The Formation Methods Of The Transforming Personality In Educational Spac

Abstract

This paper gives theoretical explanation and practical formation methods for transformation of student's personality in the educational space. The theoretical interpretation of personality transforming in the educational space is considered as transition of reproductive activity to creative actions, when student produces something new under content and (or) technologies. Two methods are implemented on the basis of abstract-analytical strategy: the method of constructing of psychological tests and the method of design the textbooks by students. There was a transforming effect in movement from mastering of knowledge to its creative implementation in activity in both cases. The holistic strategy is represented by the narrative “Self-interview” method. This method reflects challenge of time that we should “pass from the transfer of knowledge to the willingness of acting and living in a changing environment”. The multidimensional volume of special knowledge (motivation, cognitive processes and personal characteristics, ethical and volitional components, personal attitude to activity) is transformed into a form of practical application: “I want, I can, I must, I act, I feel”. Two modifications of the method were used. Qualitative and quantitative assessment of personality transformation using “Self-interview” method is presented.

Keywords: Personalityreproductive activitycreativityqualitative and quantitative assessment

Introduction

In the modern educational space the most important role has given to innovative technologies. These technologies are aimed to create conditions for learner who becomes a getting knowledge person and has an opportunity for self-realization. Such innovative technologies should be created and implemented on the basis of psychological knowledge. However, the problem of modern psychology is that there is a significant variance between the requirements of practice in personality changing, correcting, developing and current scientific knowledge in the field of personality psychology. Consequently, introduction of modern educational programs faces the problem of integrating theoretical and practical accomplishments on the psychology of personality and individuality. One possible solution to this problem would be a conceptual model of psychological organization of a person as a center of development and self-development. This model is a synthesis of our theoretical ideas and experimental practices as well as personality theories of Rubinstein (1989, 2003), Brushlinsky (1994), Zhuravlev (2002), psychology of personality, activities, areas of development by Bekhterev (1905), Vygotsky (1991), Leontyev (1977), Petrovsky (1982), psychology of creativity and thinking by Bogoyavlenskaya (1983), Bogoyavlenskaya and Klyueva (2012), and Ponomarev (1976).

The issue of psychological resources can be considered in terms of the most important components of human psychology and those strategies that are aimed at studying the human psyche and self-management in the scientific psychology of personality.

The object of this study is personality (human being) in psychology and education (pedagogy). That’s why there is an appropriate necessity to refer to integrated approach to person while we are creating conditions for the development and self-development.

Scientific search is carried out in an abstract-analytical strategy; practical implementation is in a holistic approach. According of using an abstract-analytical strategy student's attention is focused on solving the problems only within the cognitive action component of the behavior. This component is detailed as process and type of product of intellectual search and its action implementation. It is expressed in the form of a newly created product under content and (or) technology. Their assessment is based on the externally expressed product of reproductive and creative levels. The reproductive level is characterized by ability to copy the original, student doesn’t go beyond automatic action.

The creative level means that personality produces something new for subculture or culture as a whole. Results that are not attributable to reproductive and creative levels refer to the intermediate level where actions are evaluated as reproduction with improvisation and initial creative actions.

Thus, we have identified a number of strategies of psychologist in human knowledge and influence on him (Popov & Ustin, 2016). At the same time, philosophical categories such as concrete and abstract, contemplation and transformation, real and possible were used. We have to briefly explain the content of these categories in relation to psychology of personality. The concrete is what really exists as integrity and possesses a numerous internal elements, as well as many connections with the world around. The abstract is a side, a function of the something concrete that cannot be distinguished by dividing the whole. This does not exist materially in fact, but it can exist as a representation of author’s idea about something in a symbolic form.

Problem Statement

The most of scientific works of different authors, philosophers and psychologists attempt to describe the phenomenon of consciousness in order to build its model. And on the basis of this model researchers try to conduct possible changes in consciousness and interfere in its functioning. Currently, contemplative activities in relation to consciousness prevail in psychology. We hypothesize that it is impossible to understand the whole depth of human consciousness, relying only on the contemplative approach, without analyzing its transforming function.

Transformation of personality in education can be defined as educational process that gives more change in learner psychology than other kinds of teaching and learning (Okinyi, Kwaba, & Nyabuto, 2015). The importance of education contents and actions in the process of internalization of concepts and in the personal transformation of future teachers are also shown (Bernardes & Alves, 2015). An opportunity of personality transformation is connected to learning ability as the ability to master new educational material (new knowledge, new actions, new forms of activity). Transforming personality in educational space is shown “as a complex dynamic system of individual personality traits that contribute to the productivity of educational activity and to the rate and quality of mastering social experience” (Karpov, Karpov, Karabushchenko, & Ivashchenko, 2017). According to the problem of personality transformation in educational space we can focus on the student’s personality, primarily as a center of intellectual activity and a psychological mechanism of development and self-development (Popov & Ibragimova, 2014).

In the context of transition to innovative educational programs, there is an urgent need to combine theoretical foundations of psychology of personality with the practice of creative potential training of students.

Research Questions

In order of theoretical frame the main research question of this study was: what formation methods of transforming personality can be used in the modern educational space?

Purpose of the Study

The purpose of the study is to determine the possibility of positive transformation of student’s personality by using creative methods in the educational space.

Research Methods

Two methods are implemented on the basis of the abstract-analytical strategy: the method of constructing of psychological tests and the method of designinig the textbooks by students.

The holistic strategy is represented by the narrative “Self-interview” method. The idea of deep understanding of the consciousness phenomenon of person in combination with self-transformation has been formulated in this method. This method arose from the practical necessity of training students. It helps to see the actual and real activity of student’s consciousness during his mastering of psychological knowledge by applying them to himself.

The object of the study is “student himself”. This method was another variation of the introspection. But introspection method was recognized as unscientific and it was criticized than accepted. However, introspection had real practical and positive effect which couldn't be ignored.

In turn, this provided an experimental confirmation of the fact that two complementary strategies coexist in psychology: the abstract-analytical, where the psyche is considered element-wise, differentially, "scientifically"; and the holistic approach strategy, where the branch of system-structural and typological vision of the human psyche (consciousness) was singled out.

“Self-interview” method covered the system-structural representation of human psychology. Cognitive, regulative, communicative and personal subsystems were distinguished on the basis of concepts of Russian psychologists (Lomov, 1984; Petrovsky, 1982). This method gave a holistic view of psychology of personality, where it was difficult to make a conclusion about person “in parts”.

First of all the practical value of “Self-interview” method consisted in possibility to answer the questions “What character (temperament, mentality, emotionality, sociability) I have?, What is my influence score?”.

Secondly, human consciousness was considered not only as a repository of images, determined by external and internal factors, but also it was a manifestation of personal beginning in the initiative actions aimed at transforming the world and self-transformation.

“Self-interview” method was used in two versions: 1 - self-knowledge and self-development; 2- reflexive-targeted development.

Findings

Two groups were revealed in analyzing the self-descriptions of subjects. The first group consisted of those students who created essay in exact accordance with the proposed structure. And it was easy to analyze and quantify. The second group consisted of those who accepted the idea of the task as a whole; they tried to approach themselves as an integral object of study. A series of responses was observed, according to the plan of task. Also, students could creatively tell stories about themselves, their challenges, difficulties and creative achievements of their life. Often the second version of composition gave more complete and holistic impression of personality.

The idea of dual vision of personality and its consciousness was experimentally confirmed: partial, disjunctive, abstract-analytical - on the one hand, and - indivisible, non - conjunctive, integral - on the other. This also highlighted the right of choice of two strategies in psychologist analysis of material and practice with a real person on analytical basis. The exploratory, contemplative, cognitive option is good for scientific understanding of psyche, and the holistic is a good application for personality transforming or for self-transformation.

Structural components of “Self-interview” method.

“The way who I am”. “Self” or “I am” is the first link. In scientific and analytical approach of analysis of “Self” researchers often use Self-concept of W. James (1991), R. Burns (2000), K. Rogers (1986). Authors identify the following elements of “Ego” or “Self”: the physical, the intellectual, the emotional, the social, the spiritual, the professional, the mirror, Self in time (present, past, future Self). Selecting many types of Self in a person, you can get a multi-profile portrait of this person with the subsequent correction of those elements that are not sufficiently developed.

Here is the example of student self-description of this block: “It is difficult task to write about myself. There is a desire to describe the good parts of myself. But I want to walk away from it and describe myself really. I'm choleric. This temperament often prevented me in my life to my personal regret. I'm an emotional person, I can't hide my feelings. Now I aspire to ensure that my emotions do not interfere with living in harmony. And I want to note that I have already achieved a lot. I think that psychological education has affected me a lot. I started to control my emotions! I’m engaged in small physical activities every day; I have a daily routine that I try to observe.

It’s hard to say how people think about me. In this section, probably I’ll try to rely on important people in my life. After some, rather complicated events for me, I began to “work” on myself. Six months later, I began to hear phrases like “you have changed a lot”, “you have grown up”, “I have become very interested in you”, and my most favorite phrase “I want to see you more often”.

My perfect Self. As I’ve already written before, I try to change myself for the better. I can say that my goal is to be ideal. What is it? It’s hard to say for sure. Now I see a portrait of a self-confident, relaxed, sociable girl who has achieved some success in her professional activities. She has created a family, she understood how to manage her emotions, and she has become kinder and softer with others. I think there is no limit for perfection. Having achieved one height I see the second and so on ad infinitum”.

My motivation ("I want"). The second link “I want and I can” is wish as a manifestation of the motivational sphere. Option “I want” involves the allocation of needs, motives, interests, individual desires and relations among them. In general the second meaning of concept “I want” is motivation in applied psychology. In Russian psychological tradition, motivation is presented as an orientation of the individual and, in a certain way, is tied to the category of “goal”, where the need is the need of the organism, the individual, and the motive is the direction towards which the need is realized (Leontyev, 1977). The needs of the individual in the school of humanistic psychology (Maslow, 1968) are widely represented and popular enough, in the domestic version of the study of motivation the positions of those researchers where the motivation is considered as a synthesis of motives, values ​​- meanings and goals (Alishev, 2010). In the analytical version of motivation, the concept of external and internal motivation is extremely attractive for practical transformative psychology (Yaroshevsky, 1971), where the key moment is the mechanism of the transition of external motivation when the goal is set from the outside to the internal one. This transition (Stern & Spoerl, 1938) is called introception.

Here is the example of student self-description of this block: “I want to become a professional in field of my activity. I want to develop and grow as a professional. I want my work be smoothly flowed into a hobby. I want to enjoy the professional activities. And if I could help a few people to find a harmony in themselves, I would be happy. I will receive energy, inspiration and satisfaction from this. My future profession is helping people, their psychological “healing” and transfer of vital energy. Also, I want a family. I realize that first of all I need to become well educated, develop in professional sphere and become independent of my parents”.

My abilities (“I can”). The third link in “I want and I can” is characterized as abilities and talent (Rubinstein, 1989). General and special abilities are distinguished. As a rule, General abilities are measured by psychologists with the help of the coefficient JQ. These abilities characterize the degree of development of the human intellect. Special abilities characterize the possibility of faster achievement of personal success in activity compared with other: in science, art, practice.

In a limited experiment of identifying the type of human behavior in extreme situation was found that in practice the model of Rubinstein's personality should be supplemented with such links as “I must”, “I feel”, and “I think – I act” (Rubinstein, 2003). In addition, it was found that in some strategies of behavior we don’t have to ignore the particle “not”, for example “I don’t want to” → “I can’t” → “I should not” → “I don’t feel (worry)”. The inclusion of particle “not” allows us to distinguish 16 types of human behavior in an extreme situation.

Here is the example of student self-description of this block: “It is difficult to say objectively that I can perfectly do something. Also, I note that I can understand people, listen to them, help them not with advice, but showing them new orientation. Many people have noted the ability of empathy in me. Developing these abilities helps me to notice that people around trust me their personal experiences; they want to share the innermost with me. Nowadays I think this ability for me has the most significant role than others that I possess”.

“I must” (“I should or I have to”). In scientific psychology, this concept is associated with strong-willed characteristics and processes, as well as with the characteristics of the moral personal sphere. The will is the personal ability to choose between alternatives and to act towards conscious goal within the frames of the choices. Additional will characteristics are the ability for mobilization to overcome difficulties (perseverance), the ability to stop everything that prevents the decision’s implementation (persistence), and the ability to decisively realize something what was planned and to control emotional state.

Moral definition of “I must” suggests that human behavior in many situations is made by awareness of a sense of duty to close person, formal and informal group and the Motherland. It is external position. In this case, “I must” can be interpreted as “I have to”, and also – “if I won’t do it, I will be punished” (psychoanalysis).

If concept “I must” is realized as internal, a person does something because of inner conviction, dignity, self-respect, duty to self and conscience.

Here is the example of student self-description of this block: “I have to finish my studies and decide where I want to go next. Here I am free to choose, anything. However, I will be responsible for this choice entirely and independently. I have to acquire new experience and new competencies outside school hours whenever it’s possible”.

“I feel” (“I worry”). This is the fifth link in the chain of behavior – “feeling”, “experiencing”. I feel is considered as a manifestation of emotional and sensory personal attitude to situation and activity. Feeling is always personal or individual characteristic. “I feel” means initiation of positive or negative emotional condition. In all cases, it is shown as emotionally colored phenomenon that has found a reflection in personal mind and some event of individual life (Asmolov, 1990). This emotional condition transforms personal mental world in order to rethink the concept of life and existence (Vasilyuk, 1988).

Here is the example of student self-description of this block: “Probably everyone is worried about future at my age. I worry about my future job. It’s so emotional to think “Where I have to go after my graduation from university?”. In fact, it is so emotionally worrying that I’ve got a good theoretical basis, but I don’t know how to put it into practice”.

“I think or act”. The sixth link is what the behavior should lead in an extreme situation: passive thinking or action. Person takes a passive position if there is a lack of will for self-determination and personal resource mobilization. In this case internal barriers arise to productive life activity, when attitude “I don’t” dominates (I don’t want, I can’t, I should not). Such passive behavior is sacrificial and person thinks “come what may”.

Here is the example of student self-description of this block: “As I've already written above, I strive to know myself, my environment, my profession. I attend trainings, master classes. I read literature. I get new hobbies. I want to develop myself as a person in different spheres of activity. Only now I have acquired acquaintances, which are interesting to me. It helps to develop my life. I'm sure it will be useful for me in the future. Now I want to do everything that can to be ready for future professional activity and to start my personal growth, development and harmonization of life”.

Quantitative Criteria for assessing the abilities of personality in “self-Interview” method

Two abilities are assessed: the ability to master educational and psychological culture and the ability of self-development. These abilities include a number of parameters with their own coefficient of significance. The degree of intensity of diagnosable characteristics has five gradations and their assessment balls in each case.

The ability to master the educational and psychological culture is estimated by A, B, C, D, E parameters.

A-parameter is the personality competence in special psychological knowledge (terms, concepts, scientific literature). It is evaluated in points from 1 to 9 as follows:

1- Usage of everyday language in text, special knowledge is not discovered.

3- Special knowledge is little presented in text.

5- Special knowledge is presented in the medium degree.

7- Special knowledge is used freely.

9- Self-description is presented with involvement of knowledge from other fields of science.

Ratio value of A-parameter is 2. The final score for A-parameter is obtained by multiplying the selected expert score by 2.

B-parameter is the test reinforcement of self-description text. The completeness of personality self-characterization is estimated with reference to the tests and other psychological methods (questionnaires, sociometry, experiment, etc.) that used earlier. assessment balls are used as in A-parameter:

1- Self-description is very simple; there is no support for special methods.

3- Limited number of tests offered by the teacher is used.

5- Self-description includes suggested tests and other methods

7- The proportion of suggested tests and other methods is 50/50.

9- Person creates his own tests and enters them into self-description and uses different methods of collecting information about himself.

Ratio value of B-parameter is 2. The final score for B-parameter is obtained by multiplying the selected expert score by 2.

C-parameter is order of thinking. Personality self-description is evaluated in accordance with the plan that proposed by the experimenter. It is evaluated in points from 1 to 9 as follows:

1- Self-description is out of plan, in autobiographical form.

3- The plan of description in part is used.

5- The plan is fully implemented.

7- Person brings his points of the plan.

9- Person creates new plan and recycles the proposed plan without changing the basis.

Ratio value of С-parameter is 1. The final score for C-parameter is obtained by multiplying the selected expert score by 1.

D-parameter is the length of self-description text.

It is estimated from 1 to 5 points on the number of written pages.

1- Less than 5 pages

2- from 5 to 10 pages.

3- from 10 to 15 pages.

4- from 15 to 20 pages.

5- More than 20 pages.

Ratio value of D-parameter is 0,5.

Е-parameter is accuracy and style of the text.

It is estimated from 1 to 5 points on the level of accuracy and style of the text:

1- It is negligent and difficult to read.

2- A little accuracy.

3- Average level of accuracy.

4- Sufficient level of accuracy.

5- High level of accuracy.

Ratio value of E-parameter is 0,5.

The ability to self-development and creative self-improvement is estimated by F, G, H-parameters.

F– parameter. It Is characterized by a degree of readiness to self-development. It is evaluated in points from 1 to 9 as follows:

1- Content is directed to introduce the real “Self” (information statement).

3- Self-description includes the list of some personal problems.

5- Self-description includes the list of some personal problems and also person tries to find the possible ways of problem solving.

7- Personal problems are identified in all sections and self-improvement ways are offered.

9- Personal problems are identified in all sections, self-improvement ways are offered and person describes the practical experience of problem solving.

Ratio value of F-parameter is 3. The final score for F-parameter is obtained by multiplying the selected expert score by 3.

G – parameter is originality, creativity, autonomy.

It is evaluated in points from 1 to 9 as follows:

1- Adopted and reproductive text.

3- Reproductive text with elements of improvisation.

5- Text has innovations in ways of writing and content.

7- Innovations in ways of writing and content of text are productive, but text is designed for a narrow circle of people.

9- Text is original, productive and interesting for people in practice and theory of self-development.

Ratio value of G-parameter is 4. The final score for G-parameter is obtained by multiplying the selected expert score by 4.

H –parameter is openness, frankness.

It is evaluated in points from 1 to 9 as follows:

1- Private person doesn’t share information with anyone.

3- Person is more private than open.

5- The medium degree of privacy in person.

7- Person is more open than private.

9- Person is completely honest (asking for help).

Ratio value of G-parameter is 2. The final score for G-parameter is obtained by multiplying the selected expert score by 2.

Expert assessment of self-description text is carried out integrally. After reading the text expert selects the appropriate gradation in each of parameters in general abilities. In all cases, the final result of parameter is obtained by multiplying the score of the selected gradation and coefficient of parameter significance. The resulting data is recorded in a common results table.

Depending on the task, the expert assessment can be carried out both on two abilities and in one. Generalized ability index is determined by the summarizing all parameters’ scores.

Conclusion

So, in conclusion, synthesizing information of this paper we have to note:

1. Scientific search is carried out in an abstract-analytical strategy; practical implementation is in a holistic approach. According of using an abstract-analytical strategy student's attention is focused on solving the problems only within the cognitive action component of the behavior. The holistic strategy is represented by the narrative “Self-interview” method. It helps to see the actual and real activity of student’s consciousness during his mastering of psychological knowledge by applying them to himself.

2. “Self-interview” method covered the system-structural representation including cognitive, regulative, communicative and personal subsystems of human psychology. The practical value of “Self-interview” method consisted in possibility to answer the questions “What character (temperament, mentality, emotionality, sociability) I have?, What is my influence score?”. "Self-interview" method was used in two versions: 1 - self-knowledge and self-development; 2- reflexive-targeted development.

3. Qualitative analysis and quantitative criteria for assessing the personality in “Self-Interview” method is presented. Qualitative assessment is the analysis of structural components of “Self”. Two abilities are assessed in quantitative analysis: the ability to master educational and psychological culture and the ability of self-development.

Acknowledgments

The work is performed according to the Russian Government Program of Competitive Growth of Kazan Federal University. The research was prepared within the Russian Foundation for Basic Research, project "Subject and methods of moral and ethical psychology of the personality” №16-06-00566a.

References

  1. Alishev, B. S. (2010). Meaning and motive: on the relation between the concepts. Uchenye zapiski Kazanskogo universiteta [Proceedings of Kazan University], 152(5), 159-171.
  2. Asmolov, A. G. (1990). Psychology of personality. Principles of general psychological analysis. Moscow: MGU.
  3. Bekhterev, V. M. (1905). Personality and the conditions of its development. St. Petersburg.
  4. Bernardes, M. E. M., & Alves, A. A. (2015). The pedagogical activity in the training of teachers: contributions from the cultural-historical theory. Creative Education, 6(14), 1496-1507.
  5. Bogoyavlenskaya, D. B. (1983). Intellectual activity as a problem of creativity. Rostov: Rostov State University.
  6. Bogoyavlenskaya, D. B., & Klyueva, O. A. (2012). Discovering the nature of competitive personality. Psychology in Russia, 5, 67-80.
  7. Brushlinsky, A. V. (1994). Issues of psychology of an individual. Moscow: Russian Academy of Sciences.
  8. Burns, R. (1986). Development of the self-concept and parenting. Moscow: Pedagogika.
  9. James, W. (1991). Psychology. Moscow: Pedagogika.
  10. Karpov, A. A., Karpov, A. V., Karabushchenko, N. B., & Ivashchenko, A.V. (2017). The interconnection of learning ability and the organization of metacognitive processes and traits of personality. Psychology in Russia, 10(1), 67-79.
  11. Leontyev, A. N. (1977). Activity. Consciousness. Personality. Moscow: Politizdat.
  12. Lomov, B. F. (1984). Methodological and theoretical problems of psychology. Moscow: Nauka.
  13. Maslow, A. (1968). Toward a psychology of Being. New York: Van Nostland Reinhold Company.
  14. Okinyi, N. P., Kwaba, J. G., & Nyabuto, N. N. (2015). The Role of Leaders in Transforming Learners and Learning in the Higher Learning Institutions in Kenya. Journal of Education and Practice, 6(25), 105-116.
  15. Petrovsky, V. A. (1982). Personality. Activity. The Team. Moscow: Politizdat.
  16. Ponomarev, Y. A. (1976). Psychology of creativity. Moscow: Nauka.
  17. Popov, L. M., & Ibragimova, E. N. (2014). Psychology of intellectual activity-related development of a student. Asian Social Science, 11(1), 279-287.
  18. Popov, L. M., & Ustin, P. N. (2016). Psychological alienation problem in moral and ethical psychology of personality. Mathematics Education, 11(4). 787-797.
  19. Rogers, C. R. (1986). Client-centered therapy. In Psycho-therapist’s casebook (pp. 197-208.). L. K Kutush, & A.Wolf (Eds.). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
  20. Rubinstein, S. L. (1989) Principles of creative amateur performance. Philosophy Questions, 4, 88-95.
  21. Rubinstein, S. L. (2003). Genesis and consciousness. The human and the world. Saint Petersburg: Piter.
  22. Stern, W., & Spoerl, H. D. T. (1938). General psychology: From the personalistic standpoint. New York: Macmillan Co.
  23. Vasilyuk, F. (1988). The psychology of experiencing. Moscow: Progress.
  24. Vygotsky, L. S. (1991). Pedagogical Psychology. Moscow: Pedagogika.
  25. Yaroshevsky, M.G. (1971). About external and internal motivation of scientific creativity. Problems of scientific creativity in the contemporary psychology. Moscow: Nauka.
  26. Zhuravlev, A. L. (2002). Psychology of a collective subject. Moscow: The Institute of Psychology of RAS.

Copyright information

This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

About this article

Cite this paper as:

Click here to view the available options for cite this article.

Publisher

Future Academy

First Online

18.12.2019

Doi

10.15405/epsbs.2018.09.48

Online ISSN

2357-1330