The role of regional universities as training centers for the highest category pedagogical personnel, capable to provide the intellectual capital growth and investment attractiveness territories with the aim of gradual equalization of the quality of life is emphasized in the program of development of higher education in Russia till 2025. A holistic study of teacher professional development in the regional system conditions of continuous pedagogical education from the standpoint of new methodological and theoretical approaches has not been carried out, which led to the purpose of my study.The research problem: 1) To clarify the essence and the content of pedagogical thinking future teacher as an educational phenomenon; 2) To identify the main methodological approaches to develop pedagogical thinking of the future teacher; 3) To develop the author's model and the technology of step-by-step development of pedagogical thinking of the future teacher taking into consideration the allocated pedagogical conditions; 4) To present the development dynamics of the future teachers pedagogical thinking on the students of the University on the basis of the developed criterion-level complex. The research for the study of the productive models design of copyright systems activities for teachers-innovators gave a positive result in terms of increasing productivity level of pedagogical activity, as acquiring knowledge, enriching your professional experience, delving into psychology, knowing yourself is impossible without sharing it with the students.
Keywords: Development of teacher`s personalitypedagogical thinkingteachers professionalisminnovative model
The role of regional universities as training center for the highest category pedagogical personnel, capable to provide the intellectual capital growth and investment attractiveness territories with the aim of gradual equalization of the quality of life is emphasized in the program of development of higher education in Russia till 2025. The regional orientation of the University pedagogical education allows each regional higher education system to go their own individual development way, taking into consideration the specification of the situation and peculiarities of the region (traditions, customs, peculiar economy development, economy, staff).
The richness of the regional education markets by mass pedagogical professions representatives requires the development and implementation of innovative technologies to create a competitive expert of a pedagogical profile. The one who meets the employers’ requirements, who is ready to solve effectively and independently professional and pedagogical tasks, adapting to the professional requirements of the team and the traditions of the regional community in short time.
In order to study the regional orientation of the university pedagogical education, we face the following research objectives:
To clarify the essence and the content of pedagogical thinking future teacher as an educational phenomenon;
To identify the main methodological approaches to develop pedagogical thinking of the future teacher;
To develop the author's model and the technology of step-by-step development of pedagogical thinking of the future teacher taking into consideration the allocated pedagogical conditions;
To present the development dynamics of the future teachers pedagogical thinking on the students of the University on the basis of the developed criterion-level complex.
To solve the objectives the following we need to consider next research questions:
What is the most important condition for the formation of competitive pedagogical specialists in a market economy;
What factors induce the students' negative attitude to teaching;
Which ways to improve the organization of work on the formation of pedagogical thinking among students - the future teachers;
What is mandatory requirement to create the author's system of activity of the teacher in the formation of pedagogical thinking of future teachers in the conditions of the regional University.
Purpose of the Study
A holistic study of teacher professional development in the regional system conditions of continuous pedagogical education from the standpoint of new methodological and theoretical approaches has not been carried out, which led to the purpose of our study.
To achieve the goal of our study and to solve the objectives the following were used the method of the research:
The theoretical research methods: study and analysis of philosophical, sociological, pedagogical, psychological and acmeological literature on the problem of research; conceptual and terminological apparatus; approaches of scientists to the problem under the study; synthesis, comparison, generalization, content analysis;
The empirical research methods: study and generalization of experience works on the development of teacher's pedagogical thinking in the system of higher professional education and in the system of higher education qualifications of teaching staff; interviews with students, teachers, teachers; questionnaires, observation;
The generalization of independent characteristics method; study of creative activity products of students; methods of mathematical and statistical data processing; modeling, pedagogical experiment.
It was revealed that the special importance acquires the formation of competent, competitive specialists of pedagogical profile, which are capable to solve effectively professional tasks in the conditions of market economy.
The condition of the successful solution of this problem is the formation of pedagogical thinking among students - the future teachers. It is not accidental, because in the conditions of market relations and dynamic processes of restructuring of social and economic sphere of society, one of the most important tasks of higher education is to teach students to acquire knowledge independently, use it in various life situations, including their future teaching. This is due to the fact that the formation of pedagogical thinking of students, as shown by the results of the research, increases strength learning, fosters a culture of intellectual labor, forms a motivational involvement of the students – the future teachers - in the teaching activities (Mikhailenko, 2012, 2013).
The experimental work with the students of Kabardino-Balkarian state University has shown that their pedagogical thinking depends on the nature of the learning process itself, on the style of communication between the teacher and students - future teachers, on the ways of organizing the presentation of educational material and educational activities of students, as well as on the system of evaluation of its results.
The results of a survey of more than 100 students of the first and the third courses of KBSU, a study of the causes of their negative attitude to teaching, showed that the choice is hampered by objective and subjective factors.
Among the subjective factors, we identified the absence of systematic psychological and pedagogical diagnostics of real opportunities, interests and motives of the students, and also a low level of teacher readiness to form the pedagogical thinking of students – the future teachers.
Among the objective factors are distinguished: insufficient use of the dialogue, training, creating and gaming technologies, which are stimulating the desire of students to new knowledge, initiations, pedagogical thinking development, and poor interaction of academic and research work (Mikhailenko, 2017b).
To build a work system for teachers of the Department of Pedagogics and Psychology of the additional professional education of Kabardino-Balkarian state University were defined the ways of further improvement of work organization on formation of pedagogical thinking of students –the future teachers.
Within the innovative developing processes in education, when certain stereotypes and work patterns have not developed and the success of the business is largely determined by the ability of teachers to initiative, creative, search activities, special importance has the author's system of activity.
The author's system of activity (ASD) is called training- educational activity, which is based on the original (author’s) ideas and technologies. It is a new educational practice. It is possible to distinguish the following distinctive signs of author's systems of activity (Nazmieva, Andreeva, & Soboleva, 2017):
innovation (availability of original author's ideas and hypotheses regarding the restructuring of the pedagogical process);
the conceptual nature of the educational process (use in the author's model of philosophical, psychological, socio-pedagogical or other scientific basis);
consistency and complexity of educational processes;
social and pedagogical expediency;
symptoms or outcomes that define reality and efficiency.
The analysis of literary sources, as well as the results of the study allow us to determine the author's system of activity of the teacher as a relatively independent type of internal activity, aimed at the interiorization of external social requirements to the teacher's personal and conscious formation, development on the basis of their professional training and professionally significant qualities.
Based on this, the author's system of activity of the teacher in the formation of pedagogical thinking of future teachers in the conditions of the regional University should be considered as a set of all the motives and conditions that determine, direct and regulate the process of professional self-improvement of the student - the future teacher. The practice shows that although the source of self-improvement are external, social factors (in a point of view of the requirements for the teacher, the prestige and attractiveness of the profession, the organization of work), its main driving forces are still inside the personality of the teacher (attitude to the requirements, the degree of their acceptance).
Thanks to the motivational attitude to professional self-improvement, the future teacher has a predisposition to perceive and assess a certain situation of self-improvement (self-expression) and willingness to act accordingly. The setting is the result of previous experience, it determines the general direction of activity.
The study has shown that one of the main obstacles to the formation of positive motivational attitude of professional self-improvement of the student-future teacher are external factors related to the difficult socio - economic situation in the country, the situation in the education system and the attitude of society towards it. Recently, the prestige and attractiveness of the teaching profession have fallen significantly.
There is no doubt that this is where the main roots of the negative impact on the motivational attitudes of students - future teachers. However, according to the results, there is a tendency that motivation for professional activity and professional development is clearly external. Unfortunately, many of them see the source of this motivation not in themselves, but only in the external environment.
The art of the teacher, who creates author's programs, is to realize the state order in her own way, and get your desired result in the student; to build each lesson compositionally, subordinating the private result to achieve the desired results in each student, thereby ensuring productive self-development, to distribute their own attention and build strategies for their communication with students, strategies for interaction with educational information, to build strategies for teaching students self-assessment, criteria for the quality of their self-development.
For such teachers, the nature of communication and relationships between students becomes essential, as research activity involves a critical evaluation of the researcher by other participants in the process. That is why the educational activity is initially organized as a collective-distributed activity, deployed in an atmosphere of collective reflection, in a state of discussion of joint searches, when students discuss different solutions to problems.
The training is designed to have discussions constantly in the audience. The student must be in constant readiness to ask a question during the discussion of the teacher or another student. There are situations in which students are constantly striving to disclose the conditions of origin of certain knowledge, looking for and checking the appropriate form to express a particular knowledge.
The basis of the training is actually in the dialogue between the teacher and the student, and between students.
When solving educational problems, the result of assimilation is not the reproduction of the samples given by the teacher, but their independent extraction.
In practice, this is manifested in the fact that students – the future teachers demonstrate in the classroom a complex and a contradictory picture of the search for solutions, the difficulty of this work, showing not only productive, but also” dead-ends " of thought, accordingly, analyzing and evaluating them.
Students become active participants in the search decisions process, begin to understand the sources of its occurrence, and not just memorize the stages of obtaining the result. In this process, it is easier to understand the causes of their mistakes, difficulties, to evaluate the method, compare it with those offered by other students.
A learning problem task, in contrast to the training exercise is actually mental, because it requires a significant transformation or addition of students' knowledge. The thinking develops when it is necessary to perform a particular task, the solution of which is not known to the learner.
The main situation that gives rise to the creative thinking process is the problem situation, when the available knowledge is insufficient and it is necessary to rethink or to turn on another system of knowledge that requires finding, and then using non-standard conditions.
Solving a problem situation, a person either finds a new one, recombining well-known to him, or trying to find unknown in the known, that is, to reduce the unknown to the previously learned and thereby resolve the problem. Therefore, the creation of a problem situations and its solution are directly related to the creative thinking function.
In the course of this work, students have a need to state the opinion reasonably, without that knowledge cannot go to beliefs or become truly theirs.
It was revealed that access to the author's system of activity in the formation of pedagogical thinking of future teachers in the context of the regional University is blocked mainly because of:
The ignorance of the psychological mechanisms of reflexive thinking;
The ignorance of the content, structure and logic of the process professional self-improvement;
The ignorance of the basic methods and techniques of self-improvement;
The psychological lack of training; fear of novelty, critics, difficulties in the development of his personality;
The lack of experience in the solution of specific tasks of personal self-improvements.
An important condition for the creation of a productive author's system activities providing the formation of pedagogical thinking in future teachers in the conditions of the regional University is its stimulation.
In psychological and pedagogical literature it is emphasized that this process occurs much easier when a person finds support, the team sees the leadership commitment. With motivation of professional self-improvement is not limited by regulatory impact of managers, reference groups and ideals. It is no less subject and impersonal group norms, informal rules of conduct, traditions in specific pedagogical collectives.
One of the ways of stimulation is the presentation to teachers of the corresponding demands to support the high level of pedagogical activity productivity, as in the presence of the General (gross) exactitude, at the same time it stimulates a little the process of their professional growth.
In the conditions of reforming the education system, the problem of shifting demands in the direction of constantly developing creative personality of the future teacher appears.
Demanding is closely linked to fair evaluation of teacher's pedagogical activity by professional self-improvement. A person with a lack of response to his work, eventually loses interest in it.
The most common methods of getting interested in a professional growth-positive reinforcement (encouragement) and negative reinforcement (punishment). Much depends on the right determination of what is not important for a particular teacher they want to influence, what are the dominant motives, and in accordance with it, apply a particular kind of reinforcement.
The tactics of control action is the following: if you want to sway on the professional growth of the student – the future teacher, you have to do the best for the future teachers in compliance with his motivations, to establish and promote significant progress in the concrete realization of these benefits.
In the process of research, we came to the conclusion that conditions of transition to market relations and related changes in the psyche of people, the fall of their social security, material provisions, the role and functions of material stimulation of professional self-improvements must be changed accordingly. However, this does not happen: the motivational material reward, occupying one of the leading positions in the motivational sphere of the teacher is not used properly.
The existing difference in payment for each qualification level does not perform a stimulating function. This requires a fundamentally new solutions that often do not depend on educational structure managers. Existing rates do not promote motivation of professional self-improvement anymore. Advisable use of this option is to set the salary depending on the qualification, the personal contribution of the teacher in the educational decision- educational tasks and experience of his work (Mikhailenko, 2017a).
However, it would be wrong to consider the positive reinforcement only as a material encouragement. There is a whole a range of other incentives to stimulate personal growth in the future teaching staff:
providing an opportunity to participate in the adoption of different kinds of solutions;
expanding the scope of the autonomy of certain species educational activities;
granting the right to solve problems in excess of difficulties, willingness to share the available additional information.
The research for the study of the productive models design of copyright systems activities for teachers-innovators gave a positive result in terms of increasing productivity level of pedagogical activity, as acquiring knowledge, enriching your professional experience, delving into psychology, knowing yourself is impossible without sharing it with the students.
Thus, we single out the following ways of effective development of pedagogical thinking of students:
The use of problem-based learning and interactive methods of activation of student cognitive activity;
An optimal use of individual, group and frontal organizational forms of training;
An involvement of students- the future teachers in a variety of forms research and design activities, as well as their participation in scientific conferences, seminars, etc.;
An active participation of students in various competitions, Olympiads, as well as competitive grants in various fields of natural, technical and human Sciences carried out by the Ministry education and science of the Russian Federation, scientific communities and funds.
Thus, we believe that the basis of the above pedagogical conditions of effective formation of pedagogical thinking of students- the future teachers opens a wide prospects in front of the whole regional system of higher education in achieving professionalism not only in the development of pedagogical thinking of the future teachers, but also in the formation of common principles of any specialist professional activity improvement.
- Mikhailenko, O. I. (2012). Psychological and acmeological nature of the development of pedagogical thinking of the future teachers. Izvestiya Kabardino-Balkarian state University, 2(1), 85-93.
- Mikhailenko, O. I. (2013). Polyethnic competence in the system of competence approach in education. Journal ‘Scientific thought of the Caucasus’, 4, 78-82.
- Mikhailenko, O. I. (2017a). Psychological and acmeological essence of development pedagogical thinking of future teachers. UK Academy of Education: scientific magazine, 3(17), 44-50.
- Mikhailenko, O. I. (2017b). Development a regional cluster of innovative pedagogical education as a community network. Ulyanovsk: Zebra
- Nazmieva, E. I., Andreeva, E. A., & Soboleva, N. P. (2017). Foreign language teaching as a factor contributing to intercultural polylogue. International Journal of Scientific Study, 5(6), 49-53.
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05 September 2018
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Teacher training, teacher, teaching skills, teaching techniques
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Mikhaylenko, O. I., & Lesev, V. N. (2018). Preparing Future Teachers For Pedagogical Activities In The National Cultural Region. In & R. Valeeva (Ed.), Teacher Education - IFTE 2018, vol 45. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences (pp. 858-864). Future Academy. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2018.09.100