Predicting Extra-Role Behaviour: Organisational Support And Role Breadth Self-Efficacy As Predictors

Abstract

The main objectives of the study are twofold: first, to examine the predictive effect of perceived organisational support and role breadth self-efficacy on organisational citizenship behaviour directed towards individuals and organisational citizenship behaviour directed towards organisations, and second, to examine the mediating role of role breadth self-efficacy in such relationships. Social Exchange theory and Conservation of Resources theory were used to explain the proposed relationships in the study. To test the hypotheses, PLS-SEM statistical technique was employed to analyze the survey data collected from 353 gazetted police officers in Klang Valley, Malaysia. The result showed a positive relationship between perceived organisational support and both dimensions of citizenship behaviour, and a significant mediating role of role breadth self-efficacy in the relationships between the variables. Theoretically, the present study contributes to knowledge by providing support for the importance of role breadth self-efficacy as a mechanism explaining the relationship between perceived support and organisational citizenship behaviour in a single model.

Keywords: Perceived organisational supportrole breadth self-efficacyorganisational citizenship behaviour

Introduction

Organisational citizenship behaviour (OCB) is defined as ‘individual behaviour that is discretionary, not directly or explicitly recognized by the formal reward system, and that in the aggregate promotes the effective functioning of the organisation’ (Organ 1988: 4). It includes behaviour such as helping co-workers, being involved in extra duties, being on time, and not wasting time with unnecessary activities. OCB contributes to the effective functioning of an organisation, increases organisational productivity leading to organisational effectiveness (Organ 1988), and plays an important role in contributing to organisational sustainability via employees who help to bring changes to the workplace (Vigoda-Gadot & Beeri 2011). Thus, it is not surprising that the construct has long been interest among both practitioners and academics.

Past studies have demonstrated OCB’s contributions towards individual level outcomes such as managerial ratings of employee performance, reward allocation decisions, employee turnover, and absenteeism, and organisational level outcomes which include productivity, efficiency, profitability, customer satisfaction and unit-level turnover (Podsakoff, Whiting, Podsakoff & Blume 2009), innovation and process improvement (Shweta & Jha 2009).

In addition to the outcomes, researchers have also been investigating the antecedents of OCB in anticipation that understanding the causes of that behaviour will help us learn how to encourage this particular behaviour in organisations. Four main categories of antecedents are employee attitudes, individual differences, leadership behaviours and situational variables (Podsakoff, Mackenzie, Paine & Bachrach, 2000; Podsakoff et al., 2009). Among them all, perceived organisational support (POS) was, however, considered as a more important antecedent variable of OCB (Eisenberger et al., 1990).

Problem Statement

The early notion of OCB was introduced by Organ (1988) as intentional employee behaviour that is discretionary and not rewarded but leads to effective functioning of an organisation. Initially, the behaviour was conceptualized as having two main dimensions namely altruism and generalized compliance (Smith, Organ & Near 1983). It was later expanded to into a five-factor model (Organ, 1988) consists of altruism, courtesy, civic virtue, conscientiousness and sportsmanship. This conceptualization of OCB has been used in many studies with empirical evidence showing that the five-factor model is distinct and vigorous in evaluating OCB (LePine, Erez & Johnson 2002). OCB can also be conceptualized based on the intended target of the behaviour. Williams and Anderson (1991) introduced a two-dimensional conceptualization of the behaviour namely OCB directed towards individuals (OCB-I) and OCB directed towards organisations (OCB-O). This conceptualization of OCB has been well accepted by researchers (Coleman & Borman 2000; LePine et al. 2002). OCB directed towards individuals comprises altruism and courtesy that benefits other individuals and indirectly contribute towards the organisations functioning, whereas OCB directed towards organisations is a combination of sportsmanship, civic virtue and conscientiousness that directly benefits the organisation.

Organizational support is vital in inspiring employees and brings changes in their attitude and behavior. In general, perceived organizational support is a belief that the organization appreciates employees’ contributions as well as cares about their well-being and improves over time through employer and employees relationships (Rhodes & Eisenberger 2002). Basically, care and support given by the organization towards employees creates a responsibility among employees to help the organization to achieve its objectives. In other words, employees’ who feel that they are appreciated and well supported by their organization, tend to perform better and engage well in citizenship behavior compared to those with a lower level of perceived organizational support (Shore & Wayne 1993). This notion is specifically supported by the reciprocity norm (Eisenberger et al. 1986; Gouldner 1960)

Although there have been many studies examining the relationship between perceived support and OCB, the investigation of the process underlying these relationships is still limited (Hsin-Hung 2011). Understanding the underlying process is important to explain the indirect relationship between this two constructs. To date, various organisational-related variables such as trust in supervisor (Chen, Chang & Hu 2007), job satisfaction (Ladebo 2008), person-organisation fit and job tension (Chen & Chiu 2008) and affective commitment (Liu 2009) have been examined as mediators in the relationship between perceived supports and employees’ OCB. However, less is known about the role of proactive cognitive-motivational states such as role breadth self-efficacy in such relationship (Hsin-Hung, 2011). According to Eagly and Chaiken (1993), attitudes and behaviours of individuals are centered on their cognitive processes. Therefore, role breadth self-efficacy (RBSE), which is defined as an individual’s confidence in carrying out a broader and proactive role which goes beyond their prescribed role, is expected to affect individual behaviour such as OCB

The conservation resources theory Hobfoll (1989) suggested that employees with high support from organization (resources gain) will increase their role breadth self-efficacy than employees with low support from organizations. High role breadth self-efficacy, in turn, leads employees to exhibit OCB directed towards individuals and OCB directed towards organizations. Employees’ confidence level in completing broader tasks will be higher when they perceive high support from organizations. Consequently, when employees’ role breadth self-efficacy increases, they are more willing to be involved in OCB directed towards individuals, and OCB directed towards organizations

Research Questions

Does perceived organisational support predict organisational citizenship behaviour directed towards individuals (OCB-I), and organisational citizenship behaviour directed towards organisations (OCB-O)? Does role breadth self-efficacy mediate the relationship between perceived organisational support and OCB-I and OCB-O?

Purpose of the Study

The objectives of the present are twofold. First, to examine the predictive effect of perceived organisational support and role breadth self-efficacy on OCB towards individuals and OCB towards organisations. Second, to examine the mediating role of role breadth self-efficacy in the relationship between perceived organisational support and the two dimensions of organisational citizenship behaviour.

To achieve the objectives of the study, we translate them into hypotheses. These hypotheses were developed based on social exchange theory (Blau, 1964) and conservation of resources theory (Hobfoll 1989) as the underlying theories explaining the relationships between the variables.

Hypothesis 1a: POS is positively related to OCB directed towards individuals.

Hypothesis 1b: POS is positively related to OCB directed towards organisations

Hypothesis 2a: RBSE is positively related to OCB directed towards individuals.

Hypothesis 2b: RBSE is positively related to OCB directed towards organisations.

Hypothesis 3a: RBSE mediates the relationship between POS and OCB directed towards individuals.

Hypothesis 3b: RBSE mediates the relationship between POS and OCB directed towards organisations

Figure 1: Conceptual framework
Conceptual framework
See Full Size >

Research Methods

Cross sectional survey design via questionnaire was used to collect data from the respondents. Respondents of this study were police officers in higher position or ranking (gazetted officers) in the Klang Valley, Malaysia. Gazetted police officers were chosen because they are more likely to engage in organisational citizenship behaviour than non-gazetted police officers (Chen & Kao 2011). The questionnaires were distributed in Klang valley, Malaysia because of the concentration of gazetted police officers in the area which accounted for sixty percent of the total gazetted police force in Malaysia.

Each construct in the study is measured using established scales that have been widely used in previous studies. POS was measured with eight items adapted from Eisenberger, Cummings, Armeli and Lynch (1997). RBSE was measured using ten items adapted from Parker (1998). OCB directed towards individuals and OCB directed towards organisations were measured with fourteen items adapted from Williams and Anderson (1991).

Non-probability (convenience) sampling method was used to select the samples from population. A total number of 700 questionnaires were distributed to the respondents during their office hours. Out of the seven hundred questionnaires distributed, only 395 five questionnaires were returned with a response rate of fifty six percent. After deleting the incomplete questionnaires and outliers, 353 questionnaires were used for analyses.

Table 01 shows the demographic profile of the respondents. A majority of the gazetted police officers were male (69%) and Malays (71%). The rank distribution was dominated by superintendents (86%), and 68% of the respondents hold a Bachelor degree. The average age of respondents was 35.6 years (SD= 6.95) and the average years of working experiences that the respondents had with the police was 12.2 years (SD= 7.21).

Table 1 -
See Full Size >

Findings

The data collected for the present study was analyzed by using partial least square (PLS) method. The Smart PLS Version 2.0 with two-step approach was adopted to analyze the data (Hair et al. 2017; Ringle, Wende & Will 2005). The first step focused on the evaluation of measurement model, and followed by the evaluation of structural model. The direction and significance of path coefficients were evaluated through bootstrap procedure.

Measurement Model

The measurement model was tested to assess the convergent validity, internal consistency reliability and discriminant validity of the constructs used in the present study. The reliability assessment concentrates on Cronbach’s alpha and composite reliability, convergent validity on AVE, and discriminant validity on cross loadings and Fornell-Larcker criterion. All items were loaded on their respective construct and exceeded the recommended value of 0.6 (Chin et al. 1997). Table 02 and Table 03 show that the AVE, composite reliability and Cronbach’s alpha, and Fornell-Larcker criterion were within the recommended values. Thus, it can be concluded the measurement model had achieved the requirements in terms of internal consistency, convergent validity and discriminant validity; thus, proving that they were valid measures of their respective construct.

Table 2 -
See Full Size >
Table 3 -
See Full Size >

Table 04 shows the correlation between the variables examined in the study. The correlational relationship between POS, RBSE, OCB directed towards individuals, and OCB directed towards organisations were all statistically significant at p < 0.01 with value ranging from 0.37 to 0.62.

Table 4 -
See Full Size >

Structural Model

The structural model examines the causal relationships between constructs. In addition, the bootstrapping technique with resampling was employed to estimate the significance of the hypothesized model (Hair et al. 2017). Based on the results in table 05 POS was significantly related to OCB directed towards individuals ( β = 0.31, p < 0.01), and OCB directed towards organizations ( β = 0.34, p < 0.01). Also, role breadth self-efficacy was significantly related to OCB directed towards individuals ( β = 0.27, p < 0.01), and OCB directed towards organizations ( β = 0.15, p < 0.01).

The mediating effect of role breadth self-efficacy was also examined by using the Preacher and Hayes (2004, 2008) method. The results for indirect effect indicated that role breadth self-efficacy mediates the relationship between perceived organizational support; and OCB directed towards individuals ( β = 0.27, p < 0.01, LL: 0.09, UL: 0.22) and OCB directed towards organizations ( β = 0.28, p < 0.01, LL: 0.01, UL: 0.15).

As suggested by Hair et al. (2017), the structural model was also assessed by examining the coefficient of determination ( R 2 ), the effect size ( f 2) and the predictive relevance ( Q 2 ) . The results of R 2 as in table 06 indicates that all the endogenous constructs namely role breadth self-efficacy ( R 2 = 0.38), OCB directed towards individuals ( R 2 = 0.27) and OCB directed towards organizations ( R 2 = 0.20) achieves substantial level. Thus, it can be concluded that the model explained the endogenous latent constructs well with fewer exogenous constructs. The results of effect size f 2 (as in table 06 ) show that f 2 value ranged from 0.03 to 0.33, which represents small effect to medium effect size (Cohen 1988). Specifically, perceived organizational support had medium to large effect on role breadth self-efficacy ( f 2 = 0.33), and small to medium effect towards both OCB directed towards individuals (f 2 = 0.03) and OCB directed towards organizations (f 2 = 0.04).

Lastly, the Q 2 value of role breadth self-efficacy, OCB directed towards individuals, and OCB directed towards organizations were 0.20, 0.14, and 0.10 respectively. The Q 2 value for all the endogenous latent constructs were above zero and this indicates that the structural model had predictive relevance.

Table 5 -
See Full Size >
Table 6 -
See Full Size >

To summarize, first, the finding of the study revealed a positive relationship between POS, and both OCB directed towards individuals, and OCB directed towards organisations. Theoretically, the finding is consistent with social exchange theory (Blau 1964) and positive norm of reciprocity (Gouldner 1960). Applying those theories, we can conclude that when police officers perceive support from their department, they might feel that the department care about them and value their contributions. Therefore, they attempted to reciprocate by increasing their contribution towards department by engaging in OCB. Empirically, the findings of the present study are consistent with those of previous studies (e.g., Coyle-Shapiro et al., 2006; Rhoades & Eisenberger, 2002)

Second, the significant relationship between role breadth self-efficacy and both dimensions of OCB were consistent with the Conservation of Resources theory (Hobfoll 2002). Employees with more resources (higher role breadth self-efficacy) would feel motivated to contribute by engaging in citizenship behaviours. Thus, those police officers with high confidence level in carrying out broader tasks will be more willing to help their colleagues with heavy workloads, attend the department meetings even if it is not compulsory to do so and give constructive and innovative suggestions to improve the departments’ efficiency. Empirically, the findings of the present study are consistent with those of previous studies (e.g., Parker et al., 1994; Hsin-Hung, 2011).

Finally, the significant mediating role of role breadth self-efficacy in the relationship between perceived organisational support, and both dimensions of OCB were consistent with conservation of resources theory (Hobfoll 2002), specifically resource gain. In the present study, supports received from organisations (e.g. resources gain) raises police officers’ confidence level in carrying out broader task and motivates them to engage in citizenship behaviours.

Conclusion

In conclusion, the present study provides an understanding on the mechanism linking perceived support to both OCB directed towards individuals and OCB directed towards organisations. It has also suggested social exchange theory (Blau 1964), organisational support theory (Eisenberger et al. 1986) and conservation of resources theory (Hobfoll 1989) to explain the mechanism linking perceived support and OCB. It has made several findings. First, perceived organisational support and role breadth self-efficacy were positively related to both dimensions of OCB. Second, role breadth self-efficacy mediates the relationship between perceived organisational support and the organizational citizenship behaviour.

Theoretically, the present study contributes to knowledge by providing support for the importance of role breadth self-efficacy as a mechanism explaining the relationship between perceived support and organisational citizenship behaviour in a single model. Practically, this study has proposed that the continuous support from the department are essential in determining police officers’ role breadth self-efficacy and their engagement in citizenship behaviour.

This study has some limitations such as the use of self-report, employment of cross-sectional research design and use of convenience sampling method. These limitations can be overcome by using peer-report or supervisor-report, employing longitudinal research design and replication studies. Finally, this study has proposed future research by incorporating organisational climate, individual cultural value orientation, other public service sector (i.e. army officers) and qualitative method on role breadth self-efficacy as they are considered as important parameters in understanding the relationship between perceived support, and OCB directed towards individuals and OCB directed towards organisations.

References

  1. Blau, P. (1964). Exchange and power in social life. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
  2. Chen, C. C. & Chiu, S. F. (2008). An integrative model linking supervisor support and organisational citizenship behaviour. Journal of Business Psychology, 23: 1-10.
  3. Chen, C. H. & Kao, R. H. (2011). A multilevel study on the relationships between work characteristics, self-efficacy, collective efficacy and organisational citizenship behaviour: The case of Taiwanese police duty-executing organisations. Journal of Psychology, 145(4): 361-390.
  4. Chen, C. V., Chang, W. C. & Hu, C. S. (2007). The relationship between leader-member exchange, trust, supervisor support and organisational citizenship behaviour: A case study of nurses. Proceedings of the 13th Asia Pacific Management Conference, Melbourne, Australia, 692-697.
  5. Chin W.W., Gopal A. & Salisbury W.D. (1997). Advancing the theory of adaptive structuration: The development of a scale to measure faithfulness of appropriation. Information Systems Research 8(4): 342–367.
  6. Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Earlbaum Associates.
  7. Coleman, V. I. & Borman, W. C. (2000). Investigating the underlying structure of the citizenship performance domain. Human Resource Management Review, 10: 25-44.
  8. Coyle-Shapiro, J., Morrow, P. & Kessler, I. (2006). Serving two organisations: Exploring the employment relationship of contracted employees. Human Resource Management, 45(4): 561-583.
  9. Eagly, A. H., & Chaiken, S. (1993). The Psychology of Attitudes. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
  10. Eisenberger, R., Cummings, J., Armeli, S. & Lynch, P. (1997). Perceived organisational support, discretionary treatment, and job satisfaction. Journal of Applied Psychology, 82: 812-820.
  11. Eisenberger, R., Fasolo, P. & Davis-LaMastro, V. (1990). Perceived organisational support and employee diligence, commitment and innovation. Journal of Applied Psychology, 75: 51-59
  12. Eisenberger, R., Huntington, R., Hutchison, S. & Sowa, D. (1986). Perceived organisational support. Journal of Applied Psychology, 71: 500-507.
  13. Gouldner, A. W. (1960). The norm of reciprocity: A preliminary statement. American Sociological Review, 25: 161-178.
  14. Hair, J.F., Hult, G.T.M., Ringle, C.M. and Sarstedt, M. (2017). A primer on Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM), 2nd ed., Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA.
  15. Hobfoll, S. E. (1989). Conservation of resources: A new attempt at conceptualizing stress. American Psychologist, 513-524.
  16. Hobfoll, S. E. (2002). Social and psychological resources and adaptation. Review of General Psychology, 6(4): 307-324.
  17. Hsin-Hung Chen. (2011). Role breadth self-efficacy and work-family conflict: The mediation of organisational citizenship behaviour (online). Unpublished thesis.
  18. Ladebo, O.J. (2008). Perceived supervisory support and organizational citizenship behaviors: Is job satisfaction a mediator? South African Journal of Psychology, 38(3), 479–488.
  19. LePine, J. A., Erez, A. & Johnson, D. E. (2002). The nature and dimensionality of organisational citizenship behaviour: A critical review and meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87: 52–65.
  20. Liu, Y. (2009). Perceived organisational support and expatriate organisational citizenship behaviour: The mediating role of affective commitment towards the parent company. Personnel Review, 38(3): 307-319.
  21. Podsakoff, N. P., Whiting, S. W., Podsakoff, P. M., & Blume, B. D. (2009). Individual and organisational-level consequences of organisational citizenship behaviours: A meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 94(1): 122-141.
  22. Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Paine, J. B. & Bachrach, D. G. (2000). Organisational citizenship behaviour: A critical review of the theoretical and empirical literature and suggestions for future research. Journal of Management, 26(3): 513-563.
  23. Preacher, K.J., & Hayes, A.F. (2004). SPSS and SAS procedures for estimating indirect effects in simple mediation models Behavior. Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers, 36: 717-731 affective commitment towards the parent company. Personnel Review, 38(3): 307-319.
  24. Organ, D. W. (1988). Organisational citizenship behaviour: The good soldier syndrome. Lexington, MA: Lexington
  25. Parker, S. K. (1998). Enhancing role breadth self-efficacy: The roles of job enrichment and other organisational inventions. Journal of Applied Psychology, 83(6): 835-852.
  26. Parker, S. K., Mullarkey, S. & Jackson, P. (1994). Dimensions of performance effectiveness in high-involvement work organizations. Human Resource Management Journal, 4(3): 1-21.
  27. Podsakoff, N. P., Whiting, S. W., Podsakoff, P. M. & Blume, B. D. (2009
  28. Preacher, K. J. & Hayes, A. F. (2008). Asymptotic and resampling strategies for assessing and comparing indirect effects in multiple mediator models. Behaviour Research Methods, 40(3): 879-891.
  29. Ringle, C. M., Wende, S. & Will, A. (2005). SmartPLS 2.0 (beta), www.smartpls.de, Hamburg.
  30. Rhodes, L. & Eisenberger, R. (2002). Perceived organisational support: A review of literature. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(4): 698-714.
  31. Shore, L. M. & Wayne, S. J. (1993). Commitment and employee behavior: Comparison of affective commitment and continuance commitment with perceived organizational support. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78: 774-780.
  32. Shweta & Jha, S. (2009). Determinants of organisational behaviour: A review of literature. Journal of Management and Public Policy, 1(1): 33-42.
  33. Smith, C. A., Organ, D. W. & Near, J. P. (1983). Organisational citizenship behaviour. Its nature and antecedents. Journal of Applied Psychology, 68: 655-663.
  34. Vigoda-Gadot, E. & Beeri, I. (2011). Change-oriented organisational citizenship behaviour in public administration: The power of leadership and the cost of organisational politics. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory Advance Access, 1-24
  35. Williams, L. J. & Anderson, S. E. (1991). Job satisfaction and organisational commitment as predictors of organisational citizenship and in-role behaviours. Journal of Management, 17: 601-617.

Copyright information

This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

About this article

Cite this paper as:

Click here to view the available options for cite this article.

Publisher

Future Academy

First Online

18.12.2019

Doi

10.15405/epsbs.2018.07.02.39

Online ISSN

2357-1330