The urgency of the stated problem in the article is due to the fact that at the present time the modern education in the whole world has a humanistic basis. Recognition of the individual’s self-worth leads to the search for ways of comprehensive development, socialization of people with disabilities as individuals and obtaining of a higher education which is becoming the main goal in their lives. The article is aimed at disclosing the content of diagnostic activities conducted with people with disabilities, to determine their motivation in receiving higher education, which includes an inclusive form, and through integration into a given public institution, the desire to adapt to the social environment as a whole. In the course of the research work the following methods were used: theoretical analysis of scientific, pedagogical, psychological and methodological literature and materials; generalization of the regulatory framework; systematization and generalization of pedagogical experience; psychological testing. The article presents the results of studying the aspiration of people with disabilities to receive higher education. In the process of the study, there were identified two main typological groups of subjects and the prevailing factors-motivators predetermining the direction of interest formation and the need for continuing education. The content of this article can be useful for professionals who interact with people with disabilities, for teachers of secondary special and higher educational institutions who work on the adaptive physical culture training.
Keywords: Subjective experienceexperiencesocial deprivationmental statesorphans
Nowadays the modern education in the whole world has a humanistic basis, and this is primarily due to the recognition of the priority of universal human values, the possibility of a worthy arrangement of public and private life, the coordination of person’s activity with his/ her particular inner world, immersiveness in nature and society.
In its turn, the modern domestic concept of pedagogy determines the attitude towards each person as a unique carrier of culture; subject of cognition, activity, creativity and communication; regardless of whether it is a normal person or a person with limited health abilities. Recognition of the self-worth of the individual leads to the search for ways of comprehensive development and socialization of people with disabilities as individuals.
Higher education is one of the most effective general ways of solving this problem; it gives freedom of choice, spiritual and material independence, shapes the world views and life goals, develops a person's ability to adapt in a changing social situation, gives life-endurance and harmonic existence, which is especially important for people with disabilities. As for people with disabilities, higher education is increasingly becoming the main goal in their lives. With this, they connect the achievement of the most important life positions, the opportunity to self-actualize themselves in the future professional activity (Osenkova & Konovalov, 2015a).
The problems of accessibility of higher education and the readiness of higher education institutions to train people with disabilities have a complex character. The study of these problems, of course, requires scientific development in general and the study of its various aspects, in particular. The most popular and promising areas of scientific research are, firstly, an in-depth study of the issues of inclusive education for students with disabilities, including study in specialized educational institutions; secondly, the use of distance educational technologies in the education system of people with disabilities, allowing the integration of different levels systems and steps of education, as well as national and world educational environment (Osenkova & Konovalov, 2015b).
Inclusive education as a form of organizing the learning process for this category of people is the most acceptable ones, assuming the availability of educational services for all citizens in adapting to the needs of each person, regardless of the state of his/her physical health, creating conditions allowing more complete development of his/her abilities and maximum integration into society, through adaptation in society and stimulation of motivation to continue education (Konovalov, 2017).
Purpose of the Study
Based on the above, we formulated the goal of the study - to determine the types of motivation of people with disabilities and to identify their readiness for inclusive education in a higher education institution of a sports profile.
In the course of the research work the following methods were used: theoretical analysis of scientific, pedagogical, psychological and methodological literature and materials; generalization of the normative framework; studying electronic resources on the problem; systematization and generalization of pedagogical experience; psychological testing.
In modern Russian society, people with disabilities are treated as a separate social group that needs some kind of guardianship and, therefore, they are the object of social protection of the state. After Russia ratified the "UN Convention on the Rights of People with Disabilities" in April 2012, the theme of the social protection of disabled people sounded new (Federal Law No. 46, 2012). In our country, a course has been adopted to finally erase the social barrier between "healthy" people and people with disabilities, for that purpose the basic documents were developed and adopted (Federal Law No. 181, 1995; Federal Law No. 172, 1999; Federal Law No. 296, 2012). So in 2014, Federal Law No. 419-FL was signed, which amended the legislative acts of the Russian Federation on the issues of social protection of disabled people in connection with the ratification of the Convention on the Rights of People with Disabilities (Federal Law No. 419, 2014).
In the Constitution of the Russian Federation, in the article 43, in the first clause, it is noted that "Everyone has the right to education", and in clause three "Everyone has the right on a competitive basis to receive free higher education in a state or municipal educational institution and enterprise" (Constitution of the Russian Federation, 2009).
In the Federal Law No. 185-FL dated 02.07.2013 was written that: "The state supports the education of people with disabilities and guarantees the creation of necessary conditions for the disabled to obtain it" (Federal Law No. 185, 2013).
Currently, getting of higher education by people with disabilities is regulated by the Federal Law "On Education in the Russian Federation" No. 273-FL dated December 29, 2012 (Federal Law No. 273, 2012).
The analysis of researches made by specialists allowed us to single out the provisions related to the development of the theoretical and methodological aspects of obtaining higher education for people with disabilities (Konovalov & Kolomytseva, 2009); the formation of readiness of people with disabilities to integrate into the educational environment of institutions with a sports profile (Konovalov et al., 2017); development of the model of entering and studying of people with disabilities in the university (Fahrutdinova, Konovalov, & Boltikov, 2017); problems of inclusive education of people with disabilities (Pugachev, 2012); problems of pre-university training of people with disabilities (Konovalov, Osenkova, Mugallimova, & Kolomytseva, 2015); issues of the inclusive-adaptive types of motor activity of people with disabilities (Parfenova, Makarova, & Konovalov, 2016); issues of motivation of people with disabilities to study in higher education (Osenkova & Konovalov, 2014). The study of the special literature allows us to state that there are not enough special studies on the problem of forming the readiness of people with disabilities to integrate into the educational environment of the university as well as their studying in it as a part of an inclusive group.
The policy of higher education accessibility certainly belongs to a variety of social policy and it is implemented to fulfil all the requirements of the principle of equality not only formally (non-discrimination, legal equality), but also as full and effective equality, taking into account individual characteristics, opportunities and needs for the fullest development of the individual’s potential. The work on effective equality may require special measures to prevent discrimination against individuals or groups in society, including different options for different marginalized groups of society and balanced measures to ensure that individuals do not discriminate against them.
The accessibility policy of higher education, of course, has both universal, fundamentally necessary and national components associated with the political, social and economic order of society and with the peculiarities of its national education system. At the same time, the problem of accessibility of higher education is specific not only for a single country, but also for a separate higher education institution. The general nature of the problem is the realization of the person's ability to receive the type of education that he/she would like to receive and in the university he/she would like to graduate from.
Recently, one can note the positive attitude of people with disabilities to getting higher education, thus there is a massive desire to receive it in all social groups of society, including those with disabilities. A study of the problem of accessibility of higher education for people with disabilities shows that getting higher education is one of the main values for them, first of all, because of the opportunity to become a full-fledged citizen of the society and a highly qualified specialist to make a career in the desired area of their labour activity.
The problems of accessibility of higher education and the readiness of higher education institutions to train people with disabilities are complex. The study of these problems, of course, requires scientific development, both in general and the study of its various aspects in particular. The most popular and promising areas of scientific research are, firstly, the use of distance educational technologies in the education system for people with disabilities, allowing the integration of systems of different levels and steps of education, as well as national and world educational environment; secondly, in-depth consideration of issues of training of students with disabilities in general and inclusive education in particular (Konovalov & Osenkova, 2015).
For the first time, the idea of inclusive education was announced in 1994 at the UN Assembly and the Salamanca Declaration on principles, policies and practical activities in the education of people with special needs was also adopted there (Salamanca, Spain, June 7-10, 1994) (Unesco, 1994).
In the Salamanca Declaration, for the first time, the word "inclusive" is closely associated with "education". "Inclusive education" is an education that is accessible to all children, including children with serious physical and mental disabilities. Such education implies the need to adapt learning to the needs of children. Integration provides real equality of opportunities, i.e. integration is meant to be a condition. These conditions are best realized within inclusive schools: integration creates equal opportunities for all children when they receive education" (Unesco, 1994).
Inclusive (French Inclusif - including, from Latin Include – I conclude, I include) or included education - a term used to describe the learning process for people with special needs in educational institutions (Pugachev, 2012).
Inclusive education is the process of development of the entire education system, which implies its accessibility for all citizens in adapting to the needs of every person, regardless of the state of his/her health (Konovalov, 2017).
The basis of inclusive education is ideology, which excludes any discrimination, ensures equal treatment for all people, but creates special conditions for people with disabilities.
In our country, the first inclusive educational institutions appeared at the turn of the 1980-1990.
In Moscow in 1991, on the initiative of the Moscow Center for Curative Pedagogics and the parent social organization, the Inclusive Education School "Kovcheg" was opened. In 1996, the Department of Theory and Methodology of Adaptive Physical Culture was opened at the Russian State University of Physical Culture, Sports and Tourism, which deals with the problems of inclusive education.
Since the autumn of 1992, the implementation of the project "Integration of People with Disabilities" began in Russia, as a result of which pilot sites for the integrated education of disabled children were created in eleven regions. Curricula of the courses "Fundamentals of special (correctional) pedagogy" and "Peculiarities of psychology of children with disabilities" were also developed for use in pedagogical universities.
According to the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation, in 2008-2009 the model of inclusive education was being introduced as an experiment in educational institutions of various types in a number of subjects of the Federation: Arkhangelsk, Vladimir, Leningrad, Moscow, Nizhny Novgorod, Samara regions.
The first region that legitimized the right of disabled children to receive education in the general education school was Moscow. In April 2010 the Moscow City Duma passed the law "On Education of People with Disabilities in the City of Moscow". This law fixes the guarantees of people with disabilities to implement their constitutional right to education, creates the necessary conditions for getting necessary education taking into account individual needs. The document establishes the procedure for organizing the education and upbringing of people with disabilities, both within the comprehensive school, special educational institutions and at home, as well as in any other chosen educational institution.
In St. Petersburg, since 2006, a program of inclusive education has been implemented at school No. 593 of the Nevsky district. The school is the winner of the National Priority Presidential Project "Education" in 2006. In the same year the Center for Inclusive Education "I Hear the World!" was opened in Grammar School No. 56 in Petrogradsky District of St. Petersburg and the social project "Give me a light" on the basis of School No. 232 of the Admiralteysky District. A great contribution to the organization of inclusive education in St. Petersburg was made by the parents of disabled children from the social movement, who independently began to defend the rights of children and their own. Afterwards the leading specialists of children's psychology, education, health and rehabilitation joined them as well as leading educational institutions, including higher education: Russian State Pedagogical University named after A.I. Herzen, National State University of Physical Culture, Sports and Health named after P.F. Lesgaft, University of Family and Child named after Wallenberg, St. Petersburg Institute for Early Intervention, School Center "Dynamics" No. 616 and others. The St. Petersburg State University of Engineering and Economics carries out admission of applicants with limited health opportunities for getting higher education. In 1995, the National State University of Physical Culture, Sport and Health named after P.F. Lesgaft was the first specialized department for work with people with disabilities. In the field of research activities of the department were included many challenging issues of organizing the life of disabled people including inclusive education.
Mordovian State University named after N.P. Ogareva provides all conditions for higher education to people with disabilities without restriction on nosology.
In Ulyanovsk State Pedagogical University named after I.N. Ulyanov disabled people and students are trained for realization of programs of inclusive education, this training includes education of specialists in the defectology profile (speech therapists, special psychologists, instructors in adaptive physical culture) to carry out correctional and developing activities; to train teachers in general subjects; to train educators and counselors for the implementation of educational programs and supplementary education programs for institutions which implement an inclusive educational model.
The model of inclusive education is implemented in the Chelyabinsk State University where students with various disabilities of physical health are trained.
In the Republic of Tatarstan a scientific and educational cluster for working with people with disabilities, which includes all levels of education, is currently organized and operates. The Association of Teachers of Inclusive Education of the Republic of Tatarstan has been organized to promote inclusive education, to assist in the development of educational and methodological recommendations, to research in the field of inclusive education, to improve public-government forms of management of the system of inclusive education, to create conditions for creative development in the learning process and education of pupils and students with disabilities.
In the University of Management "TISBI" was opened the Center for the Education of the Disabled in the Volga Federal District. The main goal of this center is to create conditions aimed at obtaining high-quality higher professional education and integrating people with disabilities into society. Students with hearing and vision impairments as well as with supporting motor disorders are trained at the centre where conditions for normal and productive education are created, specialized classes are organized, training and educational materials are developed and modern information technologies are used.
Another university, where disabled people are trained, is the Kazan State Technical University named after A. Tupolev. The university has an educational and research centre for professional rehabilitation of people with disabilities. For applicants with disabilities it is provided the opportunity to obtain higher education in different areas of training.
Disabled students of Volga Region State Academy of Physical Culture, Sport and Tourism study in all areas of training in full-time and part-time forms of study. Since 2015, the department of adaptive physical training and life safety has been functioning in the university and the program "Barrier-free environment" has been fully implemented; innovative multimedia equipment provided with educational and methodological support is actively used in the educational process as well as a distance learning system operates (Konovalov et al., 2017).
Considering the accumulated experience of implementing inclusive education in the country and a significant number of theoretical studies in this study we have identified the main limitations that can affect the desire of people with disabilities to integrate into the educational process and their readiness for inclusive education.
Our research was conducted on the basis of "Volga State Academy of Physical Culture, Sports and Tourism". The study involved 80 people with disabilities. There were 43 men and 37 women aged 20 to 48 years among them.
The limitations we have identified are mainly related to deviations in the health of people with disabilities, which are complex in nature and are therefore particularly difficult to compensate. People with disabilities are people whose living opportunities in society are limited by physical, mental, sensory or mental disabilities. Therefore, an important aspect of working with people with disabilities is the diagnosis of their personal characteristics, the desire to adapt into the social environment, motivation for higher education as well as in the inclusive form of organization of the learning process.
In the course of the study people with disabilities were diagnosed with the aid of G.S. Prygin’s questionnaire that identified the type of motivation. Afterwards we applied the technique "Motivational profile" by S. Richie and P. Martin. This technique allows us to identify the needs and aspirations of people with disabilities and, thus, gain some insight into their motivational factors (Prygin, 2005).
Based on the results of the study, we identified two typological groups of people with disabilities - with "Autonomous" and with "Dependent" type of motivation. The distribution of factors-motivators by typological groups is presented in Table
Legend: F1 - working conditions, F2 - comfortable environment, F3 - structured work, F4 - social contacts, F5 - relationships, F6 - recognition, F7 - achievements, F8 - power, F9 - diversity, F10 - creativity, F11 - self-improvement, F12 - interest and benefit of work.
Based on the obtained data, we constructed a motivational profile of a group of people with disabilities with the "Autonomous" type and for convenience built the factors in order of decreasing importance (Fig
After analysing the motivational profile of people with disabilities with the "Autonomous" type of motivation, we identified the most significant ("benefit", "self-improvement", "recognition") and the least significant ("earnings", "structure", "conditions", "social contacts" ) motivation factors.
Based on the obtained data, we constructed a motivational profile of a group of people with disabilities with a "Dependent" type of motivation and for convenience built the factors in order of decreasing importance (Fig
After analyzing the motivational profile of people with disabilities with the "Dependent" type of motivation, we identified the most significant ("benefit", "conditions", "earnings", "recognition") and the least significant ("power" - "relationships") motivation factors.
"Dependent" type of motivation among each other; that will make it possible to visualize the level of values of all twelve factors in different groups (Fig
Based on the table and figures, you can see that for almost all factors there are differences in the study groups, except for the "benefit" factor.
Thus, the motivational sphere of people with disabilities for higher education in inclusive form with the "Autonomous" type is more free and independent of the surrounding factors affecting the educational process; they are focused, first of all, on the achievement of the result, unlike people with disabilities with "Dependent" type, for which the external factor (form of training) is important as well as the internal (personal perception of the environment). At the same time, the presence of this or that type of motivation determines the ability to adapt in society, so people with disabilities having an "Autonomous" type of motivation have a high need for self-improvement and recognition on the part of society; they are more aimed at establishing social contacts and relationships in an inclusive group. They will need significantly less time for social adaptation than people with disabilities with "Dependent" type. People with disabilities with a "Dependent" type of motivation feel the social pressure of society, they often become introverted and can completely abandon contacts with the group. People with disabilities with "Dependent" type of motivation are more difficult to transfer their individuality, so it is more difficult for them to adapt in society because they sharply perceive their differences from others and this hampers them.
Both types are aimed at motivation to continue learning, since the main motivating factor for them is self-realization in professional activity, i.e. be useful to society. In turn, the inclusive group eliminates the difficulties arising in the educational process, and helps to overcome the difficulties associated with the specifics of a higher education institution.
Thus, based on the results of the study, it can be concluded that people with disabilities who have an "autonomous" type of motivation show greater independence, their motivation is primarily aimed at the result, unlike people with disabilities having a "Dependent "type of motivation who react to any changes in educational activity (external or internal). That is, for each group of probationers, the adaptation ability depends directly on their type of motivation for learning, which determines the degree of their readiness for inclusive education in a higher education institution of a sports profile.
The work is performed according to the Russian Government Program of Competitive Growth of Kazan Federal University.
The study was carried out with the support of the Russian Foundation for Basic Research in the framework of the research project No. 18-013-01012 "Subjective experience of mental states in the situation of life prediction".
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05 September 2018
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Konovalov, I. E., Osenkova, D. I., Boltikov, Y. V., & Sokolova, I. I. (2018). Readiness Of People With Disabilities Towards Inclusive Learning In Higher Education. In R. Valeeva (Ed.), Teacher Education - IFTE 2018, vol 45. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 376-386). Future Academy. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2018.09.43