Organization Of Extra-Curricular Activity In The System Of Teacher Professional Training
The article is devoted to one of the topical issues of modern pedagogical science – the organization of extracurricular activities in the course of vocational training of a new type teacher-philologist capable to bring up comprehensively developed, intellectual, spiritual personality. In the work the pedagogical conditions and polytypic technologies of training directed to formation of professional competence of students of higher education institution, their motivation to a research of the organization of extracurricular activities which becomes an integral part of educational process at school are considered. The purpose of work consists in a research of theoretical psychological and pedagogical bases of studying of forms, methods, techniques of the organization of extracurricular activities for Russian language lessons, accounting of individual needs and the interest of students. The practical importance of the studied problem is focused on the improvement of quality of vocational training of students, on the high motivation of university graduates to deepen skills in the field of studying the discipline, to apply the gained knowledge in the pedagogical activity according to new requirements of Federal state educational standard. The authors of the research, referring to the works of scientists-methodologists, believe that out-of-class activities promote the expansion of a linguistic outlook of school students and development of their feeling of language, cultivate love and respect for the Russian people, interest in their language.
Keywords: Organization of extracurricular activitiesvocational trainingteacher-philologistcompetenceRussian language
The modern system of humanitarian pedagogical education is directed to the training of highly qualified teachers in terms of new requirements of the Federal State Educational Standard, the formation of didactic, methodical, methodological, communicative and other competences of teachers of new types. The professional standard of the teacher requires the use of new technologies of instruction and education on the basis of the system and activity approach: the teacher of new type uses technologies of developing, personality-centered education, technologies of project and research activity, information and communication technologies, interactive techniques and active forms of education. The modern teacher must be a creative, sensitive human with high level of psychological and pedagogical culture, who is able not only to teach, but also to educate a harmonious, intelligent, spiritual personality, who is able to adapt himself in sophisticated modern world.
The significant role in this term is played at school by teachers-philologists. "The concept of teaching of the Russian language and Literature" says that "learning of the Russian language and Literature plays the leading role in the process of education of a personality, the development of his or her morals and creative skills, in the attaching to national and foreign culture, in the preservation and the development of national traditions and historical succession of generations" (Concept of Teaching Russian language, 2018). In connection with it, modern techniques of teaching of the Russian language are directed to the formation of professional competences not only in a certain area of scientific philological knowledge, but also to the obtaining of applied knowledge, permitting to make the integral vision of the world and of the place of a person in it, providing the harmonious development and perfection of the personality. Obtaining of such knowledge is realized in the process of mastering of the high school subject "Organization of extra-curricular work on the Russian language". The main attention when studying this course is paid to the development of students’ knowledge and skills of determination of a content, the principles of the organization, forms and types of out-of-class work on Russian language.
The question of the role of extra-curricular activity of the Russian language in modern linguistic methodic is vital. The analysis of scientific and methodological papers (Antonova, 2010; Voiteleeva, 2009; Grigoriev, 2010; Isaeva, 2011; Litnevskaya & Bagryantseva, 2010) shows that the question of organization principles, of the content, kinds and forms, methods of extra-curricular work on the Russian language remains open. In terms of new understanding, organization and methodical content of the educational process there arise a lot of questions on the realization of extra-curricular activity: how to plan extra-curricular activity, in which forms it can be carried out, which are the models of extra-curricular activity, how to incorporate it into educational process, how to draw up the programme of extra-curricular activity properly.
The ability to organize cooperation of students, to maintain their activity, initiative and independence, to develop creative abilities belongs to a number of professional competences which the graduate mastered the program of a Bachelor degree in the "Pedagogical education" field of training has to obtain. In this regard the research purpose is a creation of the pedagogical conditions providing formation of professional competence of students of higher educational institution, motivation to a research of the organization of extracurricular activities, accounting of individual needs and the interests of students, professional orientation of psychological and pedagogical knowledge, skills in the course of training of the teacher-philologist of a new type.
Purpose of the Study
Out-of-class work on Russian language is an important component of the educational process at school; it allows to realize requirements of Federal state educational standard in a solution of the problem of formation of the communicative linguistic personality. New methodical content of the educational process promotes improvement of extracurricular activities: there are new forms of out-of-class work, modern educational technologies and active methods of training are more often used.
As the major methodical tutorials allocated for the formation of professional competence of future teachers-philologists of a new type in the course of the research of the organization of extracurricular activities could be allocated the following: vitagenetic technology; variability in the use of various pedagogical technologies; democratic, dialogue communication of a teacher and a student; technology of interactive training, etc.
Process of training of the teacher-philologist of a new type is based first of all on the use of vitagenetic technology which is directed to the increase of psychological and pedagogical culture of students of a higher educational institution. The theoretical and methodological basis of vitagenetic technology is the life experience of a person which consists in a support on the individual level of development of a person when modeling his further self-development. An advantage of out-of-class activities in Russian at school consists in the creation of comfortable psychological environment for speech development of a child: the Russian speech microenvironment prepares pupils for communicative activity under natural conditions. The vitagenetic technology promotes forming of the relations between the teacher and the pupil on the basis of mutual respect, goodwill, cooperation, mutual aid. The difference of a teacher applying vitagenetic technology in the educational process is that he openly transfers his own experiences and thoughts and expresses them into interpersonal space; in full degree realizes abilities and possibilities of a pupil, gets into emotional touch with a pupil.
It is known that well organized, systematic, multilateral extracurricular activities assume obtaining by pupils of profound knowledge of Russian language facts which are studied at the lessons. Out-of-class actions are directed to the expansion of a linguistic outlook of school students, enrichment of their active dictionary, and development of feeling of language, training of the tolerant attitude towards the Russian people (Arkhipova, Voiteleva, Deikina, & Sabatkoyeva, 2008). At out-of-class activities pupils study Russian lexicon and phraseology more profoundly; they independently work with explanatory dictionaries by Dahl and Ozhegov and with reference books; they study dialect, professional, emotionally and stylistically painted, borrowed, outdate words and neologisms; they make the cultural and historical and etymological analysis of a word.
Future teacher-philologist of a new type has to realize that the most important component of extracurricular activities is the concept of interest which represents unity of intellectual, emotional, willed processes of pupils. Closely interconnected and interdependent informative and emotional components are the center of the interest. In a selection of tasks the teacher, certainly, considers the age, psychological and individual features of pupils.
Interest as the necessary motive of education and an effective method of successful training drew special attention of teachers and methodologists during the long period. In many scientific works of the pedagogics of the past they say about the importance and the significance of interest, about its connection with training process. So, the great Russian teacher Ushinsky (1950) considered that "the education deprived of any interest and taken only by coercion force kills the pupils’ will to the education without which he won’t go far…" (p. 56). The problem of studying and development of interest in school students has also been lit in the works of Krupskaya (1979) who advised to select the material that could interest the pupils, to find a work form easily acquired, interesting and clear to the pupil.
In linguodidactics interest always has this or that subject focus. Despite a variety of the phenomena of the world around, in the interest of each personality only the events significant, important, valuable to the personality, connected with his individual experience and development are selectively reflected (Erofeeva, 2017; Yusupova & Rakhimova, 2017). The school lesson doesn't assume inclusiveness of everything that interests pupils and that is necessary for practical acquisition of Russian. Favorable conditions for satisfaction of individual interests of pupils and for instilling of speech skills are created by multilateral out-of-class work.
In the course of vocational training of the teacher-philologist on the organization of extracurricular activities classes special attention is paid to the work with texts of different style and genre. According to Galperin (2007), the text is "a result of speech- creation process having a certain focus and pragmatical purpose" (p. 123). Texts are considered as information receptacle, as the unique, generated by an originality of the identity of the author work valuable in itself. Within formation of speech activity of pupils the content of training has included educational actions with language material: the analysis, synthesis, observation, connecting the language fact with a concept, comparison, modeling, modification, designing, etc. Besides, the work with the text is connected with training of pupils in the correct use of language means according to the standards of the literary language in all types of speech activity: receptive (hearing – reading), productive (speaking –writing) in a certain speech situation (Nurullina & Erofeeva, 2017).
Correctly built organization of the work with the text at out-of-class activities promotes conscientious attitude to the system of language, its standards, categories, rules, deeper penetration into contents and structure of the text; develops language, linguistic, communicative and creative abilities of the pupil; allows effective carrying out of work on all types of speech activity according to age features of speech development of pupils. The work with the text also promotes enrichment of cultural baggage of pupils, improves their moral, and cultivates love to a word – to the fine, unique tool of human communication.
The Bachelor students, future teachers-philologists studying in the “Pedagogical education” field along with linguistic disciplines master courses on pedagogics and psychology. Knowledge gained in a complex helps students to select texts on the principle of graduality. According to Arkhipova (2004), "the graduality in a technique of development of the speech is a partition of system of training on several complexes (means, methods, forms, techniques of one type), focused on different educational levels, with gradual increase of volume of the reported knowledge, with complication of their character and forms of giving depending on a training step, on extent of development of the speech of pupils" (p. 34). The principle of graduality allows to specify a necessary minimum of content of training at different stages, to establish an optimum ratio of methods and receptions at each educational level. The specified principle, in particular, reveals itself when explaining a new word: its interpretation is given at such level and in such volume which is available and necessary for pupils of certain age.
According to the principle of graduality, the forms and types of out-of-class activities for Russian language have to correspond to the age and psychological features of pupils. So, for example, in the 5th class the material of the training program is included into the content of out-of-class work, out-of-class activities are focused on showing to pupils the various sides of Russian language, on displaying its wealth, on making studying of Russian more attractive. The teacher doesn't enter new subjects, seeks to fix the material studied at a lesson, at the same time tries to enrich pupils with additional material on a subject of a research, studying of the new linguistic phenomenon or a concept (Usmanova & Nurullina, 2017).
In the conditions of out-of-class work the tasks demanding partial independence, initiative, and creative approach of pupils are of particular importance. The selection of such tasks is calculated on accounting of specific features and degree of readiness of the participants. With the pupils of the fifth grade it is possible to carry out such forms of works which are familiar to them since the elementary school: teacher’s story-telling, reading aloud, conversations, and hours of entertaining grammar. In the first half of the year it is preferable to perform out-of-class activities with all pupils of a class, and in the second half for those who become most interested in Russian the circle can be organized.
In the 6th class the attitude of pupils towards character of tasks changes: their attention is drawn by works which assume full independence. Pupils prefer the tasks including elements of search and designing. Linguistic circles in which occupations promote expansion of knowledge of pupils on phonetics, lexicon, word formation, grammar, stylistics become the center of out-of-class work. Activity of pupils in circles can be the most various: solution of interesting linguistic tasks, charades, crossword puzzles, preparation of reports, presentations on linguistics problems. Out-of-class work actively joins such subjects as "The young linguist", "A circle of fans of Russian", "Russian abroad", "Linguists", "History of learning Russian", "History of writing and publishing", "The native speech", "Do you know…", "A circle of entertaining grammar", etc. which allow deeper study of the origin and formation of words, their synonymic variety, expressive and graphic opportunities of the use of words and word forms in different functional styles.
Sixth-graders actively take part in all-school out-of-class work: Olympiads, Russian language holidays, linguistic games. Psychologists note sixth-graders’ special ease of awakening of energy, hyperactivity, interest in studying of a new subject and performance of a new form of work. Teachers seek to display the wealth and beauty of Russian language, to tell about variety of opportunities of language. Thereby pupils have a desire to learn new about language, about its development, it accustoms them to thoughtful and careful attitude to a word, to respect to the rules of the standard of speech.
Important stage in the course of training of the teacher-philologist of a new type on out-of-class activities in Russian language is improvement of aesthetic sense of a word. The important part in this regard is assigned to the verbal creativity giving to the teacher an opportunity of developing accurate observation, high ability and development of accuracy and figurativeness of the speech in children. Creativity is considered by linguists, psychologists and methodologists as a process of inventing of the new, earlier not existing product. For example, pupils can create their own text, think up the fairy tale, or write the composition on proverbs and sayings. Verbal creativity is considered within a creative method which along with a research method is included into the productive method.
The productive method is directed first of all to the formation of communicative competence - development of skills of speech activity, heuristic and creative abilities of pupils. The productive method includes the following techniques: the composition on the set subject and the plan; selection of texts on one subject, but of different styles and types; composition of continuation of the famous fairy tale, source text; independent interpretation of word meaning, verbal drawing.
The creative method which assumes creation of own speech statement happens with the help of generation of the speech – a certain mechanism of the actions providing the thematic choice of words and grammatical creation of phrases and sentences of the text. The idea of a statement dictates structure of the text, of sentences, the subject and stylistic coloring of lexicon. According to the principle of a graduality at first the pupil creates texts based on a sample, then without support on the same subject, and then independently – varying the style, the text type, the speech genre.
In out-of-class work on Russian verbal creativity is directed to the enrichment of a lexical reserve, development of a grammatical system of the speech, cogitative activity of pupils. The purpose of creative exercises – to teach school students to use the studied language material in the coherent speech, to use the studied lexicon in their own oral or written language.
Among various pedagogical technologies which can be used in the organization of extracurricular activities the most debatable, in our opinion, are the technologies of interactive training. Future teacher-philologist in the course of preparation for extracurricular activities can use such active methods of training as group discussions, role-playing games, exercises on development of skills of self-control, exercises for small groups, trainings. It is important for a teacher-philologist to develop competently interactive training, it is important to remember that during out-of-class activities the principle of scientific character is implemented first of all and that out-of-class activities shouldn't turn into an entertainment at all.
The advantage of interactive training is that it is directed to dialogue interaction which has high creative potential. A dialogue realizes fundamental need of a person for communication, interaction, makes consciousness of pupils active, perfects a thought, demands harmony of form and content. Interactive training represents a special form of the organization of cognitive activity in the course of which each pupil appears involved into the educational process. Interactive communication is important in extracurricular activities because each pupil makes an individual contribution to the material acquiring process. Thus there is an exchange of knowledge, experience, the ideas in benevolent relaxed atmosphere in which the pupils’ main skills of communication are formed.
The future teacher-philologist is able during extra-curricular lessons to create the Russian speech micro-environment, he or she prepares the students to the speech activity in the Russian language in natural conditions. The teacher of new type seeks to make extra-curricular lessons contribute the broadening of linguistic outlook of schoolchildren and the development of their feeling for language, educate love and respect to the Russian people and interest to his language, cultivate the skills of independent work with textbooks, dictionaries and other reference literature. Extra-curricular work on the Russian language is executed in terms of the competence approach of teaching languages which is firmly established in the linguistic didactics and is designed to solve problems of the formation of communicative language of the personality. Extra-curricular activity is becoming an integral part of the educational process at school, permitting to fully realize the requirements of the Federal State Educational Standard. The teacher-philologist of new type has to solve the problem of the organization of extra-curricular work at modern school in accordance with new requirements and educational approaches.
The work is performed according to the Russian Government Program of Competitive Growth of Kazan Federal University.
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