrist - for adults. Additional components of the assessment of mental state of patients: neurodynamic processes (understanding of instructions, execution time), attitude to the test (diligence, negligence, passivity, indifference), emotional state;
- Development and implementation of scientific and methodological support of practical bases are carried out. At this stage, a pilot test of the implementation of the project of support for persons with special needs was carried out.
At the ascertaining stage of the experiment, diagnosis was carried out: 36 children and adults (18 children and 18 adults) were examined. Concomitant diseases are occurred in 98.2 %, both in the control and in the experimental group. As a result of the assessment of the General emotional state, the state of General anxiety was obtained: 82% in the control group and 80% in the experimental group. The number of patients who complain of memory impairment is 44% in the control group and 49% in the experimental group, respectively. Complaints of asthenoneurotic nature, which were noted by almost all, vegetative regulation, in the examined was mainly due to sympathetic dominance. The main indicators are presented in Table
There were no significant differences in the state of psycho-emotional profile in the control and experimental groups at the beginning of the study.
The forming step:
At the formative stage of the experiment, scientific and methodological support of the presented by scientific and theoretical (leading ideas and basic provisions of the use of modern technologies in the practice of a psychologist), meaningful (selection and structuring of the content of psychological correction) and methodological levels (guidelines) project was developed and implemented.
The following tasks were implemented during the project:
1. Creating conditions for the provision of psycho-emotional and physical rehabilitation of patients of the regional vascular center through:
- formation of an initiative group of students-volunteers who are able to participate in the work of the creative platform in the hospital of emergency medical care;
- organization of art therapy master classes for joint creativity of children and adults with special educational needs, disabled people and volunteers, followed by the presentation of works;
- diagnostics of the communicative component of the emotional background of children and adults with special educational needs, engaged in the work on the project, to fix the dynamics of the results.
2. Creating conditions for the realization of the accumulated knowledge and skills of disabled people through their involvement in the work of the creative platform through:
- support and development of intellectual and creative abilities of children of young people with disabilities;
- involvement of disabled people in volunteer work on a social project through direct participation in master classes on artistic creativity;
- diagnostics of satisfaction with living conditions and self-realization of disabled people employed in the project, to record the dynamics of the results;
- formation of tolerant attitude of society to people with disabilities;
3. Accumulation and dissemination of methodological material on the possibilities and prospects of rehabilitation programs in hospitals through:
- organization of thematic events (exhibition of works of disabled people, monthly and final exhibition of works of art of participants of the creative platform), contributing to attracting the attention of the media and the public to the work of the project;
- accumulation of methodological base on the socialization of disabled people through the use of art therapy techniques;
- establishing contacts with medical and pedagogical institutions in the cities of the Republic of Tatarstan in order to transfer the accumulated experience and gain new knowledge. During the work of the creative platform for patients of the hospital, a master class was held (on oil painting, reverse plasticine application).
A master class was conducted by students of KFU, teachers, as well as graduates with disabilities, with the necessary knowledge and skills. The master classes had one feature: all participants worked, or rather, created their pictures together with the disabled. Each master class was attended by 18 patients EHMC and 18 children and young people with health limitations (4 years), 10 – 12 students - helped in the organization of work.
The participants worked in pairs, each wrote his own picture, but each patient worked at the same table with a disabled person. During the work of the project Naberezhnye Chelny carried out an exhibition of works of children with health limitations, demonstration of masterpieces made on the creative platform, completed the project exhibition of works of all participants of the creative platform.
3.4. Experimental verification of the effectiveness of the proposed content of the psychologist:
Thus, as a result of our research, the positive impact of rehabilitation measures on the process of restoring cognitive functions and psycho-emotional state in people with special educational needs was revealed.
The number of selected neuropsychological and speech samples did not go beyond the time limits of work with the patient, having, as a rule, a reduced level of performance, inertia of mental processes, increased fatigue.
Neuropsychological study began with the determination of the individual profile of interhemispheric asymmetry.
We studied: gnosis, praxis, speech status, evaluation of emotional state. The hospital scale of anxiety and depression, expert evaluation of doctors and psychiatrist were used to assess the emotional state.
Additional components of the assessment of mental state of patients: neurodynamic processes (understanding of instructions, execution time), attitude to the test (diligence, negligence, passivity, indifference), emotional state (depression, mournful anguish, demonstrativeness, stupidity, tendency to flat jokes (see Table
To assess the intergroup studies (at the beginning and end of the study in the control and experimental group) t-test was used, evaluation of neuropsychological status nonparametric Friedman test.
All results are listed in the tables (at the beginning of the study, and at the end of the study):
The integral sum of the functional recovery score on the Bartel scale and the emotional state after the project according to the above criteria was the best and statistically significant.
For the reliability of this study, we used the following scheme of research: evaluation of neuropsychological and speech history.
Neuropsychological study based on the principles of syndrome analysis of mental States of persons with special needs, was allowed to compare the violation of VPF in children and adults in the group and to assess the dynamics of the implementation of the project.
The dynamics of emotional disorders on the hospital scale of anxiety - the Domain of anxiety (x 2 =3,386, n =3, p <0.05) and depression X22 =4, 376, n =3, p <0,001). Comparing the scores in the groups before and after the study, statistically significant differences were obtained both in the anxiety and depression domains (p<0.05).
Revealed subclinical expressed alarm and the figure are significant. In the comparative study of score scores in neuropsychological study in patients we marked improvement in the recovery of lost functions, statistically significant: the level of anxiety (r=0.36) and depression (r=0.39). There was no correlation between the severity of stroke and factors (r= - 0.19).
Diagnosis and rehabilitation was not limited to the elimination of neurological symptoms and was aimed at creating optimal conditions for their social functioning, improving the quality of life, the ability to self-active. At the same time, we believe that in modern conditions this problem is of particular importance, because in recent years, rehabilitation work is reduced to supporting pharmacotherapy. There is no standardized and clinically tested compendium of social interaction.
As a result of the project we have the following results:
- created a new direction of volunteer work in the hospital, which attracted new supporters, students and students to the movement of mercy;
- organized the final exhibition of the patients of the regional vascular center of the Hospital in Naberezhnye Chelny and Child care center, and students of the Naberezhnye Chelny Institute of KFU created on the creative site.
- contributed to the dissemination of information about the possibilities of rehabilitation by art and communication;
- improved cognitive functions;
- within the framework of the Republican events we created conditions for the exchange of views and development of progressive plans for the future in the work of medical and educational institutions covering up to 15 municipalities of the Republic of Tatarstan;
- created conditions for the disclosure of intellectual and creative potential of children and adults with special needs from different cities of the Republic of Tatarstan.
The peculiarity of the project lies in the fact that children and adults do not have any emotional and volitional task aimed at transforming their own state. The patient is only invited to participate in the project. At the same time, we believe that the modern concept of volunteer support faces difficulties:
1. The need to clarify the methods and techniques of support with the use of modern technologies.
2. Creation of a complex and unified system of possible support methods.
3. Creation of manuals, technology innovation support with the aim of increasing the efficiency of rehabilitation and habilitation of the interaction.
4. Identification of ways of preventive effects in the maintenance of children.
5. Development of clear criteria for training and education of volunteers to support people with special needs.
Thus, the purpose of this project is to study in detail the mechanisms of the compendium of volunteer support, increase the level of interaction that will lead to increased rehabilitation and comfort not only for persons with disabilities, but also for volunteers themselves. However, the analysis of scientific works devoted to the problem of modern mentoring is extremely small and they are only controversial.
High clinical efficiency of correction of acute disorders with the use of the project in the framework of support of children and adults with special needs has been proved. The results of the research allow improving clinical training of psychologists, to optimize the treatment and diagnostic process. It is established that the application of the project allows the most effective to overcome the main components of the violation of psycho-emotional state in persons with special needs, and the solution of psychological, pedagogical and organizational and methodological problems of the recovery period, thus providing information confidentiality, economic efficiency. The materials of the article can be useful in practical terms for specialists and psychologists of medical centers, hospitals and in individual practice. Taking into account the results of this study, we can identify a number of scientific problems and promising areas that require further consideration: deepening and expanding some of the provisions set out in the article related to the formation and accumulation of psychological and pedagogical experience. The data obtained is advisable to use in the rehabilitation of patients with brain damage, thereby achieving the most effective recovery of lost functions.
- Chernikova, L. A., & Sapronova, N. V. (2009). Rehabilitation of patients with diseases and injuries of the nervous system. Moscow.
- Cohen, L., Manion, L., & Morrison, K. (2002). Research methods in education. Routledge.
- Dzhunusova, G. S., & Kurmashev, R. A. (2002). Use of adaptive biocontrol on EEG for correction of the functional status of neurological patients. Human Physiology, 28 (1), 18-22.
- Hecht, A. B., Bogolepova, A. N., & Sorokina, I. B. (2001). Peculiarities of depressive syndrome of patients with ischemic stroke. Journal of Neurology and Psychiatry, 2, 35-39.
- Nosov, N. A. (2010). Consciousness and psyche. Multidimensional image of a person: a comprehensive interdisciplinary study of a person. Moscow: Nauka.
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05 September 2018
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Burganova, N. T., Zakirova, L. M., & Komarova, L. Y. (2018). Compendium Of Volunteer Support For Persons With Special Needs. In R. Valeeva (Ed.), Teacher Education - IFTE 2018, vol 45. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 430-437). Future Academy. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2018.09.49